Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

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  1. Lo S, Fauzi MB
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Feb 28;13(3).
    PMID: 33670973 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13030316
    Tissue engineering technology is a promising alternative approach for improvement in health management. Biomaterials play a major role, acting as a provisional bioscaffold for tissue repair and regeneration. Collagen a widely studied natural component largely present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body. It provides mechanical stability with suitable elasticity and strength to various tissues, including skin, bone, tendon, cornea and others. Even though exogenous collagen is commonly used in bioscaffolds, largely in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, nano collagen is a relatively new material involved in nanotechnology with a plethora of unexplored potential. Nano collagen is a form of collagen reduced to a nanoparticulate size, which has its advantages over the common three-dimensional (3D) collagen design, primarily due to its nano-size contributing to a higher surface area-to-volume ratio, aiding in withstanding large loads with minimal tension. It can be produced through different approaches including the electrospinning technique to produce nano collagen fibres resembling natural ECM. Nano collagen can be applied in various medical fields involving bioscaffold insertion or fillers for wound healing improvement; skin, bone, vascular grafting, nerve tissue and articular cartilage regeneration as well as aiding in drug delivery and incorporation for cosmetic purposes.
  2. Zawani M, Fauzi MB
    Biomedicines, 2021 May 10;9(5).
    PMID: 34068490 DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines9050527
    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a predominant impediment among diabetic patients, increasing morbidity and wound care costs. There are various strategies including using biomaterials have been explored for the management of DFU. This paper will review the injectable hydrogel application as the most studied polymer-based hydrogel based on published journals and articles. The main key factors that will be discussed in chronic wounds focusing on diabetic ulcers include the socioeconomic burden of chronic wounds, biomaterials implicated by the government for DFU management, commercial hydrogel product, mechanism of injectable hydrogel, the current study of novel injectable hydrogel and the future perspectives of injectable hydrogel for the management of DFU.
  3. Masri S, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Mar 25;13(7).
    PMID: 33805995 DOI: 10.3390/polym13071011
    Skin tissue engineering aimed to replace chronic tissue injury commonly occurred due to severe burn and chronic wound in diabetic ulcer patients. The normal skin is unable to be regenerated until the seriously injured tissue is disrupted and losing its function. 3D-bioprinting has been one of the effective methods for scaffold fabrication and is proven to replace the conventional method, which reported several drawbacks. In light of this, researchers have developed a new fabrication approach via 3D-bioprinting by combining biomaterials (bioinks) with cells and biomolecules followed by a suitable crosslinking approach. This advanced technology has been subcategorised into three different printing techniques including inject-based, laser-based, and extrusion-based printing. However, the printable quality of the currently available bioinks demonstrated shortcomings in the physicochemical and mechanical properties. This review aims to identify the limitations raised by using natural-based bioinks and the optimum temperature for various applied printing techniques. It is essential to ensure maintaining the acceptable printed scaffold property such as the optimum pore sizes and porosity that allow cell migration activity. In addition, the properties required for an ideal bioinks design for better scaffold printability were also summarised.
  4. Zawani M, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Oct 23;13(21).
    PMID: 34771213 DOI: 10.3390/polym13213656
    Immediate treatment for cutaneous injuries is a realistic approach to improve the healing rate and minimise the risk of complications. Multifunctional biomaterials have been proven to be a potential strategy for chronic skin wound management, especially for future advancements in precision medicine. Hence, antioxidant incorporated biomaterials play a vital role in the new era of tissue engineering. A bibliographic investigation was conducted on articles focusing on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies that evaluate the effect and the antioxidants mechanism exerted by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in wound healing and its ability to act as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers. Over the years, EGCG has been proven to be a potent antioxidant efficient for wound healing purposes. Therefore, several novel studies were included in this article to shed light on EGCG incorporated biomaterials over five years of research. However, the related papers under this review's scope are limited in number. All the studies showed that biomaterials with scavenging ability have a great potential to combat chronic wounds and assist the wound healing process against oxidative damage. However, the promising concept has faced challenges extending beyond the trial phase, whereby the implementation of these biomaterials, when exposed to an oxidative stress environment, may disrupt cell proliferation and tissue regeneration after transplantation. Therefore, thorough research should be executed to ensure a successful therapy.
  5. Naomi R, Ratanavaraporn J, Fauzi MB
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 10;13(14).
    PMID: 32664418 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143097
    The use of hybridisation strategy in biomaterials technology provides a powerful synergistic effect as a functional matrix. Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used for drug delivery, and collagen (Col) resembles the extracellular matrix (ECM). This systematic review was performed to scrutinise the outcome of hybrid Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. This paper reviewed the progress of related research based on in vitro and in vivo studies and the influence of the physicochemical properties of the hybrid in wound healing. The results indicated the positive outcome of hybridising Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. The hybridisation of these biomaterials exhibits an excellent moisturising property, perfectly interconnected structure, excellent water absorption and retention capacity, an acceptable range of biodegradability, and synergistic effects in cell viability. The in vitro and in vivo studies clearly showed a promising outcome in the acceleration of cutaneous wound healing using an SF and Col hybrid scaffold. The review of this study can be used to design an appropriate hybrid scaffold for cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that the hybridisation of Col and SF promoted rapid cutaneous healing through immediate wound closure and reepithelisation, with no sign of adverse events. This paper concludes on the need for further investigations of the hybrid SF and Col in the future to ensure that the hybrid biomaterials are well-suited for human skin.
  6. Maheswary T, Nurul AA, Fauzi MB
    Pharmaceutics, 2021 Jun 29;13(7).
    PMID: 34209654 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13070981
    A diverse range of normal flora populates the human skin and numbers are relatively different between individuals and parts of the skin. Humans and normal flora have formed a symbiotic relationship over a period of time. With numerous disease processes, the interaction between the host and normal flora can be interrupted. Unlike normal wound healing, which is complex and crucial to sustaining the skin's physical barrier, chronic wounds, especially in diabetes, are wounds that fail to heal in a timely manner. The conditions become favorable for microbes to colonize and establish infections within the skin. These include secretions of various kinds of molecules, substances or even trigger the immune system to attack other cells required for wound healing. Additionally, the healing process can be slowed down by prolonging the inflammatory phase and delaying the wound repair process, which causes further destruction to the tissue. Antibiotics and wound dressings become the targeted therapy to treat chronic wounds. Though healing rates are improved, prolonged usage of these treatments could become ineffective or microbes may become resistant to the treatments. Considering all these factors, more studies are needed to comprehensively elucidate the role of human skin normal flora at the cellular and molecular level in a chronic injury. This article will review wound healing physiology and discuss the role of normal flora in the skin and chronic wounds.
  7. Lo S, Mahmoudi E, Fauzi MB
    Discov Nano, 2023 Aug 22;18(1):104.
    PMID: 37606765 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-023-03880-y
    The skin is known to be the largest organ in the human body, while also being exposed to environmental elements. This indicates that skin is highly susceptible to physical infliction, as well as damage resulting from medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. The wound management costs in hospitals and clinics are expected to rise globally over the coming years, which provides pressure for more wound healing aids readily available in the market. Recently, nanomaterials have been gaining traction for their potential applications in various fields, including wound healing. Here, we discuss various inorganic nanoparticles such as silver, titanium dioxide, copper oxide, cerium oxide, MXenes, PLGA, PEG, and silica nanoparticles with their respective roles in improving wound healing progression. In addition, organic nanomaterials for wound healing such as collagen, chitosan, curcumin, dendrimers, graphene and its derivative graphene oxide were also further discussed. Various forms of nanoparticle drug delivery systems like nanohydrogels, nanoliposomes, nanofilms, and nanoemulsions were discussed in their function to deliver therapeutic agents to wound sites in a controlled manner.
  8. Riha SM, Maarof M, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 May 12;13(10).
    PMID: 34065898 DOI: 10.3390/polym13101546
    Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
  9. Naomi R, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020 Sep 18;17(18).
    PMID: 32961877 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17186803
    Cellulose is a naturally existing element in the plant's cell wall and in several bacteria. The unique characteristics of bacterial cellulose (BC), such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, together with the modifiable form of nanocellulose, or the integration with nanoparticles, such as nanosilver (AgNP), all for antibacterial effects, contributes to the extensive usage of BC in wound healing applications. Due to this, BC has gained much demand and attention for therapeutical usage over time, especially in the pharmaceutical industry when compared to plant cellulose (PC). This paper reviews the progress of related research based on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials, including the overall information concerning BC and PC production and its mechanisms in wound healing. The physicochemical differences between BC and PC have been clearly summarized in a comparison table. Meanwhile, the latest Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved BC products in the biomedical field are thoroughly discussed with their applications. The paper concludes on the need for further investigations of BC in the future, in an attempt to make BC an essential wound dressing that has the ability to be marketable in the global marketplace.
  10. Naomi R, Ardhani R, Hafiyyah OA, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 13;12(9).
    PMID: 32933133 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092081
    Collagen (Col) is a naturally available material and is widely used in the tissue engineering and medical field owing to its high biocompatibility and malleability. Promising results on the use of Col were observed in the periodontal application and many attempts have been carried out to inculcate Col for gingival recession (GR). Col is found to be an excellent provisional bioscaffold for the current treatment in GR. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to scrutinize an overview of the reported Col effect focusing on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials in GR application. A comprehensive literature search was performed using EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Medline & Ovid databases to identify the potential articles on particular topics. The search query was accomplished based on the Boolean operators involving keywords such as (1) collagen OR scaffold OR hybrid scaffold OR biomaterial AND (2) gingiva recession OR tissue regeneration OR dental tissue OR healing mechanism OR gingiva. Only articles published from 2015 onwards were selected for further analysis. This review includes the physicochemical properties of Col scaffold and the outcome for GR. The comprehensive literature search retrieved a total of 3077 articles using the appropriate keywords. However, on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 15 articles were chosen for further review. The results from these articles indicated that Col promoted gingival tissue regeneration for GR healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that Col enhances regeneration of gingival tissue either through a slow or rapid process with no sign of cytotoxicity or adverse effect.
  11. Fauzi MB, Rashidbenam Z, Bin Saim A, Binti Hj Idrus R
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Nov 25;12(12).
    PMID: 33255581 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122784
    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro skin models have been widely used for cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications aiming to reduce animal use in experiment. This study investigate capability of ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I) sponge suitable platform for a 3D in vitro skin model using co-cultured skin cells (CC) containing human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) under submerged (SM) and air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Briefly, the extracted OTC-I was freeze-dried and crosslinked with genipin (OTC-I_GNP) and carbodiimide (OTC-I_EDC). The gross appearance, physico-chemical characteristics, biocompatibility and growth profile of seeded skin cells were assessed. The light brown and white appearance for the OTC-I_GNP scaffold and other groups were observed, respectively. The OTC-I_GNP scaffold demonstrated the highest swelling ratio (~1885%) and water uptake (94.96 ± 0.14%). The Fourier transformation infrared demonstrated amide A, B and I, II and III which represent collagen type I. The microstructure of all fabricated sponges presented a similar surface roughness with the presence of visible collagen fibers and a heterogenous porous structure. The OTC-I_EDC scaffold was more toxic and showed the lowest cell attachment and proliferation as compared to other groups. The micrographic evaluation revealed that CC potentially formed the epidermal- and dermal-like layers in both SM and ALI that prominently observed with OTC-I_GNP compared to others. In conclusion, these results suggest that OTC_GNP could be used as a 3D in vitro skin model under ALI microenvironment.
  12. Arshad L, Jantan I, Bukhari SNA, Fauzi MB
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2018;19(6):468-482.
    PMID: 29968535 DOI: 10.2174/1389201019666180703092723
    BACKGROUND: 3,5-Bis[4-(diethoxymethyl)benzylidene]-1-methyl-piperidin-4-one (BBP), a novel synthetic curcumin analogue has previously been shown to manifest potent immunosuppressive effects on the in vitro phagocytosis process of human neutrophils.

    OBJECTIVE: In the present study, BBP was investigated for it's in vivo innate and adaptive immune responses mediated by different humoral and cellular immune factors.

    METHODS: Male Balb/c mice were orally fed with BBP (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) for a period of 14 days and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) on day 0 for the determination of adaptive responses. The effects of BBP on phagocytosis process of neutrophils isolated from blood of treated/untreated animals were determined. The ceruloplasmin and lysozyme serum levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) plasma level were also monitored. The mechanism was further explored by assessing its effects on the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes subsets CD4+ and CD8+ and on the secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines as well as serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction.

    RESULTS: BBP showed a significant dose-dependent reduction on the migration of neutrophils, Mac-1 expression, phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In comparison to the sensitized control group, a dose-dependent inhibition was observed on lymphocyte proliferation along with the downregulation of effector cells expression and release of cytokines. Moreover, a statistically significant decrease was perceived in serum levels of ceruloplasmin, lysozyme and immunoglobulins and MPO plasma level of BBP-treated mice. BBP also dose-dependently inhibited sheep red blood cells (sRBC)-induced swelling rate of mice paw in DTH.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the potential of BBP as a potent immunosuppressive agent.

  13. Ullah S, Zainol I, Chowdhury SR, Fauzi MB
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 May;111:158-168.
    PMID: 29305219 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.136
    The various composition multicomponent chitosan/fish collagen/glycerin 3D porous scaffolds were developed and investigated the effect of various composition chitosan/fish collagen/glycerin on scaffolds morphology, mechanical strength, biostability and cytocompatibility. The scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The effects of various compositions consisting in 3D scaffolds were investigated via FT-IR analysis, porosity, swelling and mechanical tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds investigated microscopically. The biostability and cytocompatibility tests were used to explore the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The average pore sizes of scaffolds were in range of 100.73±27.62-116.01±52.06, porosity 71.72±3.46-91.17±2.42%, tensile modulus in dry environment 1.47±0.08-0.17±0.03MPa, tensile modulus in wet environment 0.32±0.03-0.14±0.04MPa and biodegradation rate (at day 30) 60.38±0.70-83.48±0.28%. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the various composition multicomponent 3D scaffolds were good cytocompatibility however, the scaffolds contained high amount of fish collagen excellently facilitated cell proliferation and adhesion. It was found that the high amount fish collagen and glycerin scaffolds have high porosity, enough mechanical strength and biostability, and excellent cytocompatibility.
  14. Razali RA, Vijakumaran U, Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y
    Pharmaceutics, 2023 May 18;15(5).
    PMID: 37242776 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051534
    Numerous biomaterials have been developed over the years to enhance the outcomes of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. These products are specifically designed to prevent postoperative bleeding, optimize wound healing, and reduce inflammation. However, there is no singular material on the market that can be deemed the optimal material for the nasal pack. We systematically reviewed the available evidence to assess the functional biomaterial efficacy after ESS in prospective studies. The search was performed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 31 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) was used to assess each study's risk of bias. The studies were critically analyzed and categorized into types of biomaterial and functional properties, according to synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) guidelines. Despite the heterogeneity between studies, it was observed that chitosan, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, and starch-derived materials exhibit better endoscopic scores and significant potential for use in nasal packing. The published data support the idea that applying a nasal pack after ESS improves wound healing and patient-reported outcomes.
  15. Mohd N, Razali M, Fauzi MB, Abu Kasim NH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2023 Aug 17;24(16).
    PMID: 37629064 DOI: 10.3390/ijms241612881
    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a unique combination of technological advances in 3D printing and tissue engineering. It has emerged as a promising approach to address the dilemma in current dental treatments faced by clinicians in order to repair or replace injured and diseased tissues. The exploration of 3D bioprinting technology provides high reproducibility and precise control of the bioink containing the desired cells and biomaterial over the architectural and dimensional features of the scaffolds in fabricating functional tissue constructs that are specific to the patient treatment need. In recent years, the dental applications of different 3D bioprinting techniques, types of novel bioinks, and the types of cells used have been extensively explored. Most of the findings noted significant challenges compared to the non-biological 3D printing approach in constructing the bioscaffolds that mimic native tissues. Hence, this review focuses solely on the implementation of 3D bioprinting techniques and strategies based on cell-laden bioinks. It discusses the in vitro applications of 3D-bioprinted scaffolds on cell viabilities, cell functionalities, differentiation ability, and expression of the markers as well as the in vivo evaluations of the implanted bioscaffolds on the animal models for bone, periodontal, dentin, and pulp tissue regeneration. Finally, it outlines some perspectives for future developments in dental applications.
  16. Subramaniam T, Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y, Law JX
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jun 17;22(12).
    PMID: 34204292 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22126486
    Skin injury is quite common, and the wound healing is a complex process involving many types of cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble mediators. Cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation are essential in restoring the integrity of the injured tissue. Despite the advances in science and technology, we have yet to find the ideal dressing that can support the healing of cutaneous wounds effectively, particularly for difficult-to-heal chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, bed sores, and venous ulcers. Hence, there is a need to identify and incorporate new ideas and methods to design a more effective dressing that not only can expedite wound healing but also can reduce scarring. Calcium has been identified to influence the wound healing process. This review explores the functions and roles of calcium in skin regeneration and reconstruction during would healing. Furthermore, this review also investigates the possibility of incorporating calcium into scaffolds and examines how it modulates cutaneous wound healing. In summary, the preliminary findings are promising. However, some challenges remain to be addressed before calcium can be used for cutaneous wound healing in clinical settings.
  17. Smandri A, Al-Masawa ME, Hwei NM, Fauzi MB
    iScience, 2024 Mar 15;27(3):109141.
    PMID: 38405613 DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2024.109141
    Recent breakthroughs in developing human-relevant organotypic models led to the building of highly resemblant tissue constructs that hold immense potential for transplantation, drug screening, and disease modeling. Despite the progress in fine-tuning stem cell multilineage differentiation in highly controlled spatiotemporal conditions and hosting microenvironments, 3D models still experience naive and incomplete morphogenesis. In particular, existing systems and induction protocols fail to maintain stem cell long-term potency, induce high tissue-level multicellularity, or drive the maturity of stem cell-derived 3D models to levels seen in their in vivo counterparts. In this review, we highlight the use of extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials in providing stem cell niche-mimicking microenvironment capable of preserving stem cell long-term potency and inducing spatial and region-specific differentiation. We also examine the maturation of different 3D models, including organoids, encapsulated in ECM biomaterials and provide looking-forward perspectives on employing ECM biomaterials in building more innovative, transplantable, and functional organs.
  18. Sallehuddin N, Nordin A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    PMID: 32545210 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17114160
    Nigella sativa (NS) has been reported to have a therapeutic effect towards skin wound healing via its anti-inflammatory, tissue growth stimulation, and antioxidative properties. This review examines all the available studies on the association of Nigella sativa (NS) and skin wound healing. The search was performed in Medline via EBSCOhost and Scopus databases to retrieve the related papers released between 1970 and March 2020. The principal inclusion criteria were original article issued in English that stated wound healing criteria of in vivo skin model with topically applied NS. The search discovered 10 related articles that fulfilled the required inclusion criteria. Studies included comprise different types of wounds, namely excisional, burn, and diabetic wounds. Seven studies unravelled positive results associated with NS on skin wound healing. Thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties, which mainly contributed to wound healing process.
  19. Zamani S, Salehi M, Ehterami A, Fauzi MB, Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi G
    J Biomater Appl, 2024 Apr;38(9):957-974.
    PMID: 38453252 DOI: 10.1177/08853282241238581
    Skin tissue engineering has gained significant attention as a promising alternative to traditional treatments for skin injuries. In this study, we developed 3D hydrogel-based scaffolds, Alginate, incorporating different concentrations of Curcumin and evaluated their properties, including morphology, swelling behavior, weight loss, as well as hemo- and cytocompatibility. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic potential of Alginate hydrogel containing different amounts of Curcumin using an in vitro wound healing model. The prepared hydrogels exhibited remarkable characteristics, SEM showed that the pore size of hydrogels was 134.64 μm with interconnected pores, making it conducive for cellular infiltration and nutrient exchange. Moreover, hydrogels demonstrated excellent biodegradability, losing 63.5% of its weight over 14 days. In addition, the prepared hydrogels had a stable release of curcumin for 3 days. The results also show the hemocompatibility of prepared hydrogels and a low amount of blood clotting. To assess the efficacy of the developed hydrogels, 3T3 fibroblast growth was examined during various incubation times. The results indicated that the inclusion of Curcumin at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL positively influenced cellular behavior. The animal study showed that Alginate hydrogel containing 0.1 mg/mL curcumin had high wound closure(more than 80%) after 14 days. In addition, it showed up-regulation of essential wound healing genes, including TGFβ1 and VEGF, promoting tissue repair and angiogenesis. Furthermore, the treated group exhibited down-regulation of MMP9 gene expression, indicating a reduction in matrix degradation and inflammation. The observed cellular responses and gene expression changes substantiate the therapeutic efficacy of prepared hydrogels. Consequently, our study showed the healing effect of alginate-based hydrogel containing Curcumin on skin injuries.
  20. Ruszymah BH, Izham BA, Heikal MY, Khor SF, Fauzi MB, Aminuddin BS
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):440-2.
    PMID: 22390097 MyJurnal
    Current development in the field of tissue engineering led to the idea of repairing and regenerating the respiratory airway through in vitro reconstruction using autologous respiratory epithelial (RE). To ensure the capability of proliferation, the stem cell property of RE cells from the nasal turbinate should be evaluated. Respiratory epithelial cells from six human nasal turbinates were harvested and cultured in vitro. The gene expression of FZD-9 and BST-1 were expressed in passage 2 (P2) and passage 4 (P4). The levels of expression were not significant between both passages. The RE cells exhibit the stem cell properties, which remains even after serial passaging.
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