Tissue engineering products have grown in popularity as a therapeutic approach for chronic wounds and burns. However, some drawbacks include additional steps and a lack of antibacterial capacities, both of which need to be addressed to treat wounds effectively. This study aimed to develop an acellular, ready-to-use ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) bioscaffold with an antibacterial coating for the immediate treatment of skin wounds and to prevent infection post-implantation. Two types of crosslinkers, 0.1% genipin (GNP) and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT), were explored to optimise the material strength and biodegradability compared with a non-crosslinked (OTC) control. Carvone plasma polymerisation (ppCar) was conducted to deposit an antibacterial protective coating. Various parameters were performed to investigate the physicochemical properties, mechanical properties, microstructures, biodegradability, thermal stability, surface wettability, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds on human skin cells between the different crosslinkers, with and without plasma polymerisation. GNP is a better crosslinker than DHT because it demonstrated better physicochemical properties (27.33 ± 5.69% vs. 43 ± 7.64% shrinkage), mechanical properties (0.15 ± 0.15 MPa vs. 0.07 ± 0.08 MPa), swelling (2453 ± 419.2% vs. 1535 ± 392.9%), biodegradation (0.06 ± 0.06 mg/h vs. 0.15 ± 0.16 mg/h), microstructure and biocompatibility. Similarly, its ppCar counterpart, GNPppCar, presents promising results as a biomaterial with enhanced antibacterial properties. Plasma-polymerised carvone on a crosslinked collagen scaffold could also support human skin cell proliferation and viability while preventing infection. Thus, GNPppCar has potential for the rapid treatment of healing wounds.
A skin wound without immediate treatment could delay wound healing and may lead to death after severe infection (sepsis). Any interruption or inappropriate normal wound healing, mainly in these wounds, commonly resulted in prolonged and excessive skin contraction. Contraction is a common mechanism in wound healing phases and contributes 40-80% of the original wound size post-healing. Even though it is essential to accelerate wound healing, it also simultaneously limits movement, mainly in the joint area. In the worst-case scenario, prolonged contraction could lead to disfigurement and loss of tissue function. This study aimed to fabricate and characterise the elastin-fortified gelatin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film layered on top of a collagen sponge as a bilayer hybrid biomatrix. Briefly, the combination of halal-based gelatin (4% (w/v)) and PVA ((4% (w/v)) was used to fabricate composite film, followed by the integration of poultry elastin (0.25 mg/mL) and 0.1% (w/v) genipin crosslinking. Furthermore, further analysis was conducted on the composite bilayer biomatrix's physicochemical and mechanical strength. The bilayer biomatrix demonstrated a slow biodegradation rate (0.374967 ± 0.031 mg/h), adequate water absorption (1078.734 ± 42.33%), reasonable water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) (724.6467 ± 70.69 g/m2 h) and porous (102.5944 ± 28.21%). The bilayer biomatrix also exhibited an excellent crosslinking degree and was mechanically robust. Besides, the elastin releasing study presented an acceptable rate post-integration with hybrid biomatrix. Therefore, the ready-to-use bilayer biomatrix will benefit therapeutic effects as an alternative treatment for future diabetic skin wound management.