Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Moy FM, Ng YH
    Sci Prog, 2021;104(3):368504211029812.
    PMID: 34260295 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211029812
    The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of all including university students. With the preventive measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, all face-to-face teaching and learning are converted to e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of e-learning may influence these students' mental conditions. This study aimed to determine the association of factors with mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress) among university students in Malaysia. Study participants were tertiary education students from both the private and public universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited via university emails and social media. The survey was administered via the online REDCap platform, from April to June 2020, during the movement control order period in the country. The questionnaire captured data on socio-demographic characteristics, academic information, implementation of e-learning, perception towards e-learning and COVID-19; as well as DASS 21 to screen for depression, anxiety and stress. The levels of stress, anxiety and depression were 56.5% (95% CI: 50.7%, 62.1%), 51.3% (95% CI: 45.6%, 57.0%) and 29.4% (95% CI: 24.3%, 34.8%) respectively. Most participants had good perception towards e-learning but negative perception on COVID-19. From the multivariate analysis, participants with positive perception on COVID-19 were protective towards stress (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), anxiety (aOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and depression (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Older students were 14% (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94) and 11% (aOR: 0.89: 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) less likely for anxiety and depression, respectively. Students originated from the Malay ethnicity had higher odds (aOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.56) for depression. These findings demonstrated that the mental status of university students was greatly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely and credible information should be disseminated to alleviate their negative perception towards COVID-19.
  2. Alam MK, Alfawzan AA, Abutayyem H, Kanwal B, Alswairki HJ, Verma S, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2023;106(1):368504231156297.
    PMID: 36803068 DOI: 10.1177/00368504231156297
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to strengthen the credibility of primary research results by combining open-source scientific material, namely a comparison of craniofacial features (Cfc) between Crouzon's syndrome (CS) patients and non-CS populations. All articles published up to October 7, 2021, were included in the search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this study. PECO framework was applied in the following ways: Those who have CS are denoted by the letter P, those who have been diagnosed with CS via clinical or genetic means by the letter E, those who do not have CS by the letter C, and those who have a Cfc of CS by the letter O. Independent reviewers collected the data and ranked the publications based on their adherence to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. A total of six case-control studies were reviewed for this meta-analysis. Due to the large variation in cephalometric measures, only those published in at least two previous studies were included. This analysis found that CS patients had a smaller skull and mandible volumes than those without CS.in terms of SNA° (MD = -2.33, p = <0.001, I2 = 83.6%) and ANB°(MD = -1.89, p = <0.005, I2 = 93.1%)), as well as ANS (MD = -1.87, p = 0.001, I2 = 96.5%)) and SN/PP (MD = -1.99, p = 0.036, I2 = 77.3%)). In comparison to the general population, people with CS tend to have shorter and flatter cranial bases, smaller orbital volumes, and cleft palates. They differ from the general population in having a shorter skull base and more V-shaped maxillary arches.
  3. Rus AZ
    Sci Prog, 2010;93(Pt 3):285-300.
    PMID: 21047019
    With the world facing depletion of its oil reserves, attention is being focused on how the plastics industry will address shortages and price increases in its crucial raw materials. One renewable resource is that of vegetable oils and fats and about a dozen crop plants make up the main vegetable oil-seed market. The main constituents of these oils are saturated and unsaturated fatty acids that are unique to the plant in which they have been developed. Moreover, technological processes can produce more well-defined and pure oils, and the fatty acid contents in the vegetable oils can be altered with modern crop development techniques. This article describes recent advances in utilising such vegetable oils in sourcing new polymeric materials. It also gives the context for the development of polymers based on renewable materials in general.
  4. Webb JF
    Sci Prog, 2003;86(Pt 3):203-34.
    PMID: 15079997
    The main physical properties of ferroelectric crystals are described, and the macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints are discussed along with some applications, such as in capacitors and nonlinear optics. The emphasis is on physical understanding, while the mathematical level is kept to a minimum or supplemented by graphical representations to make the article more accessible.
  5. Shah SN, Tan TH, Tey OW, Leong GW, Chin YS, Yuen CW, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2022;105(2):368504221091186.
    PMID: 35379044 DOI: 10.1177/00368504221091186
    Lightweight cementitious composite (LCC) produced by incorporating lightweight silica aerogel was explored in this study. Silica aerogel was incorporated as 60% replacement of fine aggregate (sand/crushed glass) in producing the LCC. The effect of aerogel on the drying shrinkage and alkali-silica expansion of LCC was evaluated and compared with those of lightweight expanded perlite aggregate. At the density of 1600  ±  100 kg/m3, the aerogel/ expanded perlite LCC had attained compressive strength of about 17/24 MPa and 22/26 MPa in mixtures with sand and crushed glass as a fine aggregate, respectively. The inclusion of aerogel and expanded perlite increased the drying shrinkage. The drying shrinkage of aerogel LCC was up to about 3 times of the control mixtures. Although the presence of aerogel and expanded perlite could reduce the alkali-silica expansion when partially replacing crushed glass, the aerogel-glass LCC still recorded expansion exceeding the maximum limit of 0.10% at 14 days. However, when 15% cement was replaced with fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag, the alkali-silica expansion was reduced to 0.03% and 0.10%, respectively. Microstructural observations also revealed that the aerogel with fly ash can help in reducing the alkali-silica expansion in mixes containing the reactive crushed glass aggregate.
  6. Aliyu A, Shaari MR, Ahmad Sayuti NS, Reduan FH, Sithambaram S, Mohamed Mustapha N, et al.
    Sci Prog, 2021 Oct;104(4):368504211004272.
    PMID: 34886737 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211004272
    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is an important multipurpose tree that is largely distributed globally and has been used almost in every aspect of traditional medicine for the treatment of various illnesses including cancers, diabetes mellitus, asthma, arthritis, etc. This study investigated the effects of oral acute and sub-acute administration of M. oleifera hydroethanolic leaf extract (MOHE) in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds were also determined. Ten (10) female, 8-week old mice were grouped into control and treatment groups for acute toxicity study. A dose of 2000 mg/kg MOHE was given once to the treatment group via oral gavage. However, for the sub-acute toxicity study, 25 mice were grouped into groups A (control), B (125 mg/kg), C (250 mg/kg), D (500 mg/kg) and E (1000 mg/kg). MOHE was given via oral gavage to groups B, C, D and E daily for 28 days. Group A received only distilled water. The mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiments and samples were collected for evaluation. The results of the chemical profiling of MOHE revealed the presence of glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol as the major compounds. The treated mice in the acute toxicity study were slightly anaemic and showed evidence of stress leukogram. Moreover, a slight increase in creatinine, significant increases in AST and CK, hepatic degeneration and necrosis, none-obstructive sinusoidal dilatation, renal tubular necrosis, interstitial nephritis and renal interstitial oedema were observed. It is concluded that the LD50 of MOHE is higher than 2000 mg/kg. However, oral administration of MOHE causes acute mild anaemia and moderate hepato-nephrotoxicity in ICR-mice. Its major phenolic compounds are glucomoringin, niaziminine, quercetin and kaempferol.
  7. Lau MF, Chua KH, Sabaratnam V, Kuppusamy UR
    Sci Prog, 2020;103(1):36850419886448.
    PMID: 31795844 DOI: 10.1177/0036850419886448
    Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases worldwide. 5-Fluorouracil is the mainstay of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Previously, we have demonstrated that high glucose diminishes the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil by promoting cell cycle progression. The synergistic impact of rosiglitazone on 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis was further investigated in this study. Besides control cell lines (CCD-18Co), two human colonic carcinoma cell lines (HCT 116 and HT 29) were exposed to different treatments containing 5-fluorouracil, rosiglitazone or 5-fluorouracil/rosiglitazone combination under normal glucose (5.5 mM) and high-glucose (25 mM) conditions. The cellular oxidative stress level was evaluated with biomarkers of nitric oxide, advanced oxidation protein products, and reduced glutathione. The cell apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry technique. High glucose caused the production of reduced glutathione in HCT 116 and HT 29 cells. Correspondingly, high glucose suppressed the apoptotic effect of 5-fluorouracil and rosiglitazone. As compared to 5-fluorouracil alone (2 µg/mL), addition of rosiglitazone significantly enhanced the apoptosis (increment rate of 5-20%) in a dose-dependent manner at normal glucose and high glucose levels. This study indicates that high-glucose-induced reduced glutathione confers resistance to apoptosis, but it can be overcome upon treatment of 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorouracil/rosiglitazone combination. Rosiglitazone may be a promising antidiabetic drug to reduce the chemotherapeutic dose of 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer complicated with hyperglycemia.
  8. Ayat Ali AS, Lim SK, Tang LY, Rashid AA, Chew BH
    Sci Prog, 2021;104(2):368504211026159.
    PMID: 34143698 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211026159
    The complexity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its treatments have made self-management behaviors inevitably challenging. However, supplementing education with self-management skills may improve numerous health outcomes in people with nondialysis CKD. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to evaluate the effects of a nurse-led self-management support program as an intervention for kidney disease knowledge and CKD self-management behaviors among people with pre-dialysis CKD. In Phase 1, people with CKD stage 3-4 and their family members are involved in co-designing, development and pilot testing of a theory-based self-management intervention. In Phase 2, we perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Kidney Disease Knowledge Survey, CKD Self-Management and Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease questionnaires. In Phase 3, a parallel RCT will be conducted to evaluate the intervention where 154 participants with CKD stage 3-4 will be randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 77) or control group (n = 77). The intervention group will receive 6-week self-management program from a nurse-coach in addition to standard usual care, while the control group will receive only standard usual care. Outcome measures include kidney disease knowledge, CKD self-management behavior, self-efficacy, quality of life, blood pressure control and adherence to CKD diet as indicated by 24-h urine urea nitrogen, 24-h urine sodium and net endogenous acid production. Data will be collected at baseline and 12-week post-baseline. The between- and within-group intervention effects will be estimated using the Generalized Estimating Equations. The self-management intervention offers strategies to delay CKD progression and to encourage motivation to better self-manage at home. This study integrates self-management education and psychosocial support with culturally relevant scenarios, and evaluates important self-reported and objective outcomes.Clinical Trials Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03974646.
  9. Aly CA, Abas FS, Ann GH
    Sci Prog, 2021;104(2):368504211005480.
    PMID: 33913378 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211005480
    INTRODUCTION: Action recognition is a challenging time series classification task that has received much attention in the recent past due to its importance in critical applications, such as surveillance, visual behavior study, topic discovery, security, and content retrieval.

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the research is to develop a robust and high-performance human action recognition techniques. A combination of local and holistic feature extraction methods used through analyzing the most effective features to extract to reach the objective, followed by using simple and high-performance machine learning algorithms.

    METHODS: This paper presents three robust action recognition techniques based on a series of image analysis methods to detect activities in different scenes. The general scheme architecture consists of shot boundary detection, shot frame rate re-sampling, and compact feature vector extraction. This process is achieved by emphasizing variations and extracting strong patterns in feature vectors before classification.

    RESULTS: The proposed schemes are tested on datasets with cluttered backgrounds, low- or high-resolution videos, different viewpoints, and different camera motion conditions, namely, the Hollywood-2, KTH, UCF11 (YouTube actions), and Weizmann datasets. The proposed schemes resulted in highly accurate video analysis results compared to those of other works based on four widely used datasets. The First, Second, and Third Schemes provides recognition accuracies of 57.8%, 73.6%, and 52.0% on Hollywood2, 94.5%, 97.0%, and 59.3% on KTH, 94.5%, 95.6%, and 94.2% on UCF11, and 98.9%, 97.8% and 100% on Weizmann.

    CONCLUSION: Each of the proposed schemes provides high recognition accuracy compared to other state-of-art methods. Especially, the Second Scheme as it gives excellent comparable results to other benchmarked approaches.

  10. Albargi AM, Assiry AA, Bahammam HA, Alassiri MY, Marya A, Karobari MI
    Sci Prog, 2021;104(3):368504211042980.
    PMID: 34541957 DOI: 10.1177/00368504211042980
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the truthfulness of patients about their pre-appointment COVID-19 screening tests at a dental clinic.

    METHODS: A total of 613 patients were recruited for the study from the dental clinic at the Faculty of Dentistry, Najran University, Saudi Arabia. The data collection was done in three parts from the patients who visited the hospital to receive dental treatment. The first part included the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the COVID-19 swab tests performed within the past 14 days. The second part was the clinical examination, and the third part was a confirmation of the swab test taken by the patient by checking the Hesen website using the patient ID. After data collection, statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 26.0. Descriptive analysis was done and expressed as mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage (%). A cross-tabulation, also described as a contingency table, was used to identify trends and patterns across data and explain the correlation between different variables.

    RESULTS: It was seen from the status of the swab test within 14 days of the patient's arrival at the hospital for the dental treatment that 18 (2.9%) patients lied about the pre-treatment swab test within 14 days, and 595 (97.1%) were truthful. The observed and expected counts showed across genders and diagnosis a statistically significant difference (p 

  11. Chris DI, Wokeh OK, Téllez-Isaías G, Kari ZA, Azra MN
    Sci Prog, 2024;107(1):368504241231663.
    PMID: 38490166 DOI: 10.1177/00368504241231663
    This study examined the histological aberrations in the gill and liver tissues and behavioural changes of Tilapia guineensis fingerlings exposed to lethal concentrations of used Oilfield-based emulsifiers for 96 h. Various concentrations of the surfactants were tested, ranging from 0.0 to 15.0 ml/L. The behaviour of the fish was observed throughout the experiment, and the results showed that increasing concentrations of the surfactants led to progressively abnormal behaviour, including hyperventilation and altered opercular beat frequency. These behavioural changes indicated respiratory distress and neurotoxic effects. Histological analysis revealed structural aberrations in the gill and liver tissues, with higher concentrations causing more severe damage, such as lesions, necrosis, inflammation, and cellular degeneration. This implies that surfactants released even at low concentrations are capable of inducing changes in the tissues of aquatic organisms. These findings highlight the toxic effects of the surfactants on fish health and provide biomarkers of toxicity. Future research should focus on understanding the specific mechanisms and long-term consequences of surfactant toxicity on fish genetic composition, populations, and ecosystems to implement effective conservation measures.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links