METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.
RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.
CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.
METHODS: CLHIV aged <18 years, who were on first-line cART for ≥12 months, and had virological suppression (two consecutive plasma viral load [pVL] <50 copies/mL) were included. Those who started treatment with mono/dual antiretroviral therapy, had a history of treatment interruption >14 days, or received treatment and care at sites with a pVL lower limit of detection >50 copies/mL were excluded. LLV was defined as a pVL 50 to 1000 copies/mL, and VF as a single pVL >1000 copies/mL. Baseline was the time of the second pVL
METHODS: AYHIV who transferred from a pediatric to an adult clinic within the past year across five sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had clinical and laboratory evaluations and completed questionnaires about their health, socioeconomic factors, and transition experiences. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations with HIV viremia.
RESULTS: Of 93 AYHIV enrolled between June 2016 and April 2017, 56% were female, 87% acquired HIV through perinatal exposure, median age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18.5-21). Two-thirds were in a formal education program, 43% were employed, 43% of females and 35% of males were sexually active. Median lifetime antiretroviral therapy duration was 6.2 years (IQR 3.3-10.7); 45% had received second-line therapy. Median CD4 was 601 cells/mm3 (IQR 477-800); 82% had HIV-RNA <40 copies/mL. Being in a relationship, a shorter posttransition duration, self-reported adherence of ≥95%, and higher CD4 were inversely associated with HIV viremia. Half felt very prepared for the transfer to adult care, and 20% frequently and 43% sometimes still met with pediatric providers. Two-thirds reported needing to keep their HIV a secret, and 23%-38% reported never or rarely having someone to discuss problems with.
CONCLUSIONS: Asian AYHIV in our cohort were concerned about the negative social impact of having and disclosing HIV, and one-third lacked people they could trust with their personal problems, which could have negative implications for their ability to navigate adult life.