Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Zainuddin AH, Wee SY, Aris AZ
    Environ Geochem Health, 2020 Nov;42(11):3703-3715.
    PMID: 32488800 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-020-00604-4
    The application of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) increased gradually because of the rise in global food demand that triggered the agriculture sector to increase the production, leading to OPP residues in the surface water. This study elucidated the presence of OPPs and estimated its ecological risk in the riverine ecosystem of the urbanised Linggi River, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The OPP concentration in surface water was determined using solid-phase extraction method and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. Further, the ecological risk was estimated by using the risk quotient (RQ) method. The three OPPs, i.e. chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and quinalphos were detected with mean concentrations of 0.0275 µg/L, 0.0328 µg/L, and 0.0362 µg/L, respectively. The OPPs were at high risk (in general and worst cases) under acute exposure. The estimated risk of diazinon was observed as medium for general (RQm = 0.5857) and high for worst cases (RQex = 4.4678). Notably, the estimated risk for chlorpyrifos was high for both general and worst cases (RQm = 1.9643 and RQex = 11.5643) towards the aquatic ecosystem of the Linggi River. Chronic risk of quinalphos remains unknown because of the absence of toxicity endpoints. This study presented clear knowledge regarding OPP contamination and possible risk for aquatic ecosystems. Hence, OPPs should be listed as one of the main priority contaminants in pesticide mitigation management in the future.
  2. Zaki MRM, Zaid SHM, Zainuddin AH, Aris AZ
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2021 Jan;162:111866.
    PMID: 33256966 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111866
    Microplastics receive global attention due to its strong presence in marine and freshwater organisms. Yet, there are few studies on estuarine organisms. This baseline study evaluates the abundance and distribution of microplastics in the gastropods of a tropical estuary in Selangor, Malaysia. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 0.50 to 1.75 particles/g or from 0.25 to 0.88 particles/individual. The variation in microplastic distribution between the upper and lower estuary indicates that the microplastics originated from the urbanised area of the Klang River estuary. Microplastic sizes varied from 30 to 1850 μm, with the majority being between 300 and 1000 μm (57%). Characteristics of microplastics were dominant for fibres (91%) with black colour (50%). Polyethylene-propylene-diene (PE-PDM) and polyester were the main polymer materials. Assessing the contamination of gastropods by microplastics provides insight into the possibility of utilising gastropods as bioindicators that could be used for monitoring and baseline studies.
  3. Zaki MRM, Ying PX, Zainuddin AH, Razak MR, Aris AZ
    Environ Geochem Health, 2021 Sep;43(9):3733-3748.
    PMID: 33712970 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-021-00872-8
    Microplastics have been considered as contaminants of emerging concern due to ubiquity in the environment; however, the occurrence of microplastics in river estuaries is scarcely investigated. The Klang River estuary is an important ecosystem that receives various contaminants from urbanised, highly populated areas and the busiest maritime centre in Selangor, Malaysia. This study investigates the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in surface water of the Klang River estuary. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 particles L-1 with a mean abundance of 2.47 particles L-1. There is no correlation between the abundance of microplastics and physicochemical properties, while there is a strong correlation between salinity and conductivity. The microplastics were characterised with a stereomicroscope and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse size, shape, colour, and polymer composition. The microplastics in the surface water were predominantly in the 300-1000 μm size class, followed by > 1000 μm and 
  4. Zainuddin AH, Aris AZ, Zaki MRM, Yusoff FM, Wee SY
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2022 Jan;174:113282.
    PMID: 34995888 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.113282
    Extensive global plastic production has led to microplastic (MP) pollution of marine ecosystems. This study analysed the abundance of MPs in the surface water of tropical coastal and estuarine zones in Malaysia affected by rapid urbanisation and intense human activity. It also estimated the risk posed by MPs to the marine environment. Mean MP abundance ranged from 2.10 to 6.80 particles/L. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis found that the MP polymers were dominated by cellophane (54%), followed by polyester (33%) and polyethylene (2%). The risk posed by MPs was estimated with the risk quotient (RQ) method which found no potential ecological risk to both coastal and estuarine areas (RQ 
  5. Zainuddin AH, Roslan MQJ, Razak MR, Yusoff FM, Haron DEM, Aris AZ
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2023 Jul;192:115019.
    PMID: 37201347 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.115019
    Bisphenol analogues are prevalent globally because of rampant usage and imprecise processing techniques, prompting alerts about environmental and health hazards. The method employed in this study by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) for both quantification and qualitative analysis of the bisphenol compounds in the surface water samples. The coastal and estuarine surface water of Port Dickson and Lukut ranges from 1.32 ng/L to 1890.51 ng/L of bisphenol analogues. BPF mean concentration at 1143.88 ng/L is the highest, followed by BPA and BPS at 59.01 ng/L and 10.96 ng/L, respectively. Based on RQm for bisphenol analogues, the highest for BPF at 2.49 (RQ > 1, high risk), followed by BPS at 0.12 (0.1 
  6. Zainol NFM, Zainuddin AH, Looi LJ, Aris AZ, Isa NM, Sefie A, et al.
    PMID: 34071804 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115733
    Rapid urbanization and industrial development in the Langat Basin has disturbed the groundwater quality. The populations' reliance on groundwater sources may induce possible risks to human health such as cancer and endocrine dysfunction. This study aims to determine the groundwater quality of an urbanized basin through 24 studied hydrochemical parameters from 45 groundwater samples obtained from 15 different sampling stations by employing integrated multivariate analysis. The abundance of the major ions was in the following order: bicarbonate (HCO3-) > chloride (Cl-) > sodium (Na+) > sulphate (SO42-) > calcium (Ca2+) > potassium (K+) > magnesium (Mg2+). Heavy metal dominance was in the following order: Fe > Mn > Zn > As > Hg > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Se > Sr. Classification of the groundwater facies indicated that the studied groundwater belongs to the Na-Cl with saline water type and Na-HCO3 with mix water type characteristics. The saline water type characteristics are derived from agricultural activities, while the mixed water types occur from water-rock interaction. Multivariate analysis performance suggests that industrial, agricultural, and weathering activities have contributed to groundwater contamination. The study will help in the understanding of the groundwater quality issue and serve as a reference for other basins with similar characteristics.
  7. Razak MR, Aris AZ, Sukatis FF, Zaki MRM, Zainuddin AH, Haron DEM, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2023 Jan;46(1):e2200282.
    PMID: 36337037 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.202200282
    In toxicological analysis, the analytical validation method is important to assess the exact risk of contaminants of emerging concern in the environment. Syringe filters are mainly used to remove impurities from sample solutions. However, the loss of analyte to the syringe filter could be considerable, causing an underestimate of the analyte concentrations. The current study develops and validates simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using a direct filtration method to detect four groups of contaminants of emerging concern. The adsorption of the analyte onto three different matrices and six types of syringe filters is reported. The lowest adsorption of analytes was observed in methanol (16.72%), followed by deionized water (48.19%) and filtered surface lake water (48.94%). Irrespective of the type of the matrices, the lowest average adsorption by the syringe filter was observed in the 0.45 μm polypropylene membrane (15.15%), followed by the 0.20 μm polypropylene membrane (16.10%), the 0.20 μm regenerated cellulose (16.15%), the 0.20 μm polytetrafluoroethylene membrane (47.38%), the 0.45 μm nylon membrane (64.87%) and the 0.20 μm nylon membrane (71.30%). In conclusion, the recommended syringe filter membranes for contaminants of emerging concern analysis are polypropylene membranes and regenerated cellulose, regardless of the matrix used.
  8. Razak MR, Aris AZ, Zainuddin AH, Yusoff FM, Balia Yusof ZN, Kim SD, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Feb;313:137377.
    PMID: 36457264 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.137377
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are gaining worldwide attention because of their toxicity, bioaccumulative and resistance to biological degradation in the environment. PFAS can be categorised into endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and identified as possible carcinogenic agents for the aquatic ecosystem and humans. Despite this, only a few studies have been conducted on the aquatic toxicity of PFAS, particularly in invertebrate species such as zooplankton. This study evaluated the acute toxicity of two main PFAS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), by using freshwater cladocerans (Moina micrura) as bioindicators. This study aimed to assess the adverse effects at different levels of organisations such as organ (heart size and heart rate), individual (individual size and mortality) and population (lethal concentration, LC50). PFOA was shown to be more hazardous than PFOS, with the LC50 values (confidence interval) of 474.7 (350.4-644.5) μg L-1 and 549.6 (407.2-743.9) μg L-1, respectively. As the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA increased, there were declines in individual size and heart rate as compared to the control group. The values of PNECs acquired by using the AF method (PNECAF) for PFOA and PFOS were 0.4747 and 0.5496 μg L-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the PNEC values obtained using the SSD method (PNECSSD) were 1077.0 μg L-1 (PFOA) and 172.5 μg L-1 (PFOS). PNECAF is more protective and conservative compared to PNECSSD. The findings of this study have significant implications for PFOS and PFOA risk assessment in aquatic environments. Thus, it will aid freshwater sustainability and safeguard the human dependency on water resources.
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