Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
Bioactive silicates have gained popularity as bone graft substitutes in recent years due to their exceptional ability to bind to host tissues. The current study investigates the effect of changing the metal ion-to-fuel ratio on the properties and biological activity of monticellite prepared via the sol-gel connived combustion technique. Single-phasic monticellite was obtained at 900 °C, without any secondary-phase contaminants for the fuel-lean, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich conditions. SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the porous, spongy morphology of the materials. Because of the reduced crystallite size and higher surface area, the biomineralization of monticellite prepared under fuel-lean conditions resulted in more apatite deposition than those of the other two samples. The results show that the material has a good compressive strength comparable to natural bone, while its brittleness is equivalent to the lower moduli of bone. In terms of antibacterial and antifungal activities, the monticellite bioceramics outperformed the clinical pathogens. It can be used for bone tissue engineering and other biological applications due to its excellent anti-inflammatory and hemolysis inhibitory properties.
This study aimed to functionalize a novel porous PLGA (Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite scaffold in combination with nano‑calcium sulphate (nCS) and/or fucoidan (FU) to induce osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. The composite scaffolds (PLGA-nCS-FU, PLGA-nCS or PLGA-FU) were fabricated and subjected to characterization using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX). The biocompatibility and osteogenic induction potential of scaffolds on seeded human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) were studied using cell attachment and alamar blue cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and osteogenic gene expression, respectively. The composition of different groups was reflected in FTIR, XRD and EDX. The SEM micrographs revealed a difference in the surface of the scaffold before and after FU addition. The confocal imaging and SEM micrographs confirmed the attachment of cells onto all three composite scaffolds. However, the AB assay indicated a significant increase (p
This work is aimed to develop a biocompatible, bactericidal and mechanically stable biomaterial to overcome the challenges associated with calcium phosphate bioceramics. The influence of chemical composition on synthesis temperature, bioactivity, antibacterial activity and mechanical stability of least explored calcium silicate bioceramics was studied. The current study also investigates the biomedical applications of rankinite (Ca3Si2O7) for the first time. Sol-gel combustion method was employed for their preparation using citric acid as a fuel. Differential thermal analysis indicated that the crystallization of larnite and rankinite occurred at 795 °C and 1000 °C respectively. The transformation of secondary phases into the desired product was confirmed by XRD and FT-IR. TEM micrographs showed the particle size of larnite in the range of 100-200 nm. The surface of the samples was entirely covered by the dominant apatite phase within one week of immersion. Moreover, the compressive strength of larnite and rankinite was found to be 143 MPa and 233 MPa even after 28 days of soaking in SBF. Both samples prevented the growth of clinical pathogens at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. Larnite and rankinite supported the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The variation in chemical composition was found to influence the properties of larnite and rankinite. The results observed in this work signify that these materials not only exhibit faster biomineralization ability, excellent cytocompatibility but also enhanced mechanical stability and antibacterial properties.
Gellan-chitosan (GC) incorporated with CS: 0% (GC-0 CS), 10% (GC-10 CS), 20% (GC-20 CS) or 40% (GC-40 CS) w/w was prepared using freeze-drying method to investigate its physicochemical, biocompatible, and osteoinductive properties in human bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). The composition of different groups was reflected in physicochemical analyses performed using BET, FTIR, and XRD. The SEM micrographs revealed excellent hBMSCs attachment in GC-40 CS. The Alamar Blue assay indicated an increased proliferation and viability of seeded hBMSCs in all groups on day 21 as compared with day 0. The hBMSCs seeded in GC-40 CS indicated osteogenic differentiation based on an amplified alkaline-phosphatase release on day 7 and 14 as compared with day 0. These cells supported bone mineralization on GC-40 CS based on Alizarin-Red assay on day 21 as compared with day 7 and increased their osteogenic gene expression (RUNX2, ALP, BGLAP, BMP, and Osteonectin) on day 21. The GC-40 CS-seeded hBMSCs initiated their osteogenic differentiation on day 7 as compared with counterparts based on an increased expression of type-1 collagen and BMP2 in immunocytochemistry analysis. In conclusion, the incorporation of 40% (w/w) calcium silicate in gellan-chitosan showed osteoinduction potential in hBMSCs, making it a potential biomaterial to treat critical bone defects.