• 1 Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
  • 2 Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 9, 38122 Trento, Italy
Materials (Basel), 2023 Mar 29;16(7).
PMID: 37049037 DOI: 10.3390/ma16072739


Tissue engineering products have grown in popularity as a therapeutic approach for chronic wounds and burns. However, some drawbacks include additional steps and a lack of antibacterial capacities, both of which need to be addressed to treat wounds effectively. This study aimed to develop an acellular, ready-to-use ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) bioscaffold with an antibacterial coating for the immediate treatment of skin wounds and to prevent infection post-implantation. Two types of crosslinkers, 0.1% genipin (GNP) and dehydrothermal treatment (DHT), were explored to optimise the material strength and biodegradability compared with a non-crosslinked (OTC) control. Carvone plasma polymerisation (ppCar) was conducted to deposit an antibacterial protective coating. Various parameters were performed to investigate the physicochemical properties, mechanical properties, microstructures, biodegradability, thermal stability, surface wettability, antibacterial activity and biocompatibility of the scaffolds on human skin cells between the different crosslinkers, with and without plasma polymerisation. GNP is a better crosslinker than DHT because it demonstrated better physicochemical properties (27.33 ± 5.69% vs. 43 ± 7.64% shrinkage), mechanical properties (0.15 ± 0.15 MPa vs. 0.07 ± 0.08 MPa), swelling (2453 ± 419.2% vs. 1535 ± 392.9%), biodegradation (0.06 ± 0.06 mg/h vs. 0.15 ± 0.16 mg/h), microstructure and biocompatibility. Similarly, its ppCar counterpart, GNPppCar, presents promising results as a biomaterial with enhanced antibacterial properties. Plasma-polymerised carvone on a crosslinked collagen scaffold could also support human skin cell proliferation and viability while preventing infection. Thus, GNPppCar has potential for the rapid treatment of healing wounds.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.