The rapidly increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) threatens the environmental integrity and well-being of humans at a global level. Incineration is regarded as a technically sound technology for the management of MSW. However, the effective management of the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes remains a challenge. This article presents the global dynamics of MSWI ashes research from 1994 to 2018 based on a bibliometric analysis of 1810 publications (research articles and conference proceedings) extracted from the Web of Science database, followed by a comprehensive summary on the research developments in the field. The results indicate the rapid growth of annual publications on MSWI ashes research, with China observed as the most productive country within the study period. Waste Management, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Chemosphere and Waste Management & Research, which accounted for 35.42% of documents on MSWI research, are the most prominent journals in the field. The most critical thematic areas on this topic are MSWI ashes characterisation, dioxin emissions from fly ash, valorisation of bottom ash and heavy metal removal. The evolution of MSWI ashes treatment technologies is also discussed, together with the challenges and future research directions. This is the first bibliometric analysis on global MSWI ashes research based on a sufficiently large dataset, which could provide new insights for researchers to initiate further research with leading institutions/authors and ultimately advance this research field.
Catalytic steam gasification of palm kernel shell is investigated to optimize operating parameters for hydrogen and syngas production using TGA-MS setup. RSM is used for experimental design and evaluating the effect of temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio, and coal bottom ash wt% on hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen production appears highly sensitive to all factors, especially temperature and coal bottom ash wt%. In case of syngas, the order of parametric influence is: CaO/biomass>coal bottom ash wt%>temperature>particle size. The significant catalytic effect of coal bottom ash is due to the presence of Fe2O3, MgO, Al2O3, and CaO. A temperature of 692°C, coal bottom ash wt% of 0.07, CaO/biomass of 1.42, and particle size of 0.75mm are the optimum conditions for augmented yield of hydrogen and syngas. The production of hydrogen and syngas is 1.5% higher in the pilot scale gasifier as compared to TGA-MS setup.
Research for alternative binders has become a necessity due to cement's embodied carbon, climate change, and depletion of natural resources. These binders could potentially reduce our reliance on cement as the sole binder for concrete while simultaneously enhancing the functional characteristics of concrete. Theoretically, the use of finer particles in the cement matrix densifies the pore structure of concrete and results in improved properties. To validate this hypothesis, current research was designed to investigate how the value-added benefits of nano-silica (NS) and metakaolin (MK) in fly ash (FA)-blended cement affect the mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete when used as ternary and quaternary blends. Additionally, the cost-benefit analysis and environmental impact assessment were conducted. It was observed that the synergy of MK and NS used in FA-blended cement had a greater impact on enhancing the functional characteristics of concrete, while 10% MK as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) replacement and 1% NS as an additive in FA-blended OPC concrete was the optimum combination which achieved 94-MPa compressive strength at the age of 91 days and showed more than 25% increment in the flexural and splitting tensile strengths compared to the control mix (MS00). The ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were significantly improved, while a significant reduction in chloride migration of 50% was observed. In terms of environmental impact, MS100 (30% FA and 10% MK) exhibited the least embodied CO2 emissions of 319.89 kgCO2/m3, while the highest eco-strength efficiency of 0.268 MPa/kgCO2·m-3 with respect to 28-day compressive strength was exhibited by MS101. In terms of cost-benefit, MS00 was determined the cheapest, while the addition of MK and NS increased the cost. The lowest cost of producing 1 MPa was exhibited by MS01 with a merely 0.04-$/MPa/m3 reduction compared to MS00.
Various environmental samples (seawater, TSS, sediment, rainwater and fly ash) from eight different stations near Kapar coastal area were analyzed. The 210 Po activity concentrations in liquid samples (seawater and rainwater) varied between 0.34 ± 0.03 mBq L-1 to 22.44 ± 0.53 mBq L-1 . Whereas the concentrations in particulate samples (TSS, sediment and fly ash) varied between 43.79 ± 2.31 Bqkg-1 to 364.48 ± 5.43 Bqkg-1 . Results also showed the radioactivity in Kapar coastal is higher than most of Malaysian coast, reaching a factor of seven. This condition is mainly due to the operation of a coal-fired power plant nearby. This study also clarify the variability of 210 Po in environment was strongly influenced from rainfall events especially during wet seasons.
This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.
The discharge of high levels of heavy metals into the environment is of concern due to its toxicity to aquatic life and potential human health impacts. Biofiltration systems have been used in urban environments to address nutrient contamination, but there is also evidence that such systems can be effective in reducing heavy metals concentration in stormwater. However, the accumulation pattern of heavy metals and lifespan of such systems, which are important in engineering design, have not been thoroughly explored. This study investigated the accumulation patterns of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe), which are common in urban runoff, in non-vegetated filtration columns using three different types of filter media, namely sand (S), and mixtures of sand with fly ash (sand-fly ash mix, SF), and with zeolite (sand-zeolite mix, SZ). The columns were assessed in terms of infiltration rate, the mass of heavy metals accumulation at different depths, and formation of crust layer (schmutzdecke) at the surface. The results show that most of the heavy metals accumulated at the top 5-10 cm of the filter media. However, Zn was found adsorbed to a depth of 15 cm in S and SZ columns, while Mn and Fe were present in column S throughout the entire 30 cm depth of the filter media. The presence especially of Zn, Mn, and Fe in the deeper portions of the filter media before the top 5 cm layer reached its maximum adsorption capacity, hints that transport to the deeper layers is not necessarily dependent on saturation of the upper layers for these heavy metals. SF accumulated heavy metals most at the top 5 cm of the filter media layer, and retained twice the mass of heavy metals in the crust layer, compared to S and SZ columns. SF also yielded the lowest value of infiltration rate of 31 mm/h. Considering both metals accumulation and clogging potential of the filter media, the periodic maintenance of these systems is suggested to be approximately between 1.5 and 3 years.
The binary effect of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) on heat of hydration of aerated concrete was studied. Three aerated concrete mixes were prepared, namely, concrete containing 100% ordinary Portland cement (control sample or Type I), binary concrete made from 50% POFA (Type II), and ternary concrete containing 30% POFA and 20% PFA (Type III). It is found that the temperature increases due to heat of hydration through all the concrete specimens especially in the control sample. However, the total temperature rises caused by the heat of hydration through both of the new binary and ternary concrete were significantly lower than the control sample. The obtained results reveal that the replacement of Portland cement with binary and ternary materials is beneficial, particularly for mass concrete where thermal cracking due to extreme heat rise is of great concern.
Current study concerns measurement of radioactivity levels in areas surrounding a 2420 MW thermal power plant fueled predominantly by bituminous coal. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in onsite bottom-ash were found to be 139 Bq/kg, 108 Bq/kg and 291 Bq/kg, respectively, the levels for these radiolnuclides in soil decreasing with distance from the power plant. At the plant perimeter the respective radionuclide concentrations were 87 Bq/kg, 74 Bq/kg and 297 Bq/kg. In a nearby town, the corresponding concentrations were 104 Bq/kg, 52 Bq/kg and 358 Bq/kg, suggestive of use of TENORM affected soils. The mean radium equivalent activities (Raeq) in soil and ash sample in the town were 205 Bq/kg and 316 Bq/kg, respectively. The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste. For the prevailing levels of exposure and a worst case senario, the predicted committed effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation for intake durations of 1- and 30 years would be 4.2 μSv and 220 μSv, respectively.
This paper presents a comparative study of the characteristic of unfoamed and foamed geopolymers after exposure to elevated temperatures (200-800 °C). Unfoamed geopolymers were produced with Class F fly ash and sodium hydroxide and liquid sodium silicate. Porous geopolymers were prepared by foaming with hydrogen peroxide. Unfoamed geopolymers possessed excellent strength of 44.2 MPa and degraded 34% to 15 MPa in foamed geopolymers. The strength of unfoamed geopolymers decreased to 5 MPa with increasing temperature up to 800 °C. Foamed geopolymers behaved differently whereby they deteriorated to 3 MPa at 400 °C and increased up to 11 MPa at 800 °C. Even so, the geopolymers could withstand high temperature without any disintegration and spalling up to 800 °C. The formation of crystalline phases at higher temperature was observed deteriorating the strength of unfoamed geopolymers but enhance the strength of foamed geopolymers. In comparison, foamed geopolymer had better thermal resistance than unfoamed geopolymers as pores provide rooms to counteract the internal damage.
As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content.
Fly ash (PFA) is a complex material produced after combustion in coal-fired power plants. About half of this fly ash is disposed as solid wastes. A possible alternative to disposal of the fly ash is the synthesis of zeolite. Zeolite Boggsite (Na37Ca74Al185Si775O192 7H2O) was synthesized from fly ash by hydrothermal treatment with NaOH solutions as identified by x-ray diffraction. The zeolite type and degree of crystallization were found to be dependent on the reaction conditions and mineralogy of the raw material, particularly in terms of the relative concentrations of SiO2 and Al2O3.
The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.
To investigate the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with fly ash soil (FAS) for the reduction of metals from FAS by Parthenium hysterophorus were studied. The average accumulation of metals by P. hysterophorus stem were Fe 79.6%; Zn 88.5%; Cu 67.5%; Pb 93.6%; Ni 43.5% and Hg 39.4% at 5.5 g ZnO NP. The concentration of ZnO NP at 1.5 g did not affect the metals accumulation, however at 5.5 g ZnO NP showed highest metal reduction was 96.7% and at 10.5-15.5 g ZnO NP of 19.8%. The metal reduction rate was R max for Fe 16.4; Zn 21.1; Pb 41.9; Hg 19.1 was higher than Ni 6.4 and Cu 11.3 from the FAS at 5.5 g ZnO NP whereas, the reduction rate of Pb showed highest. With doses of 5.5 g ZnO NP the biomass increased upto 78%; the metal reduced upto 98.7% with the share of 100% ZnO NP from FAS. Further investigation with phytotoxicity the plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were affected due was mainly due to the recovery of metals from FAS (R2 = 0.99).
Aggregates can be categorized into natural and artificial aggregates. Preserving natural resources is crucial to ensuring the constant supply of natural aggregates. In order to preserve these natural resources, the production of artificial aggregates is beginning to gain the attention of researchers worldwide. One of the methods involves using geopolymer technology. On this basis, this current research focuses on the inter-particle effect on the properties of fly ash geopolymer aggregates with different molarities of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effects of synthesis parameters (6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 M) on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the fly ash geopolymer aggregate were studied. The fly ash geopolymer aggregate was palletized manually by using a hand to form a sphere-shaped aggregate where the ratio of NaOH/Na2SiO3 used was constant at 2.5. The results indicated that the NaOH molarity has a significant effect on the impact strength of a fly ash geopolymer aggregate. The highest aggregate impact value (AIV) was obtained for samples with 6 M NaOH molarity (26.95%), indicating the lowest strength among other molarities studied and the lowest density of 2150 kg/m3. The low concentration of sodium hydroxide in the alkali activator solution resulted in the dissolution of fly ash being limited; thus, the inter-particle volume cannot be fully filled by the precipitated gels.
The alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is an important consideration in ensuring the long-term durability of concrete materials, especially for those containing reactive aggregates. Although fly ash (FA) has proven to be useful in preventing ASR expansion, the filler effect and the effect of FA fineness on ASR expansion are not well defined in the present literature. Hence, this study aimed to examine the effects of the filler and fineness of FA on ASR mortar expansion. FAs with two different finenesses were used to substitute ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at 20% by weight of binder. River sand (RS) with the same fineness as the FA was also used to replace OPC at the same rate as FA. The replacement of OPC with RS (an inert material) was carried out to observe the filler effect of FA on ASR. The results showed that FA and RS provided lower ASR expansions compared with the control mortar. Fine and coarse fly ashes in this study had almost the same effectiveness in mitigating the ASR expansion of the mortars. For the filler effect, smaller particles of RS had more influence on the ASR reduction than RS with coarser particles. A significant mitigation of the ASR expansion was obtained by decreasing the OPC content in the mortar mixture through its partial substitution with FA and RS.
Thermal performance, combustibility, and fire propagation of fly ash-metakaolin (FA-MK) blended geopolymer with the addition of aluminum triphosphate, ATP (Al(H2PO4)3), and monoaluminium phosphate, MAP (AlPO4) were evaluated in this paper. To prepare the geopolymer mix, fly ash and metakaolin with a ratio of 1:1 were added with ATP and MAP in a range of 0-3% by weight. The fire/heat resistance was evaluated by comparing the residual compressive strengths after the elevated temperature exposure. Besides, combustibility and fire propagation tests were conducted to examine the thermal performance and the applicability of the geopolymers as passive fire protection. Experimental results revealed that the blended geopolymers with 1 wt.% of ATP and MAP exhibited higher compressive strength and denser geopolymer matrix than control geopolymers. The effect of ATP and MAP addition was more obvious in unheated geopolymer and little improvement was observed for geopolymer subjected to elevated temperature. ATP and MAP at 3 wt.% did not help in enhancing the elevated-temperature performance of blended geopolymers. Even so, all blended geopolymers, regardless of the addition of ATP and MAP, were regarded as the noncombustible materials with negligible (0-0.1) fire propagation index.
In this study the effect of irradiated and non-irradiated waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as replacement of cement and fly-ash in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and geopolymeric cement (GPC) based cementitious grouts on flexural strength of semi-flexible pavement specimens were evaluated. The porous asphalt gradation was selected based on Malaysian specifications for semi-flexible pavements with a target of 30% air voids. The cement content in the OPC grouts and the fly-ash content in the GPC based grouts were partially replaced with 1.25% PET (using both irradiated and non-irradiated PET). Beam specimens were prepared and tested for flexural strength properties using center point loading configuration. The grouts modified with recycled waste plastic (PET) showed approximately the same results as obtained from the control specimens. Although the replacement amount was low (1.25% by weight of cement), nonetheless, significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions is expected when preparing grouts for mass construction of semi-flexible pavement surfaces. Similarly, effective recycling of waste plastics in road construction and replacing OPC with plastic and geopolymers will have a positive effect on the environment and will furthermore contribute to sustainable pavement construction.
Characterisation of the leaching behaviour of coal fly ash from Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) by using tank leaching test method has been reported. The leachability of the constituents such as major elements and toxic metals in the coal fly ash was studied. Eight renewed leachant solutions after 6 hours, 1, 2, 5, 8, 21, 36 and 64 days were investigated after filtration. The parameters namely pH, cumulative release regarding the major elements and toxic metals to duration were presented. The results showed that the pH solutions increased from pH 4 to neutral and remained stable during the test. It might have resulted from the large buffering capacity of the coal fly ashes. Five major elements namely Al, Ca, K, Mg and Na were detected with Ca concentration in the leachant solutions was the highest for all samples. Toxic metals such as As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were found and the test showed consistent results on the As, Ba, Mn, Se and Zn in leachant solutions. The findings also showed that some of the toxic metal concentrations namely As, Ba, Cr, Pb and Se exceeded the maximum allowance of the guideline of drinking water quality in Malaysia and WHO. Obviously, proper waste management has to be applied in this scenario.
The recycling of millions of tons of glass bottle waste produced each year is far from optimal. In the present work, ground blast furnace slag (GBFS) was substituted in fly ash-based alkali-activated mortars (AAMs) for the purpose of preparing glass bottle waste nano-powder (BGWNP). The AAMs mixed with BGWNP were subsequently subjected to assessment in terms of their energy consumption, economic viability, and mechanical and chemical qualities. Besides affording AAMs better mechanical qualities and making them more durable, waste recycling was also observed to diminish the emissions of carbon dioxide. A more than 6% decrease in carbon dioxide emissions, an over 16% increase in compressive strength, better durability and lower water absorption were demonstrated by AAM consisting of 5% BGWNP as a GBFS substitute. By contrast, lower strength was exhibited by AAM comprising 10% BGWNP. The conclusion reached was that the AAMs produced with BGWNP attenuated the effects of global warming and thus were environmentally advantageous. This could mean that glass waste, inadequate for reuse in glass manufacturing, could be given a second life rather than being disposed of in landfills, which is significant as concrete remains the most commonplace synthetic material throughout the world.
A geopolymer has been reckoned as a rising technology with huge potential for application across the globe. Dolomite refers to a material that can be used raw in producing geopolymers. Nevertheless, dolomite has slow strength development due to its low reactivity as a geopolymer. In this study, dolomite/fly ash (DFA) geopolymer composites were produced with dolomite, fly ash, sodium hydroxide, and liquid sodium silicate. A compression test was carried out on DFA geopolymers to determine the strength of the composite, while a synchrotron Micro-Xray Fluorescence (Micro-XRF) test was performed to assess the elemental distribution in the geopolymer composite. The temperature applied in this study generated promising properties of DFA geopolymers, especially in strength, which displayed increments up to 74.48 MPa as the optimum value. Heat seemed to enhance the strength development of DFA geopolymer composites. The elemental distribution analysis revealed exceptional outcomes for the composites, particularly exposure up to 400 °C, which signified the homogeneity of the DFA composites. Temperatures exceeding 400 °C accelerated the strength development, thus increasing the strength of the DFA composites. This appears to be unique because the strength of ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and other geopolymers composed of other raw materials is typically either maintained or decreases due to increased heat.