Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 503 in total

  1. Amran M, Fediuk R, Vatin N, Lee YH, Murali G, Ozbakkaloglu T, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Sep 28;13(19).
    PMID: 32998362 DOI: 10.3390/ma13194323
    Foamed concrete (FC) is a high-quality building material with densities from 300 to 1850 kg/m3, which can have potential use in civil engineering, both as insulation from heat and sound, and for load-bearing structures. However, due to the nature of the cement material and its high porosity, FC is very weak in withstanding tensile loads; therefore, it often cracks in a plastic state, during shrinkage while drying, and also in a solid state. This paper is the first comprehensive review of the use of man-made and natural fibres to produce fibre-reinforced foamed concrete (FRFC). For this purpose, various foaming agents, fibres and other components that can serve as a basis for FRFC are reviewed and discussed in detail. Several factors have been found to affect the mechanical properties of FRFC, namely: fresh and hardened densities, particle size distribution, percentage of pozzolanic material used and volume of chemical foam agent. It was found that the rheological properties of the FRFC mix are influenced by the properties of both fibres and foam; therefore, it is necessary to apply an additional dosage of a foam agent to enhance the adhesion and cohesion between the foam agent and the cementitious filler in comparison with materials without fibres. Various types of fibres allow the reduction of by autogenous shrinkage a factor of 1.2-1.8 and drying shrinkage by a factor of 1.3-1.8. Incorporation of fibres leads to only a slight increase in the compressive strength of foamed concrete; however, it can significantly improve the flexural strength (up to 4 times), tensile strength (up to 3 times) and impact strength (up to 6 times). At the same time, the addition of fibres leads to practically no change in the heat and sound insulation characteristics of foamed concrete and this is basically depended on the type of fibres used such as Nylon and aramid fibres. Thus, FRFC having the presented set of properties has applications in various areas of construction, both in the construction of load-bearing and enclosing structures.
  2. Radakisnin R, Abdul Majid MS, Jamir MRM, Jawaid M, Sultan MTH, Mat Tahir MF
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Sep 17;13(18).
    PMID: 32957438 DOI: 10.3390/ma13184125
    The purpose of the study is to investigate the utilisation of Napier fiber (Pennisetum purpureum) as a source for the fabrication of cellulose nanofibers (CNF). In this study, cellulose nanofibers (CNF) from Napier fiber were isolated via ball-milling assisted by acid hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis with different molarities (1.0, 3.8 and 5.6 M) was performed efficiently facilitate cellulose fiber size reduction. The resulting CNFs were characterised through Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), particle size analyser (PSA), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR results demonstrated that there were no obvious changes observed between the spectra of the CNFs with different molarities of acid hydrolysis. With 5.6 M acid hydrolysis, the XRD analysis displayed the highest degree of CNF crystallinity at 70.67%. In a thermal analysis by TGA and DTG, cellulose nanofiber with 5.6 M acid hydrolysis tended to produce cellulose nanofibers with higher thermal stability. As evidenced by the structural morphologies, a fibrous network nanostructure was obtained under TEM and AFM analysis, while a compact structure was observed under FESEM analysis. In conclusion, the isolated CNFs from Napier-derived cellulose are expected to yield potential to be used as a suitable source for nanocomposite production in various applications, including pharmaceutical, food packaging and biomedical fields.
  3. Ali Salim KM, Abd Jalil A, Radzi Z, Ismail SM, Czernuszka JT, Rahman MT
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 06;13(19).
    PMID: 33036128 DOI: 10.3390/ma13194436
    OBJECTIVE: Reconstruction of oral and facial defects often necessitate replacement of missing soft tissue. The purpose of tissue expanders is to grow healthy supplementary tissue under a controlled force. This study investigates the inflammatory responses associated with the force generated from the use of anisotropic hydrogel tissue expanders.

    METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats (n = 7, body weight = 300 g ± 50 g) were grouped randomly into two groups-control (n = 3) and expanded (n = 4). Anisotropic hydrogel tissue expanders were inserted into the frontal maxillofacial region of the rats in the expanded group. The rats were sacrificed, and skin samples were harvested, fixed in formalin, and embedded in paraffin wax for histological investigation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to detect histological changes between the two groups and to investigate the inflammatory response in the expanded samples. Three inflammatory markers, namely interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.

    RESULT: IL-1-α expression was only observed in the expanded tissue samples compared to the controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference in IL-6, and TNF-α production. Histological analysis showed the absence of inflammatory response in expanded tissues, and a negative non-significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient) between IL-1-α immune-positive cells and the inflammatory cells (r = -0.500). In conclusion, tissues that are expanded and stabilized using an anisotropic self-inflating hydrogel tissue expander might be useful for tissue replacement and engraftment as the expanded tissue does not show any sign of inflammatory responses. Detection of IL-1-α in the expanded tissues warrants further investigation for its involvement without any visible inflammatory response.

  4. Ibrahim Lakin I, Abbas Z, Azis RS, Abubakar Alhaji I
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 16;13(20).
    PMID: 33081082 DOI: 10.3390/ma13204602
    This study was aimed at fabricating composites of polylactic acid (PLA) matrix-reinforced oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber filled with chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A total of 2-8 wt.% rGO/OPEFB/PLA composites were characterized for their complex permittivity using an open-ended coaxial probe (OEC) technique. The shielding efficiency properties were calculated using the measured transmission (S21) and the reflection (S11) coefficient results. All the measurements and calculations were performed in the 8-12 GHz frequency range. The morphological and microstructural study included X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that the incorporation of rGO as filler into the composites enhanced their complex permittivity properties. The composites showed a total shielding efficiency (SET) of about 31.2 dB at a frequency range of 8-12 GHz, which suggests their usefulness for microwave absorption.
  5. Khan R, H Ya H, Pao W, Majid MAA, Ahmed T, Ahmad A, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 16;13(20).
    PMID: 33081078 DOI: 10.3390/ma13204601
    Erosion-corrosion of elbow configurations has recently been a momentous concern in hydrocarbon processing and transportation industries. The carbon steel 90° elbows are susceptible to the erosion-corrosion during the multiphase flow, peculiarly for erosive slug flows. This paper studies the erosion-corrosion performance of 90° elbows at slug flow conditions for impact with 2, 5, and 10 wt.% sand fines concentrations on AISI 1018 carbon steel exploiting quantitative and qualitative analyses. The worn surface analyses were effectuated by using laser confocal and scanning electron microscopy. The experiment was conducted under air and water slug flow containing sand fines of 50 µm average size circulated in the closed flow loop. The results manifest that with the increase of concentration level, the erosion-corrosion magnitude increases remarkably. Sand fines instigate the development of perforation sites in the form of circular, elongated, and coalescence pits at the elbow downstream and the corrosion attack is much more obvious with the increase of sand fines concentration. Another congruent finding is that cutting and pitting corrosion as the primitive causes of material degradation, the 10 wt.% sand fines concentration in carrier phase increases the erosion-corrosion rate of carbon steel up to 93% relative to the 2 wt.% sand fines concentration in slug flow.
  6. Ashrafi N, Azmah Hanim MA, Sarraf M, Sulaiman S, Hong TS
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Sep 15;13(18).
    PMID: 32942621 DOI: 10.3390/ma13184090
    Hybrid reinforcement's novel composite (Al-Fe3O4-SiC) via powder metallurgy method was successfully fabricated. In this study, the aim was to define the influence of SiC-Fe3O4 nanoparticles on microstructure, mechanical, tribology, and corrosion properties of the composite. Various researchers confirmed that aluminum matrix composite (AMC) is an excellent multifunctional lightweight material with remarkable properties. However, to improve the wear resistance in high-performance tribological application, hardening and developing corrosion resistance was needed; thus, an optimized hybrid reinforcement of particulates (SiC-Fe3O4) into an aluminum matrix was explored. Based on obtained results, the density and hardness were 2.69 g/cm3, 91 HV for Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC, after the sintering process. Coefficient of friction (COF) was decreased after adding Fe3O4 and SiC hybrid composite in tribology behaviors, and the lowest COF was 0.412 for Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC. The corrosion protection efficiency increased from 88.07%, 90.91%, and 99.83% for Al-30Fe3O4, Al-15Fe3O4-30SiC, and Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC samples, respectively. Hence, the addition of this reinforcement (Al-Fe3O4-SiC) to the composite shows a positive outcome toward corrosion resistance (lower corrosion rate), in order to increase the durability and life span of material during operation. The accomplished results indicated that, by increasing the weight percentage of SiC-Fe3O4, it had improved the mechanical properties, tribology, and corrosion resistance in aluminum matrix. After comparing all samples, we then selected Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC as an optimized composite.
  7. Ooi KS, Haszman S, Wong YN, Soidin E, Hesham N, Mior MAA, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Sep 30;13(19).
    PMID: 33007893 DOI: 10.3390/ma13194352
    The eminent aim for advance wound management is to provide a great impact on the quality of life. Therefore, an excellent strategy for an ideal wound dressing is being developed that eliminates certain drawbacks while promoting tissue regeneration for the prevention of bacterial invasion. The aim of this study is to develop a bilayer hybrid biomatrix of natural origin for wound dressing. The bilayer hybrid bioscaffold was fabricated by the combination of ovine tendon collagen type I and palm tree-based nanocellulose. The fabricated biomatrix was then post-cross-linked with 0.1% (w/v) genipin (GNP). The physical characteristics were evaluated based on the microstructure, pore size, porosity, and water uptake capacity followed by degradation behaviour and mechanical strength. Chemical analysis was performed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results demonstrated a uniform interconnected porous structure with optimal pore size ranging between 90 and 140 μm, acceptable porosity (>70%), and highwater uptake capacity (>1500%). The biodegradation rate of the fabricated biomatrix was extended to 22 days. Further analysis with EDX identified the main elements of the bioscaffold, which contains carbon (C) 50.28%, nitrogen (N) 18.78%, and oxygen (O) 30.94% based on the atomic percentage. FTIR reported the functional groups of collagen type I (amide A: 3302 cm-1, amide B: 2926 cm-1, amide I: 1631 cm-1, amide II: 1547 cm-1, and amide III: 1237 cm-1) and nanocellulose (pyranose ring), thus confirming the presence of collagen and nanocellulose in the bilayer hybrid scaffold. The XRD demonstrated a smooth wavy wavelength that is consistent with the amorphous material and less crystallinity. The combination of nanocellulose with collagen demonstrated a positive effect with an increase of Young's modulus. In conclusion, the fabricated bilayer hybrid bioscaffold demonstrated optimum physicochemical and mechanical properties that are suitable for skin wound dressing.
  8. Abazari S, Shamsipur A, Bakhsheshi-Rad HR, Ismail AF, Sharif S, Razzaghi M, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 04;13(19).
    PMID: 33020427 DOI: 10.3390/ma13194421
    In recent years considerable attention has been attracted to magnesium because of its light weight, high specific strength, and ease of recycling. Because of the growing demand for lightweight materials in aerospace, medical and automotive industries, magnesium-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs) reinforced with ceramic nanometer-sized particles, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were developed. CNTs have excellent material characteristics like low density, high tensile strength, high ratio of surface-to-volume, and high thermal conductivity that makes them attractive to use as reinforcements to fabricate high-performance, and high-strength metal-matrix composites (MMCs). Reinforcing magnesium (Mg) using small amounts of CNTs can improve the mechanical and physical properties in the fabricated lightweight and high-performance nanocomposite. Nevertheless, the incorporation of CNTs into a Mg-based matrix faces some challenges, and a uniform distribution is dependent on the parameters of the fabricating process. The characteristics of a CNTs reinforced composite are related to the uniform distribution, weight percent, and length of the CNTs, as well as the interfacial bonding and alignment between CNTs reinforcement and the Mg-based matrix. In this review article, the recent findings in the fabricating methods, characterization of the composite's properties, and application of Mg-based composites reinforced with CNTs are studied. These include the strategies of fabricating CNT-reinforced Mg-based composites, mechanical responses, and corrosion behaviors. The present review aims to investigate and conclude the most relevant studies conducted in the field of Mg/CNTs composites. Strategies to conquer complicated challenges are suggested and potential fields of Mg/CNTs composites as upcoming structural material regarding functional requirements in aerospace, medical and automotive industries are particularly presented.
  9. Ibrahim Lakin I, Abbas Z, Azis RS, Ibrahim NA, Abd Rahman MA
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 14;13(20).
    PMID: 33066690 DOI: 10.3390/ma13204581
    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber/polylactic acid (PLA)-based composites filled with 6-22 wt.% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared using a melt blend method. The composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the MWCNTs. The composites were characterized for complex permittivity using the coaxial probe at 8-12 GHz range and the transmission/reflection coefficients were measured through micro strip line. The dielectric permittivity measurements carried out at X-band frequency revealed that 22 wt.% MWCNTs nanocomposite display higher dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss (ε″) values of 4.23 and 0.65, respectively. A maximum absorption loss of 15.2 dB was obtained for the 22 wt.% nanocomposites at 11.75 GHz. This result suggests that PLA/OPEFB/MWCNTs composites are a promising cheap and lightweight material for the effective microwave absorption in the X-band frequency range.
  10. Zainal SMIS, Hejazi F, Aziz FNAA, Jaafar MS
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 10;13(22).
    PMID: 33182531 DOI: 10.3390/ma13225055
    The use of fibers in cementitious composites yields numerous benefits due to their fiber-bridging capabilities in resisting cracks. Therefore, this study aimed to improve the shear-resisting capabilities of conventional concrete through the hybridization of multiple synthetic fibers, specifically on reinforced concrete structures in seismic-prone regions. For this study, 16 hybrid fiber-reinforced concretes (HyFRC) were developed from the different combinations of Ferro macro-synthetic fibers with the Ultra-Net, Super-Net, Econo-Net, and Nylo-Mono microfibers. These hybrids were tested under direct shear, resulting in improved shear strength of controlled specimens by Ferro-Ultra (32%), Ferro-Super (24%), Ferro-Econo (44%), and Ferro-Nylo (24%). Shear energy was further assessed to comprehend the effectiveness of the fiber interactions according to the mechanical properties, dosage, bonding power, manufactured material, and form of fibers. Conclusively, all fiber combinations used in this study produced positive synergistic effects under direct shear at large crack deformations.
  11. Mutafi A, Yidris N, Koloor SSR, Petrů M
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 26;13(23).
    PMID: 33256257 DOI: 10.3390/ma13235378
    Stainless steels are increasingly used in construction today, especially in harsh environments, in which steel corrosion commonly occurs. Cold-formed stainless steel structures are currently increasing in popularity because of its efficiency in load-bearing capacity and its appealing architectural appearance. Cold-rolling and press-braking are the cold-working processes used in the forming of stainless steel sections. Press braking can produce large cross-sections from thin to thick-walled sections compared to cold-rolling. Cold-forming in press-braked sections significantly affect member behaviour and joints; therefore, they have attained great attention from many researchers to initiate investigations on those effects. This paper examines the behaviour of residual stress distribution of stainless steel press-braked sections by implementing three-dimensional finite element (3D-FE) technique. The study proposed a full finite element procedure to predict the residual stresses starting from coiling-uncoiling to press-braking. This work considered material anisotropy to examine its effect on the residual stress distribution. The technique adopted was compared with different finite element techniques in the literature. This study also provided a parametric study for three corner radius-to-thickness ratios looking at the through-thickness residual stress distribution of four stainless steels (i.e., ferritic, austenitic, duplex, lean duplex) in which have their own chemical composition. In conclusion, the comparison showed that the adopted technique provides a detailed prediction of residual stress distribution. The influence of geometrical aspects is more pronounced than the material properties. Neglecting the material anisotropy shows higher shifting in the neutral axis. The parametric study showed that all stainless steel types have the same stress through-thickness distribution. Moreover, R/t ratios' effect is insignificant in all transverse residual stress distributions, but a slight change to R/t ratios can affect the longitudinal residual stress distribution.
  12. Jamari SKM, Nordin NA, Ubaidillah, Aziz SAA, Nazmi N, Mazlan SA
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 24;13(23).
    PMID: 33255343 DOI: 10.3390/ma13235317
    Magnetorheological (MR) material is a type of magneto-sensitive smart materials which consists of magnetizable particles dispersed in a carrier medium. Throughout the years, coating on the surface of the magnetic particles has been developed by researchers to enhance the performance of MR materials, which include the improvement of sedimentation stability, enhancement of the interaction between the particles and matrix mediums, and improving rheological properties as well as providing extra protection against oxidative environments. There are a few coating methods that have been employed to graft the coating layer on the surface of the magnetic particles, such as atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), chemical oxidative polymerization, and dispersion polymerization. This paper investigates the role of particle coating in MR materials with the effects gained from grafting the magnetic particles. This paper also discusses the coating methods employed in some of the works that have been established by researchers in the particle coating of MR materials.
  13. Hossain A, Islam MT, Islam MT, Chowdhury MEH, Rmili H, Samsuzzaman M
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 02;13(21).
    PMID: 33147702 DOI: 10.3390/ma13214918
    In this paper, a compact planar ultrawideband (UWB) antenna and an antenna array setup for microwave breast imaging are presented. The proposed antenna is constructed with a slotted semicircular-shaped patch and partial trapezoidal ground. It is compact in dimension: 0.30λ × 0.31λ × 0.011λ, where λ is the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. For design purposes, several parameters are assumed and optimized to achieve better performance. The prototype is applied in the breast imaging scheme over the UWB frequency range 3.10-10.60 GHz. However, the antenna achieves an operating bandwidth of 8.70 GHz (2.30-11.00 GHz) for the reflection coefficient under-10 dB with decent impedance matching, 5.80 dBi of maximum gain with steady radiation pattern. The antenna provides a fidelity factor (FF) of 82% and 81% for face-to-face and side-by-side setups, respectively, which specifies the directionality and minor variation of the received pulses. The antenna is fabricated and measured to evaluate the antenna characteristics. A 16-antenna array-based configuration is considered to measure the backscattering signal of the breast phantom where one antenna acts as transmitter, and 15 of them receive the scattered signals. The data is taken in both the configuration of the phantom with and without the tumor inside. Later, the Iteratively Corrected Delay and Sum (IC-DAS) image reconstructed algorithm was used to identify the tumor in the breast phantom. Finally, the reconstructed images from the analysis and processing of the backscattering signal by the algorithm are illustrated to verify the imaging performance.
  14. Chuo SC, Mohamed SF, Mohd Setapar SH, Ahmad A, Jawaid M, Wani WA, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Nov 05;13(21).
    PMID: 33167607 DOI: 10.3390/ma13214993
    Nowadays, microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has received great attention for its potential in construction and geotechnical applications. This technique has been used in biocementation of sand, consolidation of soil, production of self-healing concrete or mortar, and removal of heavy metal ions from water. The products of MICP often have enhanced strength, durability, and self-healing ability. Utilization of the MICP technique can also increase sustainability, especially in the construction industry where a huge portion of the materials used is not sustainable. The presence of bacteria is essential for MICP to occur. Bacteria promote the conversion of suitable compounds into carbonate ions, change the microenvironment to favor precipitation of calcium carbonate, and act as precipitation sites for calcium carbonate crystals. Many bacteria have been discovered and tested for MICP potential. This paper reviews the bacteria used for MICP in some of the most recent studies. Bacteria that can cause MICP include ureolytic bacteria, non-ureolytic bacteria, cyanobacteria, nitrate reducing bacteria, and sulfate reducing bacteria. The most studied bacterium for MICP over the years is Sporosarcina pasteurii. Other bacteria from Bacillus species are also frequently investigated. Several factors that affect MICP performance are bacterial strain, bacterial concentration, nutrient concentration, calcium source concentration, addition of other substances, and methods to distribute bacteria. Several suggestions for future studies such as CO2 sequestration through MICP, cost reduction by using plant or animal wastes as media, and genetic modification of bacteria to enhance MICP have been put forward.
  15. Kirmasha YK, Sharba MJ, Leman Z, Sultan MTH
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Oct 28;13(21).
    PMID: 33126437 DOI: 10.3390/ma13214801
    Fiber composites are known to have poor through-thickness mechanical properties due to the absence of a Z-direction binder. This issue is more critical with the use of natural fibers due to their low strength compared to synthetic fibers. Stitching is a through-thickness toughening method that is used to introduce fibers in the Z-direction, which will result in better through-thickness mechanical properties. This research was carried out to determine the mechanical properties of unstitched and silk fiber-stitched woven kenaf-reinforced epoxy composites. The woven kenaf mat was stitched with silk fiber using a commercial sewing machine. The specimens were fabricated using a hand lay-up method. Three specimens were fabricated, one unstitched and two silk-stitched with deferent stitching orientations. The results show that the stitched specimens have comparable in-plane mechanical properties to the unstitched specimens. For the tensile mechanical test, stitched specimens show similar and 17.1% higher tensile strength compared to the unstitched specimens. The flexural mechanical test results show around a 9% decrease in the flexural strength for the stitched specimens. On the other hand, the Izod impact mechanical test results show a significant improvement of 33% for the stitched specimens, which means that stitching has successfully improved the out-of-plane mechanical properties. The outcome of this research indicates that the stitched specimens have better mechanical performance compared to the unstitched specimens and that the decrease in the flexural strength is insignificant in contrast with the remarkable enhancement in the impact strength.
  16. Majdi HS, Saud AN, Saud SN
    Materials (Basel), 2019 May 29;12(11).
    PMID: 31146451 DOI: 10.3390/ma12111752
    Porous γ-alumina is widely used as a catalyst carrier due to its chemical properties. These properties are strongly correlated with the physical properties of the material, such as porosity, density, shrinkage, and surface area. This study presents a technique that is less time consuming than other techniques to predict the values of the above-mentioned physical properties of porous γ-alumina via an artificial neural network (ANN) numerical model. The experimental data that was implemented was determined based on 30 samples that varied in terms of sintering temperature, yeast concentration, and socking time. Of the 30 experimental samples, 25 samples were used for training purposes, while the other five samples were used for the execution of the experimental procedure. The results showed that the prediction and experimental data were in good agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed model is proficient at providing high accuracy estimation data derived from any complex analytical equation.
  17. Adeyi AA, Jamil SNAM, Abdullah LC, Choong TSY, Lau KL, Abdullah M
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Sep 08;12(18).
    PMID: 31500398 DOI: 10.3390/ma12182903
    In this study, simultaneous adsorption of cationic dyes was investigated by using binary component solutions. Thiourea-modified poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid) (TMPAA) polymer was used as an adsorbent for uptake of cationic dyes (malachite green, MG and methylene blue, MB) from aqueous solution in a binary system. Adsorption tests revealed that TMPAA presented high adsorption of MG and MB at higher pH and higher dye concentrations. It suggested that there are strong electrostatic attractions between the surface functional groups of the adsorbent and cationic dyes. The equilibrium analyses explain that both extended Langmuir and extended models are suitable for the description of adsorption data in the binary system. An antagonistic effect was found, probably due to triangular (MG) and linear (MB) molecular structures that mutually hinder the adsorption of both dyes on TMPAA. Besides, the kinetic studies for sorption of MG and MB dyes onto adsorbent were better represented by a pseudo-second-order model, which demonstrates chemisorption between the polymeric TMPAA adsorbent and dye molecules. According to experimental findings, TMPAA is an attractive adsorbent for treatment of wastewater containing multiple cationic dyes.
  18. Alaaeddin MH, Sapuan SM, Zuhri MYM, Zainudin ES, M Al-Oqla F
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Sep 17;12(18).
    PMID: 31533207 DOI: 10.3390/ma12183007
    Photovoltaic backsheets have considerable impact on the collective performance of solar cells. Material components should withstand certain temperatures and loads while maintaining high thermal stability under various weather conditions. Solar modules must demonstrate increased reliability, adequate performance, safety, and durability throughout the course of their lifetime. This work presents a novel solar module. The module consists of an innovative polyvinylidene fluoride-short sugar palm fiber (PVDF-SSPF) composite backsheet within its structure. It was electrically and thermally evaluated. The current-voltage characteristics (I-V) were obtained using the solar module analyzer, PROVA 210PV. A thermal evaluation was accomplished using a temperature device, SDL200. The thermal test consisted of two different assessments. The first targeted the surface and backsheet of the developed module to correlate their performance from within. The second assessment compared the thermal performance of the fabricated backsheet with the conventional one. Both tests were combined into a heatmap analysis to further understand the thermal performance. Results revealed that the developed module exhibited reasonable electrical efficiency, achieving appropriate and balanced I-V curves. PVDF-SSPF backsheets proved to be thermally stable by displaying less heat absorbance and better temperature shifts. Additional research efforts are highly encouraged to investigate other characteristics. To enhance performance, further analyses are needed such as the damp heat analysis, accelerated aging analysis, and heat dissipation phenomena.
  19. Napi MLM, Sultan SM, Ismail R, How KW, Ahmad MK
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Sep 15;12(18).
    PMID: 31540160 DOI: 10.3390/ma12182985
    Electrochemical biosensors have shown great potential in the medical diagnosis field. The performance of electrochemical biosensors depends on the sensing materials used. ZnO nanostructures play important roles as the active sites where biological events occur, subsequently defining the sensitivity and stability of the device. ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized into four different dimensional formations, which are zero dimensional (nanoparticles and quantum dots), one dimensional (nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanowires), two dimensional (nanosheets, nanoflakes, nanodiscs, and nanowalls) and three dimensional (hollow spheres and nanoflowers). The zero-dimensional nanostructures could be utilized for creating more active sites with a larger surface area. Meanwhile, one-dimensional nanostructures provide a direct and stable pathway for rapid electron transport. Two-dimensional nanostructures possess a unique polar surface for enhancing the immobilization process. Finally, three-dimensional nanostructures create extra surface area because of their geometric volume. The sensing performance of each of these morphologies toward the bio-analyte level makes ZnO nanostructures a suitable candidate to be applied as active sites in electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnostic purposes. This review highlights recent advances in various dimensions of ZnO nanostructures towards electrochemical biosensor applications.
  20. Tang WL, Lee HS, Vimonsatit V, Htut T, Singh JK, Wan Hassan WNF, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jan 03;12(1).
    PMID: 30609786 DOI: 10.3390/ma12010130
    The carbonation rate of reinforced concrete is influenced by three parameters, namely temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in the surroundings. As knowledge of the service lifespan of reinforced concrete is crucial in terms of corrosion, the carbonation process is important to study, and high-performance durable reinforced concretes can be produced to prolong the effects of corrosion. To examine carbonation resistance, accelerated carbonation testing was conducted in accordance with the standards of BS 1881-210:2013. In this study, 10⁻30% of micro palm oil fuel ash (mPOFA) and 0.5⁻1.5% of nano-POFA (nPOFA) were incorporated into concrete mixtures to determine the optimum amount for achieving the highest carbonation resistance after 28 days water curing and accelerated CO₂ conditions up to 70 days of exposure. The effect of carbonation on concrete specimens with the inclusion of mPOFA and nPOFA was investigated. The carbonation depth was identified by phenolphthalein solution. The highest carbonation resistance of concrete was found after the inclusion of 10% mPOFA and 0.5% nPOFA, while the lowest carbonation resistance was found after the inclusion of 30% mPOFA and 1.5% nPOFA.
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