• 1 Centre for Tissue Engineering Centre and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
  • 2 Kumpulan Perubatan Johor Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital, Kuala Lumpur 68000, Malaysia
  • 3 Biomaterial Group, R&D Center, Yao City 581-0000, Japan
  • 4 Laboratory of Biomaterials, Department of Regeneration Science and Engineering, Institute for Life and Medical Science (LiMe), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8500, Japan
Biomedicines, 2022 Oct 20;10(10).
PMID: 36289912 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines10102651


The irregular shape and depth of wounds could be the major hurdles in wound healing for the common three-dimensional foam, sheet, or film treatment design. The injectable hydrogel is a splendid alternate technique to enhance healing efficiency post-implantation via injectable or 3D-bioprinting technologies. The authentic combination of natural and synthetic polymers could potentially enhance the injectability and biocompatibility properties. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterise a hybrid gelatin−PVA hydrogel crosslinked with genipin (GNP; natural crosslinker). In brief, gelatin (GE) and PVA were prepared in various concentrations (w/v): GE, GPVA3 (3% PVA), and GPVA5 (5% PVA), followed by a 0.1% (w/v) genipin (GNP) crosslink, to achieve polymerisation in three minutes. The physicochemical and biocompatibility properties were further evaluated. GPVA3_GNP and GPVA5_GNP with GNP demonstrated excellent physicochemical properties compared to GE_GNP and non-crosslinked hydrogels. GPVA5_GNP significantly displayed the optimum swelling ratio (621.1 ± 93.18%) and excellent hydrophilicity (38.51 ± 2.58°). In addition, GPVA5_GNP showed an optimum biodegradation rate (0.02 ± 0.005 mg/h) and the highest mechanical strength with the highest compression modulus (2.14 ± 0.06 MPa). In addition, the surface and cross-sectional view for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that all of the GPVA hydrogels have optimum average pore sizes (100−199 μm) with interconnected pores. There were no substantial changes in chemical analysis, including FTIR, XRD, and EDX, after PVA and GNP intervention. Furthermore, GPVA hydrogels influenced the cell biocompatibility, which successfully indicated >85% of cell viability. In conclusion, gelatin−PVA hydrogels crosslinked with GNP were proven to have excellent physicochemical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties, as required for potential bioinks for chronic wound healing.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.