SETTING: An Asian cohort in 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.
METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, patients younger than 20 years who achieved virologic suppression and had subsequent viral load testing were included. Early virologic failure was defined as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter within 12 months of virologic suppression, and late virologic as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter after 12 months following virologic suppression. Characteristics at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation and virologic suppression were described, and a competing risk time-to-event analysis was used to determine cumulative incidence of virologic failure and factors at virologic suppression associated with early and late virologic failure.
RESULTS: Of 1105 included in the analysis, 182 (17.9%) experienced virologic failure. The median age at virologic suppression was 6.9 years, and the median time to virologic failure was 24.6 months after virologic suppression. The incidence rate for a first virologic failure event was 3.3 per 100 person-years. Factors at virologic suppression associated with late virologic failure included older age, mostly rural clinic setting, tuberculosis, protease inhibitor-based regimens, and early virologic failure. No risk factors were identified for early virologic failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Around 1 in 5 experienced virologic failure in our cohort after achieving virologic suppression. Targeted interventions to manage complex treatment scenarios, including adolescents, tuberculosis coinfection, and those with poor virologic control are required.
METHODS: Incidence of malignancy after cohort enrollment was evaluated. Factors associated with development of hematological and nonhematological malignancy were analyzed using competing risk regression and survival time using Kaplan-Meier.
RESULTS: Of 7455 patients, 107 patients (1%) developed a malignancy: 34 (0.5%) hematological [0.08 per 100 person-years (/100PY)] and 73 (1%) nonhematological (0.17/100PY). Of the hematological malignancies, non-Hodgkin lymphoma was predominant (n = 26, 76%): immunoblastic (n = 6, 18%), Burkitt (n = 5, 15%), diffuse large B-cell (n = 5, 15%), and unspecified (n = 10, 30%). Others include central nervous system lymphoma (n = 7, 21%) and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1, 3%). Nonhematological malignancies were mostly Kaposi sarcoma (n = 12, 16%) and cervical cancer (n = 10, 14%). Risk factors for hematological malignancy included age >50 vs. ≤30 years [subhazard ratio (SHR) = 6.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.79 to 23.43] and being from a high-income vs. a lower-middle-income country (SHR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.45 to 10.84). Risk was reduced with CD4 351-500 cells/µL (SHR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.74) and CD4 >500 cells/µL (SHR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.78), compared to CD4 ≤200 cells/µL. Similar risk factors were seen for nonhematological malignancy, with prior AIDS diagnosis showing a weak association. Patients diagnosed with a hematological malignancy had shorter survival time compared to patients diagnosed with a nonhematological malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Nonhematological malignancies were common but non-Hodgkin lymphoma was more predominant in our cohort. PLHIV from high-income countries were more likely to be diagnosed, indicating a potential underdiagnosis of cancer in low-income settings.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study among ALHIV and matched HIV-uninfected controls aged 12-18 years was conducted at 9 sites in Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam from July 2013 to March 2017. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview at weeks 0, 48, 96, and 144. Virologic failure (VF) was defined as ≥1 viral load (VL) measurement >1000 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors for VF.
RESULTS: Of 250 ALHIV and 59 HIV-uninfected controls, 58% were Thai and 51% females. The median age was 14 years at enrollment; 93% of ALHIV were perinatally infected. At week 144, 66% of ALHIV were orphans vs. 28% of controls (P < 0.01); similar proportions of ALHIV and controls drank alcohol (58% vs. 65%), used inhalants (1% vs. 2%), had been sexually active (31% vs. 21%), and consistently used condoms (42% vs. 44%). Of the 73% of ALHIV with week 144 VL testing, median log VL was 1.60 (interquartile range 1.30-1.70) and 19% had VF. Over 70% of ALHIV had not disclosed their HIV status. Self-reported adherence ≥95% was 60% at week 144. Smoking cigarettes, >1 sexual partner, and living with nonparent relatives, a partner or alone, were associated with VF at any time.
CONCLUSIONS: The subset of ALHIV with poorer adherence and VF require comprehensive interventions that address sexual risk, substance use, and HIV-status disclosure.
DESIGN: A 4-site, prospective randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among prison and jail inmates with HIV and OUD transitioning to the community from September 2010 through March 2016.
METHODS: Eligible participants (N = 93) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n = 66) or placebo (n = 27) starting at release and observed for 6 months. The primary outcome was the proportion that maintained or improved VS (<50 copies/mL) from baseline to 6 months.
RESULTS: Participants allocated to XR-NTX significantly improved to VS (<50 copies/mL) from baseline (37.9%) to 6 months (60.6%) (P = 0.002), whereas the placebo group did not (55.6% at baseline to 40.7% at 6 months P = 0.294). There was, however, no statistical significant difference in VS levels at 6 months between XR-NTX (60.6%) vs. placebo (40.7%) (P = 0.087). After controlling for other factors, only allocation to XR-NTX (adjusted odds ratio = 2.90; 95% confidence interval = 1.04 to 8.14, P = 0.043) was associated with the primary outcome. Trajectories in VS from baseline to 6 months differed significantly (P = 0.017) between treatment groups, and the differences in the discordant values were significantly different as well (P = 0.041): the XR-NTX group was more likely than the placebo group to improve VS (30.3% vs. 18.5%), maintain VS (30.3% vs. 27.3), and less likely to lose VS (7.6% vs. 33.3%) by 6 months.
CONCLUSIONS: XR-NTX improves or maintains VS after release to the community for incarcerated people living with HIV with OUD.
DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among incarcerated individuals with HIV and AUDs transitioning to the community from 2010 through 2016.
METHODS: Eligible participants (N = 100) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n = 67) or placebo (n = 33) starting at release and continued for 6 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were the proportion that maintained or improved VS at <200 and <50 copies per milliliter from baseline to 6 months, respectively, using an intention-to-treat analysis.
RESULTS: Participants allocated to XR-NTX improved VS from baseline to 6 months for <200 copies per milliliter (48.0%-64.2%, P = 0.024) and for <50 copies per milliliter (31.0%-56.7%, P = 0.001), whereas the placebo group did not (<200 copies/mL: 64%-42.4%, P = 0.070; <50 copies/mL: 42.0%-30.3%, P = 0.292). XR-NTX participants were more likely to achieve VS than the placebo group at 6 months (<200 copies/mL: 64.2% vs. 42.4%; P = 0.041; <50 copies/mL: 56.7% vs. 30.3%; P = 0.015). XR-NTX independently predicted VS [<200 copies/mL: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01 to 7.09, P = 0.047; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 4.54; 95% CI = 1.43 to 14.43, P = 0.009] as did receipt of ≥3 injections (<200 copies/mL: aOR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.26 to 8.47, P = 0.010; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 6.34; 95% CI = 2.08 to 19.29, P = 0.001). Reductions in alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.98, P = 0.033) and white race (aOR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.08 to 27.72, P = 0.040) also predicted VS at <50 copies per milliliter.
CONCLUSIONS: XR-NTX improves or maintains VS after release to the community for incarcerated people living with HIV and AUDs.
SETTING: Asian regional cohort incorporating 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.
METHODS: Data from PHIVA (aged 10-19 years) who received combination antiretroviral therapy 2007-2016 were used to analyze LTFU through (1) an International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) method that determined LTFU as >90 days late for an estimated next scheduled appointment without returning to care and (2) the absence of patient-level data for >365 days before the last data transfer from clinic sites. Descriptive analyses and competing-risk survival and regression analyses were used to evaluate LTFU epidemiology and associated factors when analyzed using each method.
RESULTS: Of 3509 included PHIVA, 275 (7.8%) met IeDEA and 149 (4.3%) met 365-day absence LTFU criteria. Cumulative incidence of LTFU was 19.9% and 11.8% using IeDEA and 365-day absence criteria, respectively. Risk factors for LTFU across both criteria included the following: age at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation <5 years compared with age ≥5 years, rural clinic settings compared with urban clinic settings, and high viral loads compared with undetectable viral loads. Age 10-14 years compared with age 15-19 years was another risk factor identified using 365-day absence criteria but not IeDEA LTFU criteria.
CONCLUSIONS: Between 12% and 20% of PHIVA were determined LTFU with treatment fatigue and rural treatment settings consistent risk factors. Better tracking of adolescents is required to provide a definitive understanding of LTFU and optimize evidence-based models of care.
METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.
RESULTS: Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.