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  1. Othman N, Zainudin NS, Mohamed Z, Yahya MM, Leow VM, Noordin R
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):257-66.
    PMID: 23959491 MyJurnal
    The protein profile of serum samples from patients with amoebic liver abscess (ALA) was compared to those of normal individuals to determine their expression levels and to identify potential surrogate disease markers. Serum samples were resolved by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis. The up and down-regulated protein spots were excised from the gels and analysed by MS/MS. The concentration of three clusters of proteins i.e. haptoglobin (HP), α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and transferrin in serum samples of ALA patients and healthy controls were compared using competitive ELISA. In addition, serum concentrations of HP and transferrin in samples of patients with ALA and pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) were also compared. The results of the protein 2-DE expression analysis showed that HP cluster, AAT cluster, one spot each from unknown spots no. 1 and 2 were significantly up-regulated and transferrin cluster was significantly down-regulated in ALA patients' sera (p<0.05). The MS/MS analysis identified the unknown protein spot no.1 as human transcript and haptoglobin and spot no. 2 as albumin. Competitive ELISA which compared concentrations of selected proteins in sera of ALA and healthy controls verified the up-regulated expression (p<0.05) of HP and the down-regulated expression (p<0.01) of transferrin in the former, while there was no significant difference in AAT expression (p> 0.05). However, when ALA and PLA samples were compared, competitive ELISA showed significant increased concentration of HP (p<0.05) while transferrin levels were not different. In conclusion, this study showed that HP is a potential surrogate disease marker for ALA.
  2. Elsupikhe RF, Shameli K, Ahmad MB, Ibrahim NA, Zainudin N
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015 Dec;10(1):916.
    PMID: 26220106 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-0916-1
    A green sonochemical method was developed for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in different concentrations of kappa carrageenan (κ-carrageenan). The κ-carrageenan was used as a natural eco-friendly stabilizer, and ultrasonic irradiation was used as a green reducing agent. The number of Ag-NPs increased with increasing κ-carrageenan concentrations. Formation of Ag/κ-carrageenan was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy where the surface plasmon absorption maximum was observed at 402 to 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the Ag-NPs are of a face-centered cubic structure. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum indicated the presence of Ag-NPs in κ-carrageenan. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image for the highest concentration of κ-carrageenan showed the distribution of Ag-NPs with an average particle size near to 4.21 nm. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) images illustrated the spherical shape of the Ag-NPs. The use of photo irradiation provides a green and economic feature to this work.
  3. Zainudin NM, Aziz BA, Haifa AL, Deng CT, Omar AH
    Respirology, 2001 Jun;6(2):151-5.
    PMID: 11422895
    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) may be demonstrated in 60-70% of asthmatic children in temperate climates. In areas of high humidity it is postulated to be low. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of EIB in a population of schoolchildren with wheezing, living in the humid tropical climate of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  4. Abd Murad NB, Mohamed Nor NMI, Shohaimi S, Mohd Zainudin NAI
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2017 Dec;123(6):1533-1546.
    PMID: 28891270 DOI: 10.1111/jam.13582
    AIMS: The aims of this study were to identify the Fusarium isolates based on translation elongation factor (tef) 1α sequence, to determine the genetic diversity among isolates and species using selected microsatellite markers and to examine the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates causing fruit rot disease of banana.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and thirteen microfungi isolates were obtained from fruit rot infected banana in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study was focused on the dominant number of the discovered microfungi that belongs to the genus Fusarium; 48 isolates of the microfungi have been identified belonging to 11 species of Fusarium, namely Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium camptoceras, Fusarium solani, Fusarium concolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium concentricum and Fusarium fujikuroi. All Fusarium isolates were grouped into their respective clades indicating their similarities and differences in genetic diversity among isolates. Out of 48 Fusarium isolates tested, 42 isolates caused the fruit rot symptom at different levels of severity based on Disease Severity Index (DSI). The most virulent isolate was F. proliferatum B2433B with DSI of 100%.

    CONCLUSIONS: All the isolated Fusarium species were successfully identified and some of them were confirmed as the causal agents of pre- and postharvest fruit rot in banana across Peninsular Malaysia.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Our results will provide additional information regarding new report of Fusarium species in causing banana fruit rot and in the search of potential biocontrol agent of the disease.

  5. Lai CK, De Guia TS, Kim YY, Kuo SH, Mukhopadhyay A, Soriano JB, et al.
    J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 2003 Feb;111(2):263-8.
    PMID: 12589343
    Few data on asthma management are available for the Asia-Pacific region.
  6. Leong HY, Abdul Azize NA, Chew HB, Keng WT, Thong MK, Mohd Khalid MKN, et al.
    Orphanet J Rare Dis, 2019 Jun 14;14(1):143.
    PMID: 31200731 DOI: 10.1186/s13023-019-1105-6
    BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease due to N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. It results in accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate, leading to skeletal and other systemic impairments. Data on MPS IVA in Asian populations are scarce.

    METHODS: This is a multicentre descriptive case series of 21 patients comprising all MPS IVA patients in Malaysia. Mutational analysis was performed by PCR and Sanger sequencing of the GALNS gene in 17 patients.

    RESULTS: The patients (15 females and 6 males) had a mean age (± SD) of 15.5 (± 8.1) years. Mean age at symptom onset was 2.6 (± 2.1) years and at confirmed diagnosis was 6.9 (± 4.5) years. The study cohort included patients from all the main ethnic groups in Malaysia - 57% Malay, 29% Chinese and 14% Indian. Common presenting symptoms included pectus carinatum (57%) and genu valgum (43%). Eight patients (38%) had undergone surgery, most commonly knee surgeries (29%) and cervical spine decompression (24%). Patients had limited endurance with lower mean walking distances with increasing age. GALNS gene analysis identified 18 distinct mutations comprising 13 missense, three nonsense, one small deletion and one splice site mutation. Of these, eight were novel mutations (Tyr133Ser, Glu158Valfs*12, Gly168*, Gly168Val, Trp184*, Leu271Pro, Glu320Lys, Leu508Pro). Mutations in exons 1, 5 and 9 accounted for 51% of the mutant alleles identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: All the MPS IVA patients in this study had clinical impairments. A better understanding of the natural history and the clinical and genetic spectrum of MPS IVA in this population may assist early diagnosis, improve management and permit timely genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.

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