• 1 Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Univesiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia
  • 4 KPJ Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital, Suite No. 3-13, No. 1, Jalan Mamanda 9, Taman Dato' Ahmad Razali, Ampang 68000, Malaysia
  • 5 Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia
Biomedicines, 2022 Mar 31;10(4).
PMID: 35453566 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines10040816


Tissue engineering products have grown rapidly as an alternative solution available for chronic wound and burn treatment. However, some drawbacks include additional procedures and a lack of antibacterial properties that can impair wound healing, which are issues that need to be tackled effectively for better wound recovery. This study aimed to develop a functionalized dual-layered hybrid biomatrix composed of collagen sponge (bottom layer) to facilitate cell proliferation and adhesion and gelatin/cellulose hydrogel (outer layer) incorporated with graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles (GC-GO/AgNP) to prevent possible external infections post-implantation. The bilayer hybrid scaffold was crosslinked with 0.1% (w/v) genipin for 6 h followed by advanced freeze-drying technology. Various characterisation parameters were employed to investigate the microstructure, biodegradability, surface wettability, nanoparticles antibacterial activity, mechanical strength, and biocompatibility of the bilayer bioscaffold towards human skin cells. The bilayer bioscaffold exhibited favourable results for wound healing applications as it demonstrated good water uptake (1702.12 ± 161.11%), slow rate of biodegradation (0.13 ± 0.12 mg/h), and reasonable water vapour transmission rate (800.00 ± 65.85 gm−2 h−1) due to its porosity (84.83 ± 4.48%). The biomatrix was also found to possess hydrophobic properties (48.97 ± 3.68°), ideal for cell attachment and high mechanical strength. Moreover, the hybrid GO-AgNP promoted antibacterial properties via the disk diffusion method. Finally, biomatrix unravelled good cellular compatibility with human dermal fibroblasts (>90%). Therefore, the fabricated bilayer scaffold could be a potential candidate for skin wound healing application.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.