Methods: The publications from 1998 to 2017 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database. Microsoft Excel, Thomson Data Analyzer, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace software were used to analyze the publication outcomes, journals, countries/regions, institutions, authors, research areas, and research frontiers.
Results: A total of 788 publications on the relationship between betel quid chewing and OC published until October 25, 2017, were identified. The top 4 related journals were Journal of Oral Pathology Medicine, Oral Oncology, Plos One, and International Journal of Cancer. The top five countries engaged in related research included China, India, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Malaysia. The corresponding disciplines, such as oncology, oral surgery, pathology, environmental and occupational health, and toxicology, were mainly concentrated in three disciplines. The subject terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, expression, oral submucous fibrosis, India, and p53 ranked first among research hotspots. The burst terms squamous cell carcinoma, OC, betel quid, and expression ranked first in research frontiers.
Conclusions: Research in this area emphasized hotspots such as squamous cell carcinoma, OC, oral submucosal fibrosis, betel quid, and tobacco. The annual number of publications steadily decreased from 1998 to 2017, with a lack of a systematic study from interdisciplinary perspectives, inadequate pertinent journals, limited regions with the practice of betel quid chewing, and insufficient participation of researchers, which indicate that as the prevalence of OC increases, particularly in China, research in this area warrants further expansion.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of host metabolites in genital Ct infection.
METHODS: We used high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and mapped lipid profiles in genital swabs obtained from female guinea pigs at days 3, 9, 15, 30 and 65 post Ct serovar D intravaginal infection.
RESULTS: Across all time points assessed, 13 distinct lipid species including choline, ethanolamine and glycerol were detected. Amongst these metabolites, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was the predominant phospholipid detected from animals actively shedding bacteria i.e., at 3, 9, and 15 days post infection. However, at days 30 and 65 when the animals had cleared the infection, PC was observed to be decreased compared to previous time points. Mass spectrometry analyses of PC produced in guinea pigs (in vivo) and 104C1 guinea pig cell line (in vitro) revealed distinct PC species following Ct D infection. Amongst these, PC 16:0/18:1 was significantly upregulated following Ct D infection (p < 0.05, >twofold change) in vivo and in vitro infection models investigated in this report. Exogenous addition of PC 16:0/18:1 resulted in significant increase in Ct D in Hela 229 cells.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a role for host metabolite, PC 16:0/18:1 in regulating genital Ct infection in vivo and in vitro.