Seventy-three out of a hundred Malaysians on phenothiazines for more than 24 months had ocular pigmentation. Seventy-one had conjunctiva pigmentation. No pigmentary retinopathy or visual impairment was detected. Frequency of pigmentation increased with age and with higher total dosage prescribed, but there was no critical level below which pigmentation was not detected.
The effect of an antiprostaglandin, piroxicam, in preventing surgically induced miosis is studied. Patients undergoing extracapsular cataract surgery were randomly divided into the piroxicam and placebo groups. Intra-operative measurements of the pupillary diameters were performed. The stages of procedure at which they were measured were at the beginning of operation (Stage 1), after anterior capsulotomy (Stage 2), after lens nucleus delivery (Stage 3) and at the end of irrigation and aspiration (Stage 4). It is noted in this Study that the pupillary diameters were larger at stages 2,3 and 4 in the piroxicam group. The increase in the mean pupillary areas of the piroxicam group were statistically significant for Stages 3 and 4.
The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, this study seeks to better understand students' learning experience, through scholastic achievement and secondly, this study analyses students' use of autonomous learning strategies, namely satisfaction, self-efficacy, social interactive engagement and study engagement in digital learning amidst the Covid-19 lockdown. While Malaysia grapples with a growing number of Covid-19 cases, the underlying toll of the pandemic has hit the youth hard with many mental health concerns and this has affected their learning. The nurturing of autonomous learning strategies especially during the Covid-19 confinement is critically needed to assist this vulnerable group. Although there is a plethora of studies given students' use of autonomous learning strategies towards scholastic achievement during the Covid-19 lockdown internationally, studies in the Asia region are still rudimentary. This study investigated 316 university students from targeted universities in Malaysia. Responses were gathered from an online survey. Data were analysed using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM), a second-generation multivariate statistical approach to assess the outer model and inner model that displays the relationships between the constructs. The results of this case study reported that student interactive engagement (β = 0.348, t = 5.45) and study environment (β = 0.314, t = 4.81) have a significant impact on students' scholastic achievement during the lockdown. Remarkably, new insights are uncovered in this paper revealing no relationship between self-efficacy and satisfaction with students' scholastic achievement. Possible explanations surrounding why satisfaction and self-efficacy were suppressed by the lockdown are discussed. The outcomes of this study provide key insights that may assist students to condition their minds to use autonomous learning strategies in digital learning to enhance their scholastic achievement.
The tracer concept was applied to evaluate the delivery of family health care and the training of family health workers. A retrospective evaluation permitted linking the products of care to process, input and context, by isolating and analysing potential factors contributing to a limited number of representative concerns. Contributory learning deficiencies identified in health workers, one input to health care as well as a product of training, enabled the evaluation of training programmes to be focused on related segments of the courses. The latter were evaluated through a pathway analysis which followed the same deficiency model as the evaluation of health care. Links were thus established between the traditionally compartmentalized training and service sectors in health.
A total of 52 cases of NPC were found in a five-year survey from 1978 to 1982 in Malaysia. The annual rate of occurrence was 3.4, 3.0, 2.4 and 1.8 for Chinese, Malays, Kadazans and Sarawakians, respectively. The age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 were highest for Kadazans (2.34 to 7.59) in comparison to the other races (0.11 to 1.24). The proportion of NPC in young Malaysians formed 1.2% in Chinese, 7.2% in Malays and 6.9% for others. A sexual bias was present in Chinese (male:female = 2.2) and Sarawakians (1.7) but not in Kadazans and Malays (0.9). In most Chinese, the primary tumour histologically is of the poorly differentiated characteristic and this type is the predominant tumour in the country. The Kadazans presented with well differentiated primary tumour and the Malays with all three histological types i.e. well-, poorly- and undifferentiated. At first examination enlarged lymph nodes were found in 95.7% of the patients and 65.2% had epistaxis and growth in the postnasal space. Antibodies to IgA anti-VCA were present in half of the 6 patients serologically studied.
One hundred four children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were diagnosed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 1976 and 1982; 87 were evaluable with respect to treatment. They were divided into good prognosis (GP) and bad prognosis (BP) groups based on their initial total white cell count, their treatment differing only during the maintenance phase. Remission was achieved in 82 patients (94%) of whom ten (12%) subsequently died in remission from infection. Twenty-eight (34%) relapsed while on treatment and three while off therapy. Eleven patients ceased treatment after 3 yr of continuous complete remission (CCR). Three of these later relapsed, two within the first year. Survival in CCR was significantly better in the GP group up to 30 months, after which the difference diminished. There was no difference in survival between boys and girls. The overall disease-free survival at 3 yr and 5 yr was 40% and 25%, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 20 months (range 4-69 months). The reasons for the relatively low survival rates as compared with those in developed countries are discussed.
Patients in pain have different levels of satisfaction. The experience of patients regarding medication is based on their past treatment. The mental satisfaction of the patients for laboratory medication is necessary for their health recovery. The satisfaction of patients is a challenge for healthcare institutes to provide better facilities to patients. The goal of this research is to investigate the impact of taking patch pain medication, taking oral pain medication, and taking intravenous medication on patients' satisfaction with laboratory pain medication. The model of this research is based on the gap in the literature. 645 responses were considered for data analysis with Smart PLS 3.0 for study findings. The findings disclosed the impact of taking patch pain medication, taking an oral medication, and taking intravenous medication is significant on patients' satisfaction with laboratory pain medication. The study has theoretically enriched the literature with a unique contribution to the study model. Practically, the study has discovered the ways the healthcare sector can improve the satisfaction of patients for their better health and satisfaction. The future directions highlighted by this study are useful for future studies to contribute to patients' satisfaction with laboratory medication.
Uterine activity in spontaneous normal labour was studied in Singaporean Malay women at term with a singleton vertex presentation. Nulliparae had significantly higher uterine activity compared with their multiparous counterparts. Uterine activity in the Malay population was compared with that of a similar Chinese population. When controlled for parity, maternal height and birthweight of babies, there was no difference in uterine activity between the two groups.
From 1967-82, 9 children with testicular relapse (TR) of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were diagnosed out of 99 boys treated, an incidence of 9.1%. The median time from the onset of ALL until diagnosis was 28 months (range 3-41 months). All were asymptomatic; six were detected on routine examination while three were diagnosed only on biopsy. Routine biopsy prior to stopping chemotherapy is useful in detecting occult TR. Biopsies should be done on both the testes regardless of the clinical findings. The age, leucocyte count and hepatosplenomegaly at diagnosis of ALL were not found to be significant factors in influencing relapse. Eight children were in bone marrow remission at the time of TR, but three had preceding or concurrent meningeal leukaemia while in the other five the testis was the first and only site of relapse. Radiotherapy was effective in local disease control but failed to prevent bone marrow relapse in all except two patients despite continuation of chemotherapy. The median time from onset of TR until bone marrow relapse was 7 months (range 3-13 months) and the median time until death, was 11 months (range 6-18 months). The frequency of testicular relapse may be related to the intensity of either the initial induction therapy or the consolidation chemotherapy. Further studies are required to determine whether the incidence of testicular relapse will decline with more intensive early treatment.
MAIN CONCLUSION: Rice sheath blight research should prioritise optimising biological control approaches, identification of resistance gene mechanisms and application in genetic improvement and smart farming for early disease detection. Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1-1A, is one of the most devasting diseases of the crop. To move forward with effective crop protection against sheath blight, it is important to review the published information related to pathogenicity and disease management and to determine areas of research that require deeper study. While progress has been made in the identification of pathogenesis-related genes both in rice and in the pathogen, the mechanisms remain unclear. Research related to disease management practices has addressed the use of agronomic practices, chemical control, biological control and genetic improvement: Optimising nitrogen fertiliser use in conjunction with plant spacing can reduce spread of infection while smart agriculture technologies such as crop monitoring with Unmanned Aerial Systems assist in early detection and management of sheath blight disease. Replacing older fungicides with natural fungicides and use of biological agents can provide effective sheath blight control, also minimising environmental impact. Genetic approaches that show promise for the control of sheath blight include treatment with exogenous dsRNA to silence pathogen gene expression, genome editing to develop rice lines with lower susceptibility to sheath blight and development of transgenic rice lines overexpressing or silencing pathogenesis related genes. The main challenges that were identified for effective crop protection against sheath blight are the adaptive flexibility of the pathogen, lack of resistant rice varieties, abscence of single resistance genes for use in breeding and low access of farmers to awareness programmes for optimal management practices.
Banana is often grown in coastal-regions, and while known for its sensitivity towards seawater, little is documented on the effect of sea-salt on the growth, physiology and metal homeostasis. Here we report that banana plantlets exposed to sea-salt at extreme (average seawater concentration; 52.7 dS m-1), severe (28.5 dS m-1) or moderate (10.2 dS m-1) salinity levels had reduced root length (2.0-6.0-fold), plant height (1.2-1.6-fold), leaf number (2.0-2.3-fold) and leaf area (3.3-4.0-fold) compared to control plantlets. Degradation of pigments (total chlorophyll: 1.3-12.3-fold, chlorophyll a: 1.3-9.2-fold; chlorophyll b: 1.3-6.9-fold lower and carotenoids: 1.4-3.7-fold lower) reflected vulnerability of photosystems to salt stress. Relative water content showed a maximum decrease of 1.5-fold in salt stress. MDA analysis showed sea-salt exposure triggers 2.3-3.5-fold higher lipid peroxidation. Metal content analysis showed a 73-fold higher Na value from roots exposed to extreme salinity compared to control plantlets. While phenotype was clearly affected, moderate salinity showed no significant alteration of macro (N, P, K and Ca) and micro (Fe, Mn and Cu) metal content. The antioxidant enzymes: SOD (3.2-fold), CAT (1.7-fold) and GR (6-fold) showed higher activity at moderate salinity level compared to control plantlets but lower activity at severe (SOD: 1.3-fold; CAT: 1.5-fold; GR: 2-fold lower) and extreme seawater salinity (SOD: 1.5; CAT: 1.9; GR: 1.3-fold lower). Mild changes in growth and physiology at sea-salt levels equivalent to moderate seawater flooding, indicate that banana will survive such flooding, while extreme seawater inundation will be lethal. This data provides a reference for future salinity-mediated work in banana.
MAIN CONCLUSION: This review provides insights into the molecular interactions between Phytophthora infestans and tomato and highlights research gaps that need further attention. Late blight in tomato is caused by the oomycota hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans, and this disease represents a global threat to tomato farming. The pathogen is cumbersome to control because of its fast-evolving nature, ability to overcome host resistance and inefficient natural resistance obtained from the available tomato germplasm. To achieve successful control over this pathogen, the molecular pathogenicity of P. infestans and key points of vulnerability in the host plant immune system must be understood. This review primarily focuses on efforts to better understand the molecular interaction between host pathogens from both perspectives, as well as the resistance genes, metabolomic changes, quantitative trait loci with potential for improvement in disease resistance and host genome manipulation via transgenic approaches, and it further identifies research gaps and provides suggestions for future research priorities.
The process of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration involve changes in gene expression and have been associated with changes in DNA methylation. Here, we report the expression and DNA methylation patterns of SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK), BABY BOOM (BBM), LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2) and WUSCHEL (WUS) in meristematic block of newly emerged shoots from rhizome, embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli, prolonged cell suspension culture, ex vitro leaf, and in vitro leaf of regenerated plants of Boesenbergia rotunda. Among all seven samples, based on qRT-PCR, the highest level of expression of SERK, BBM and LEC2 was in embryogenic callus, while WUS was most highly expressed in meristematic block tissue followed by embryogenic callus. Relatively lower expression was observed in cell suspension culture and watery callus for SERK, LEC2 and WUS and in in vitro leaf for BBM. For gene specific methylation determined by bisulfite sequencing data, embryogenic callus samples had the lowest levels of DNA methylation at CG, CHG and CHH contexts of SERK, LEC2 and WUS. We observed negative correlation between DNA methylation at the CG and CHG contexts and the expression levels of SERK, BBM, LEC2 and WUS. Based on our results, we suggest that relatively higher expression and lower level of DNA methylation of SERK, BBM, LEC2 and WUS are associated with somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in B. rotunda.