Diuron has been substantially used in different parts of the world as an herbicide and as a bioactive ingredient in antifouling paint. However, knowledge on the toxicity of Diuron that could adversely affect non-targeted aquatic organisms, especially fish; is still deficient. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the possible sublethal effects of phenylurea herbicide Diuron at the cellular level of the liver and kidneys of an adult Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus), which has been used as the novel model organism. In the present study, histological assessment was carried out using the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining protocol where the samples were preserved in 10% buffered formalin and sectioned into 5 μm thickness. The 210 samples used contained a range of Diuron concentrations comprising 1 μg/L, 50μg/L, 100 μg/L, 500 μg/L and 1000 μg/L; which also included the control treatments. Semi quantitative analysis revealed that liver and kidney tissues exposed at higher concentrations (500 μg/L and 1000 μg/L) showed significantly moderate to severe deformities and mild lesion alterations were already shown even at a lower concentration of Diuron exposure (1.0 μg/L), as compared to the control treatment of dechlorinated water (p
A non-coastal cockle farming area such as an estuaries zone might become an alternative for continuous and sustainable cockle supply in the future. The main objective of this research is to determine the growth and mortality rate of Tegillarca granosa (T. granosa) within an estuary area. Three cockle plots were allocated along the estuary area of Kongkong Laut (P1, P2, P3) based on the geographical area, from upper to lower part of estuaries. Cockle monitoring activity was conducted from August to December 2015 for both in-situ water parameters and the cockles’ growth increments. This study shows that within a brackish estuarine environment, the highest cockle growth increment was recorded within the highest water salinity trend area (26.92 ± 4.79 ppt; P2), with a shell increment of 2.70 ± 0.52 mm per month, while the lowest cockle growth increment was recorded within the lowest water salinity trend area (17.65 ± 5.73 ppt; P1) with the shell increment of 2.05 ± 0.86 mm per month. One-way ANOVA shows that there was significant difference (p
The present study aims to determine the level of heavy metals in surface soils and street dust from selected urban and peri-urban locations in the metropolitan city of Kuala Lumpur. Samples were collected from 15 different locations, where Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) served as the centre point while other locations were located at specific distances from the centre. Surface soils and street dust were collected to detect the level of contamination based on five elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe). Results indicated that the metal distribution displayed a descending trend as follows: [Fe] > [Zn] > [Pb] > [Cu] > [Cd] and [Fe] > [Zn] > [Cu] > [Pb] > [Cd] in the surface soil and street dust samples, respectively. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) were calculated. Based on the Igeo index, Fe in both samples was found to cause no pollution in all study sites. In surface soils, CF showed all sites were contaminated with Cd in both soil and street dust. In conclusion, the soil sample was polluted with metals while no pollution was found in the street dust in all sites sampled. Further intensive studies are recommended in order to determine other factors which may cause contamination.
Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. However, the impacts of
anthropogenic activities in PSF and its conversion area towards fish biodiversity are less understood. This study
investigates the influences of water physico-chemical parameters on fish occurrences in peat swamp, paddy field and
oil palm plantation in the North Selangor peat swamp forest (NSPSF), Selangor, Malaysia. Fish and water samples were
collected from four sites located in the peat swamps, while two sites were located in the paddy field and oil palm plantation
areas. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the associations between water qualities and fish occurrences in
the three habitats. A total of 1,382 individual fish, belonging to 10 families, 15 genera and 20 species were collected.
The family Cyprinidae had the highest representatives, followed by Bagridae and Osphronemidae. The most abundant
species was Barbonymus schwanefeldii (Bleeker 1854), while the least abundant was Wallago leerii Bleeker, 1851. The
paddy field and oil palm plantation area recorded significantly higher fish diversity and richness relative to peat swamp
(p<0.05). The water physico-chemical parameters, such as pH, DO, NH3
-N, PO4, SO4
, and Cl2 showed no significant
difference between paddy field and oil palm plantation (p>0.05), but was significantly different from the peat swamp
(p<0.05). However, no water quality parameter was consistently observed to be associated with fish occurrences in all
of the three habitats, but water temperature, NH3
-N, Cl2, SO4
, and EC were at least associated with fish occurrences in
two habitats studied. This study confirmed that each habitat possess different water quality parameters associated with
fish occurrences. Understanding all these ecological aspects could help future management and conservation of NSPSF.
An ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research should meet several characteristics, such as low cost and amenable for high throughput testing. Javanese medaka (JM) has been widely used in the ecotoxicological studies related to the marine and freshwater environment, but rarely utilized for biomedical research. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of using JM in the neurotoxicology research was assessed using biochemical comparison with an established model organism, the zebrafish. Identification of biochemical changes due to the neurotoxic effects of ethanol and endosulfan was assessed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Treatment with ethanol affected the level of lipids, proteins, glycogens and nucleic acids in the brain of JM. Meanwhile, treatment with endosulfan showed alteration in the level of lipids and nucleic acids. For the zebrafish, exposure to ethanol affected the level of protein, fatty acid and amino acid, and exposure to endosulfan induced alteration in the fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids and protein in the brain of zebrafish. The sensitive response of the JM toward chemicals exposure proved that it was a valuable model for neurotoxicology research. More studies need to be conducted to further develop JM as an ideal model organism for neurotoxicology research.