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  1. Choudhary R, Vecstaudza J, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:89-100.
    PMID: 27524000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.04.110
    Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
  2. Venkatraman SK, Choudhary R, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Jan;118:111466.
    PMID: 33255048 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111466
    This work is aimed to develop a biocompatible, bactericidal and mechanically stable biomaterial to overcome the challenges associated with calcium phosphate bioceramics. The influence of chemical composition on synthesis temperature, bioactivity, antibacterial activity and mechanical stability of least explored calcium silicate bioceramics was studied. The current study also investigates the biomedical applications of rankinite (Ca3Si2O7) for the first time. Sol-gel combustion method was employed for their preparation using citric acid as a fuel. Differential thermal analysis indicated that the crystallization of larnite and rankinite occurred at 795 °C and 1000 °C respectively. The transformation of secondary phases into the desired product was confirmed by XRD and FT-IR. TEM micrographs showed the particle size of larnite in the range of 100-200 nm. The surface of the samples was entirely covered by the dominant apatite phase within one week of immersion. Moreover, the compressive strength of larnite and rankinite was found to be 143 MPa and 233 MPa even after 28 days of soaking in SBF. Both samples prevented the growth of clinical pathogens at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. Larnite and rankinite supported the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The variation in chemical composition was found to influence the properties of larnite and rankinite. The results observed in this work signify that these materials not only exhibit faster biomineralization ability, excellent cytocompatibility but also enhanced mechanical stability and antibacterial properties.
  3. Genasan K, Mehrali M, Veerappan T, Talebian S, Malliga Raman M, Singh S, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Sep 22;13(19).
    PMID: 34641027 DOI: 10.3390/polym13193211
    Gellan-chitosan (GC) incorporated with CS: 0% (GC-0 CS), 10% (GC-10 CS), 20% (GC-20 CS) or 40% (GC-40 CS) w/w was prepared using freeze-drying method to investigate its physicochemical, biocompatible, and osteoinductive properties in human bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). The composition of different groups was reflected in physicochemical analyses performed using BET, FTIR, and XRD. The SEM micrographs revealed excellent hBMSCs attachment in GC-40 CS. The Alamar Blue assay indicated an increased proliferation and viability of seeded hBMSCs in all groups on day 21 as compared with day 0. The hBMSCs seeded in GC-40 CS indicated osteogenic differentiation based on an amplified alkaline-phosphatase release on day 7 and 14 as compared with day 0. These cells supported bone mineralization on GC-40 CS based on Alizarin-Red assay on day 21 as compared with day 7 and increased their osteogenic gene expression (RUNX2, ALP, BGLAP, BMP, and Osteonectin) on day 21. The GC-40 CS-seeded hBMSCs initiated their osteogenic differentiation on day 7 as compared with counterparts based on an increased expression of type-1 collagen and BMP2 in immunocytochemistry analysis. In conclusion, the incorporation of 40% (w/w) calcium silicate in gellan-chitosan showed osteoinduction potential in hBMSCs, making it a potential biomaterial to treat critical bone defects.
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