Phenyl boronic acid (PBA), which is known to interact with glucose, was covalently bonded to chitosan by direct reductive N-alkylation of chitosan with 4-formylphenylboronic acid (4-FPBA). Evidence of PBA bonding on chitosan was assessed by FTIR, ToF-SIMS, SEM, DSC and glucose adsorption sensitivity measurements. FTIR spectra showed strong signals at 1560 and 630 cm-1 indicating the formation of p-substituted benzene. Similarly, ToF-SIMS analyses on the conjugates registered fragments of boron ion (B-) at 11.0 m/z whose intensity increased in proportion to 4-FPBA loading. The degree to which PBA was bonded to chitosan was related to the 4-FPBA load used in the reaction (termed F1 through to F6 with increasing 4-FPBA load). Glucose adsorption sensitivity to PBA-bonded chitosan was directly related to the amount of PBA functionality within the conjugates and the physical nature of the matrices (porous or crystalline). Topographic analysis by SEM revealed that PBA-chitosan conjugates F1, F2 and F3 have porous matrices and their sensitivity to glucose adsorption was directly proportional to the degree of PBA substitution onto chitosan. Conversely, conjugates F4, F5 and F6 appeared crystalline under SEM and glucose adsorption sensitivity decreased in proportion to amount of PBA bonded to chitosan. The crystalline nature of the conjugates was confirmed by DSC, where the exothermic event related to the melting of the bonded PBA moiety, occurred at 338 °C. Thus, decreased sensitivity to glucose adsorption by the conjugates can be ascribed to the crystallinity imparted by increased content of the bonded PBA moiety, providing an optimal loading of PBA in terms of maximizing response to glucose.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer. Owing to the absenteeism of hormonal receptors expressed at the cancerous breast cells, hormonal therapies and other medications targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are ineffective in TNBC patients, making traditional chemotherapeutic agents the only current appropriate regimen. Patients' predisposition to relapse and metastasis, chemotherapeutics' cytotoxicity and resistance and poor prognosis of TNBC necessitates researchers to investigate different novel-targeted therapeutics. The role of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in silencing the genes/proteins that are aberrantly overexpressed in carcinoma cells showed great potential as part of TNBC therapeutic regimen. However, targeting specificity, siRNA stability, and delivery efficiency cause challenges in the progression of this application clinically. Nanotechnology was highlighted as a promising approach for encapsulating and transporting siRNA with high efficiency-low toxicity profile. Advances in preclinical and clinical studies utilizing engineered siRNA-loaded nanotherapeutics for treatment of TNBC were discussed. Specific and selective targeting of diverse signaling molecules/pathways at the level of tumor proliferation and cell cycle, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment, and chemotherapeutics' resistance demonstrated greater activity via integration of siRNA-complexed nanoparticles.
This review aimed to rank the clinical efficacy of commercially available single-application local drug delivery and adjunctive agents (LDAs) compared with subgingival mechanical debridement (SMD) in nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Randomized controlled clinical trials that compared LDAs against SMD alone or with placebo in adults (aged at least 18 years) diagnosed with periodontitis with a minimum of 6 months follow-up were included. A frequentist approach to random-effects network meta-analysis was implemented. The efficacies of the LDAs measured by probing pocket depth (PPD) reduction and clinical attachment level (CAL) gain were reported as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The treatments were ranked according to their P-score. Four network meta-analyses suggested that sulfonic/sulfuric acid gel (PPD MD -1.13 mm, 95% CI -1.74 to -0.53, P-score 0.91; CAL MD -1.09 mm, 95% CI -1.58 to -0.61, P-score 0.95) and doxycycline hyclate gel (PPD MD -0.90 mm, 95% CI -1.50 to -0.30, P-score 0.93; CAL MD -0.84 mm, 95% CI -1.40 to -0.28, P-score 0.92) were the most effective in reducing PPD and gaining CAL in split-mouth and parallel studies, respectively (moderate certainty of evidence). LDAs have differing efficacies, but they present with possible clinical significance over SMD alone in NSPT.
In the contemporary medical model world, the proniosomal system has been serving as a new drug delivery system that is considered to significantly enhance the bioavailability of drugs with low water solubility. The application of this system can improve the bioavailability of aceclofenac that is used for the relief of pain and inflammation in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. The present study is intended to develop an optimized proniosomal aceclofenac formula by the use of different carriers. Aceclofenac proniosomes have been prepared by slurry method, and different carriers such as maltodextrin, mannitol, and glucose were tried. Prepared proniosomes characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed the compatibility of the drug chosen with the ingredient added, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) confirmed the amorphous phase of the prepared proniosomes, and finally, the surfactant layer was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Aceclofenac physical state transformations were confirmed with all formulas but maltodextrin proniosomes exhibited solubility more than other formulations. HPLC method has been used to analyze the niosomes derived from proniosomes in terms of their entrapment capability and drug content. The obtained results revealed that aceclofenac proniosomes can be successfully prepared by using different carriers.
: Pharmacotherapy as the mainstay in the management of breast cancer suffers from various drawbacks, including non-targeted biodistribution, narrow therapeutic and safety windows, and also resistance to treatment. Thus, alleviation of the constraints from the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of classical anti-cancer drugs could lead to improvements in efficacy and patient survival in malignancies. Moreover, modifications in the genetic pathophysiology of cancer via administration of small nucleic acids might pave the way towards higher response rates to chemotherapeutics. Inorganic pH-dependent carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were utilized in this study to efficiently deliver various classes of therapeutics into cancer cells. Co-delivery of drugs and genetic materials was successfully attained through a carbonate apatite delivery device. On 4T1 cells, siRNAs against AKT and ERBB2 plus paclitaxel or docetaxel resulted in the largest increase in anti-cancer effects compared to CA/paclitaxel or CA/docetaxel. Therefore, these ingredients were selected for further in vivo investigations. Animals receiving injections of CA/paclitaxel or CA/docetaxel loaded with siRNAs against AKT and ERBB2 possessed significantly smaller tumors compared to CA/drug-treated mice. Interestingly, synergistic interactions in target protein knock down with combinations of CA/AKT/paclitaxel, CA/ERBB2/docetaxel were documented via western blotting.
This study aimed to develop a carbamazepine (CBZ) sustained release formulation suitable for pediatric use with a lower risk of precipitation. The CBZ was first prepared as sustained release microparticles, and then the microparticles were embedded in alginate beads, and finally, the beads were suspended in a gel vehicle. The microparticles were prepared by a solvent evaporation method utilizing ethyl cellulose as a sustained release polymer and were evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile. The beads were fabricated by the dropwise addition of sodium alginate in calcium chloride solution and characterized for size, shape, and release properties. The gel was prepared using iota carrageenan as the gelling agent and evaluated for appearance, syneresis, drug content uniformity, rheology, release profile, and stability. The microparticles exhibited a particle size of 135.01 ± 0.61 µm with a monodisperse distribution and an encapsulation efficiency of 83.89 ± 3.98%. The beads were monodispersed with an average size of 1.4 ± 0.05 mm and a sphericity factor of less than 0.05. The gel was prepared using a 1:1 ratio (gel vehicle to beads) and exhibited no syneresis, good homogeneity, and good shear-thinning properties. The release profile from the beads and from the gel was not significantly affected, maintaining similarity to the tablet form. The gel properties were maintained for one month real time stability, but the accelerated stability showed reduced viscosity and pH with time. In conclusion, CBZ in a gel sustained release dosage form combines the advantages of the suspension form in terms of dosing flexibility, and the advantages of the tablet form in regards to the sustained release profile. This dosage form should be further investigated in vivo in animal models before being considered in clinical trials.
Cancer treatment and therapy have made significant leaps and bounds in these past decades. However, there are still cases where surgical removal is impossible, metastases are challenging, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy pose severe side effects. Therefore, a need to find more effective and specific treatments still exists. One way is through the utilization of drug delivery agents (DDA) based on nanomaterials. In 2001, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were first used as DDA and have gained considerable attention in this field. The popularity of MSNs is due to their unique properties such as tunable particle and pore size, high surface area and pore volume, easy functionalization and surface modification, high stability and their capability to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advancement of MSNs as DDA for cancer treatment. We focus on the fabrication of MSNs, the challenges in DDA development and how MSNs address the problems through the development of smart DDA using MSNs. Besides that, MSNs have also been applied as a multifunctional DDA where they can serve in both the diagnostic and treatment of cancer. Overall, we argue MSNs provide a bright future for both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
The ruthenium polypyridyl complex [Ru(dppz)2PIP]2+ (dppz: dipyridophenazine, PIP: (2-(phenyl)-imidazo[4,5-f ][1,10]phenanthroline), or Ru-PIP, is a potential anticancer drug that acts by inhibiting DNA replication. Due to the poor dissolution of Ru-PIP in aqueous media, a drug delivery agent would be a useful approach to overcome its limited bioavailability. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized via a co-condensation method by using a phenanthrolinium salt with a 16 carbon length chain (Phen-C16) as the template. Optimization of the synthesis conditions by Box-Behnken design (BBD) generated MSNs with high surface area response at 833.9 m2g-1. Ru-PIP was effectively entrapped in MSNs at 18.84%. Drug release profile analysis showed that Ru-PIP is gradually released, with a cumulative release percentage of approximately 50% at 72 h. The release kinetic profile implied that Ru-PIP was released from MSN by diffusion. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ru-PIP, both free and MSN-encapsulated, was studied in Hela, A549, and T24 cancer cell lines. While treatment of Ru-PIP alone is moderately cytotoxic, encapsulated Ru-PIP exerted significant cytotoxicity upon all the cell lines, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values determined by MTT (([3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium bromide]) assay at 48 h exposure substantially decreasing from >30 µM to <10 µM as a result of MSN encapsulation. The mechanistic potential of cytotoxicity on cell cycle distribution showed an increase in G1/S phase populations in all three cell lines. The findings indicate that MSN is an ideal drug delivery agent, as it is able to sustainably release Ru-PIP by diffusion in a prolonged treatment period.
The standard treatment of open wounds via the direct usage of therapeutic agents is not without limitations with respect to healing. Small peptides can create a favorable milieu for accelerating the healing of wounds. This study presents the potential of a novel fatty acid conjugated tetrapeptide (palmitic acid-glycine-aspartic acid-proline-histidine; Palmitoyl-GDPH) in alleviating wound healing. Tetracycline was employed as a standard control drug following its significance in wound healing including biologically active and antimicrobial effects. The peptide in liquid form was applied on to a 4 cm2 full thickness wound surgically induced at the dorsum of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The in vivo wound treatment with Palmitoyl-GDPH for eighteen days, histologically demonstrated an almost perfect healing exhibited by increased re-epithelialization, enhanced collagen deposition, and diminished scar formation compared to the controls. In addition, the well-developed epidermal-dermal junction and ultimate stimulation of hair follicle-growth in the Palmitoyl-GDPH treated group indicated the wound to have healed as functionally viable tissues. In general, the much lower hemogram values in the Palmitoyl-GDPH group indicated that the ongoing healing is en route to an earlier recovery. Additionally, the liver, kidney, and pancreas function biomarkers being within normal limits indicated the relatively non-toxic nature of Palmitoyl-GDPH at the used dosage. These results indisputably supported the great potential of this newly synthesized Palmitoyl-GDPH to be used as an effective therapeutic agent for wound healing (this actually means creating a new wound).
Tissue engineering technology is a promising alternative approach for improvement in health management. Biomaterials play a major role, acting as a provisional bioscaffold for tissue repair and regeneration. Collagen a widely studied natural component largely present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body. It provides mechanical stability with suitable elasticity and strength to various tissues, including skin, bone, tendon, cornea and others. Even though exogenous collagen is commonly used in bioscaffolds, largely in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, nano collagen is a relatively new material involved in nanotechnology with a plethora of unexplored potential. Nano collagen is a form of collagen reduced to a nanoparticulate size, which has its advantages over the common three-dimensional (3D) collagen design, primarily due to its nano-size contributing to a higher surface area-to-volume ratio, aiding in withstanding large loads with minimal tension. It can be produced through different approaches including the electrospinning technique to produce nano collagen fibres resembling natural ECM. Nano collagen can be applied in various medical fields involving bioscaffold insertion or fillers for wound healing improvement; skin, bone, vascular grafting, nerve tissue and articular cartilage regeneration as well as aiding in drug delivery and incorporation for cosmetic purposes.
The potential role of naringenin (NAR), a natural flavonoid, in the treatment of chronic wound has prompted the present research to deliver the drug in nanoemulsion (NE) form, where synergistic role of chitosan was achieved through development of chitosan-coated NAR NE (CNNE). The NE consisted of Capryol 90, Tween 20 and Transcutol P, which was fabricated by low-energy emulsification method to encapsulate NAR within the oil core. The optimization of the formulated NEs was performed using Box-Behnken statistical design to obtain crucial variable parameters that influence globule size, size distribution and surface charge. Finally, the optimized formulation was coated with different concentrations of chitosan and subsequently characterized in vitro. The size of the CNNE was found to be increased when the drug-loaded formulation was coated with chitosan. Controlled release characteristics depicted 67-81% release of NAR from the CNNE, compared to 89% from the NE formulation. Cytotoxicity study of the formulation was performed in vitro using fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3), where no inhibition in proliferation of the cells was observed with CNNE. Finally, the wound healing potential of the CNNE was evaluated in an abrasion-created wound model in experimental animals where the animals were treated and compared histologically at 0 and 14 days. Significant improvement in construction of the abrasion wound was observed when the animals were treated with formulated CNNE, whereas stimulation of skin regeneration was depicted in the histological examination. Therefore, it could be summarized that the chitosan coating of the developed NAR NE is a potential platform to accelerate healing of wounds.
Oral delivery is considered as the most preferred and yet most challenging mode of drug administration; especially a fragile and sensitive peptide like insulin that shows extremely low bioavailability through the gastro-intestinal (GIT) route. To address this problem, we have designed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) using precipitation-induced Barium (Ba) salt particles. The DDS can load insulin molecules and transport them through the GIT route. There were several in vitro simulation tests carried out to prove the efficiency of Ba salt particles as oral delivery candidates. All three Ba salt particles (BaSO4, BaSO3, and BaCO3) showed very good loading of insulin (>70% in all formulations) and a degree of resistance throughout a wide range of pHs from basic to acidic conditions when assessed by spectrophotometry. Particles and insulin-associated particles were morphologically assessed and characterized using FE-SEM and FT-IR. A set of tests were designed and carried out with mucin to predict whether the particles are potentially capable of overcoming one of the barriers for crossing intestinal epithelium. The mucin binding experiment demonstrated 60-100% of mucin adhesion to the three different particles. FT-IR identifies the characteristic peaks for mucin protein, particles, and particle-mucin complex re-confirming mucin adhesion to the particles. Finally, the effectiveness of nano-insulin was tested on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A short acting human insulin analog, insulin aspart, was loaded into Ba salt particles at a dose of 100 IU/Kg prior to oral administration. Among the three formulations, insulin aspart-loaded BaSO4 and BaCO3 particles dramatically reduced the existing hyperglycemia. BaSO4 with loaded Insulin showed an onset of glucose-lowering action within 1 hr, with blood glucose level measured significantly lower compared to the 2nd and 3rd h (p < 0.05). Insulin-loaded BaCO3 particles showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level at 1-2 h, although the glucose level started to show a slight rise at 3rd h and by 4th h, it was back to baseline level. However, although BaSO3 particles with loaded insulin showed a trend of reduction in blood glucose level, the reduction was not found to be significant (p < 0.05) at any point in time. Therefore, oral formulations of insulin/BaSO4 and insulin/BaCO3 particles were observed as effective as native insulin aspart subcutaneous formulation in terms of onset and duration of action. Further investigation will be needed to reveal bioavailability and mechanism of action of this novel Nano-Insulin formulations.
Dutasteride, licensed as an oral medicine for the treatment of benign prostatic hypoplasia, has been investigated as a treatment for androgenic alopecia. In this study, the potential for dustasteride to be delivered topically in order to reduce systemic exposure, irritation of the skin, and also cytotoxicity was explored. Chitosan oligomer (CSO) was successfully synthesised with lauric acid as a coating for a dutasteride-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (DST-NLCs) system. DST-NLCs were prepared using a combination of melt-dispersion and ultrasonication. These negatively charged NLCs (-18.0 mV) had a mean particle size of ~184 nm, which was not significantly increased (p > 0.05) when coated with lauric acid-chitosan oligomer (CSO-LA), whilst the surface charge changed to positive (+24.8 mV). The entrapment efficiency of DST-NLCs was 97%, and coated and uncoated preparations were physically stable for up to 180 days at 4-8 °C. The drug release was slower from DST-NLCs coated with CSO-LA than from uncoated NLCs, with no detectable drug permeation through full-thickness pig ear skin from either preparation. Considering the cytotoxicity, the IC50 values for the DST-NLCs, coated and uncoated with CSO-LA were greater than for dutasteride alone (p < 0.05). DST-NLCs and empty NLCs coated with CSO-LA at 25 µM increased the cell proliferation compared to the control, and no skin irritation was observed when the DST-NLC formulations were tested using EpiDerm™. The cell and skin uptake studies of coated and uncoated NLCs incorporating the fluorescent marker Coumarin-6 showed the time-dependent uptake of Coumarin-6. Overall, the findings suggest that DST-NLCs coated with CSO-LA represent a promising formulation strategy for dutasteride delivery for the treatment of androgenic alopecia, with a reduced cytotoxicity compared to that of the drug alone and lower irritancy than an ethanolic solution of dutasteride.
Curcuminoids have been used for the management of burns and wound healing in traditional Chinese medicine practices but the wide application of curcuminoids as a healing agent for wounds has always been a known problem due to their poor solubility, bioavailability, colour staining properties, as well as due to their intense photosensitivity and the need for further formulation approaches to maximise their various properties in order for them to considerably contribute towards the wound healing process. In the present study, a complex coacervation microencapsulation was used to encapsulate curcuminoids using gelatin B and chitosan. This study also focused on studying and confirming the potential of curcuminoids in a microencapsulated form as a wound healing agent. The potential of curcuminoids for wound management was evaluated using an in vitro human keratinocyte cell (HaCaT) model and the in vivo heater-inflicted burn wound model, providing evidence that the antioxidant activities of both forms of curcuminoids, encapsulated or not, are higher than those of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene in trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) (DPPH) studies. However, curcuminoids did not have much impact towards cell migration and proliferation in comparison with the negative control in the in vitro HaCaT study. The micoencapsulation formulation was shown to significantly influence wound healing in terms of increasing the wound contraction rate, hydroxyproline synthesis, and greater epithelialisation, which in turn provides strong justification for the incorporation of the microencapsulated formulation of curcuminoids as a topical treatment for burns and wound healing management as it has the potential to act as a crucial wound healing agent in healthcare settings.
Oral tamoxifen used in the prevention and treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (estrogen-positive) patients has limited acceptance, due to its adverse side effects. The efficacy of tamoxifen is related to its major metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Local transdermal therapy of 4-hydroxytamoxifen to the breast might avert the toxicity of oral tamoxifen, while maintaining efficacy. We aim to study the skin irritancy, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of the developed transfersome formulations, with/without emu oil, using a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. We also quantified tamoxifen/4-hydroxytamoxifen concentrations in blood plasma and performed histopathology. The skin irritancy test showed that the pure emu oil and transfersome formulations with or without the emu oil did not cause skin irritancy in the animals studied. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen was developed and validated. Studies on tumor volume and necrosis (histopathology) using the breast cancer mouse model showed that the 4-OHT transfersomal formulations, with and without emu oil, showed comparable efficacy with that of orally administered tamoxifen. However, the transfersomal formulations, with and without emu oil, resulted in significantly lower (10.24 ± 0.07 and 32.45 ± 0.48 ng/mL, respectively) plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxytamoxifen, compared to the oral tamoxifen (TAMX) group (634.42 ± 7.54 ng/mL). This study demonstrated the potential use of emu oil in a local transdermal formulation for the treatment of breast cancer and its reduced adverse effects.
We previously reported a novel method for the precise prediction of tablet properties (e.g., tensile strength (TS)) using a small number of experimental data. The key technique of this method is to compensate for the lack of experimental data by using data of placebo tablets collected in a database. This study provides further technical knowledge to discuss the usefulness of this prediction method. Placebo tablets consisting of microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, and cornstarch were prepared using the design of an experimental method, and their TS and disintegration time (DT) were measured. The response surfaces representing the relationship between the formulation and the tablet properties were then created. This study investigated tablets containing four different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with a drug load ranging from 20-60%. Overall, the TS of API-containing tablets could be precisely predicted by this method, while the prediction accuracy of the DT was much lower than that of the TS. These results suggested that the mode of action of APIs on the DT was more complicated than that on the TS. Our prediction method could be valuable for the development of tablet formulations.
1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) extracted from the rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) has been shown to deregulate the NF-ĸB signaling pathway and induce apoptosis-mediated cell death in many cancer types. However, ACA is a hydrophobic ester, with poor solubility in an aqueous medium, limited bioavailability, and nonspecific targeting in vivo. To address these problems, ACA was encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) anchored with plerixafor octahydrochloride (AMD3100) to promote targeted delivery towards C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-expressing prostate cancer cells. The NLC was prepared using the melt and high sheer homogenization method, and it exhibited ideal physico-chemical properties, successful encapsulation and modification, and sustained rate of drug release. Furthermore, it demonstrated time-based and improved cellular uptake, and improved cytotoxic and anti-metastatic properties on PC-3 cells in vitro. Additionally, the in vivo animal tumor model revealed significant anti-tumor efficacy and reduction in pro-tumorigenic markers in comparison to the placebo, without affecting the weight and physiological states of the nude mice. Overall, ACA-loaded NLC with AMD3100 surface modification was successfully prepared with evidence of substantial anti-cancer efficacy. These results suggest the potential use of AMD3100-modified NLCs as a targeting carrier for cytotoxic drugs towards CXCR4-expressing cancer cells.
Nicergoline (NIC) is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative applied for treatment of dementia and other cerebrovascular disorders. The efficacy of sesame oil to slow and reverse the symptoms of neurodegenerative cognitive disorders has been proven. This work aimed to formulate and optimize sesame oil-based NIC-nanostructured lipid carriers (NIC-NLCs) for intranasal (IN) delivery with expected synergistic and augmented neuroprotective properties. The NIC-NLC were prepared using sesame oil as a liquid lipid. A three-level, three-factor Box-Behnken design was applied to statistically optimize the effect of sesame oil (%) of the total lipid, surfactant concentration, and sonication time on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy as responses. Solid-state characterization, release profile, and ex vivo nasal permeation in comparison to NIC solution (NIC-SOL) was studied. In vivo bioavailability from optimized NIC-NLC and NIC-SOL following IN and IV administration was evaluated and compared. The optimized NIC-NLC formula showed an average particle size of 111.18 nm, zeta potential of -15.4 mV, 95.11% entrapment efficacy (%), and 4.6% loading capacity. The NIC-NLC formula showed a biphasic, extended-release profile (72% after 48 h). Permeation of the NIC-NLC formula showed a 2.3 enhancement ratio. Bioavailability studies showed a 1.67 and 4.57 fold increase in plasma and brain following IN administration. The results also indicated efficient direct nose-to-brain targeting properties with the brain-targeting efficiency (BTE%) and direct transport percentage (DTP%) of 187.3% and 56.6%, respectively, after IN administration. Thus, sesame oil-based NIC-NLC can be considered as a promising IN delivery system for direct and efficient brain targeting with improved bioavailability and expected augmented neuroprotective action for the treatment of dementia.
Psoriasis is a skin disease that is not lethal and does not spread through bodily contact. However, this seemingly harmless condition can lead to a loss of confidence and social stigmatization due to a persons' flawed appearance. The conventional methods of psoriasis treatment include taking in systemic drugs to inhibit immunoresponses within the body or applying topical drugs onto the surface of the skin to inhibit cell proliferation. Topical methods are favored as they pose lesser side effects compared to the systemic methods. However, the side effects from systemic drugs and low bioavailability of topical drugs are the limitations to the treatment. The use of nanotechnology in this field has enhanced drug loading capacity and reduced dosage size. In this review, biosurfactants were introduced as a 'greener' alternative to their synthetic counterparts. Glycolipid biosurfactants are specifically suited for anti-psoriatic application due to their characteristic skin-enhancing qualities. The selection of a suitable oil phase can also contribute to the anti-psoriatic effect as some oils have skin-healing properties. The review covers the pathogenic pathway of psoriasis, conventional treatments, and prospective ingredients to be used as components in the nanoemulsion formulation. Furthermore, an insight into the state-of-the-art methods used in formulating nanoemulsions and their progression to low-energy methods are also elaborated in detail.
A diverse range of normal flora populates the human skin and numbers are relatively different between individuals and parts of the skin. Humans and normal flora have formed a symbiotic relationship over a period of time. With numerous disease processes, the interaction between the host and normal flora can be interrupted. Unlike normal wound healing, which is complex and crucial to sustaining the skin's physical barrier, chronic wounds, especially in diabetes, are wounds that fail to heal in a timely manner. The conditions become favorable for microbes to colonize and establish infections within the skin. These include secretions of various kinds of molecules, substances or even trigger the immune system to attack other cells required for wound healing. Additionally, the healing process can be slowed down by prolonging the inflammatory phase and delaying the wound repair process, which causes further destruction to the tissue. Antibiotics and wound dressings become the targeted therapy to treat chronic wounds. Though healing rates are improved, prolonged usage of these treatments could become ineffective or microbes may become resistant to the treatments. Considering all these factors, more studies are needed to comprehensively elucidate the role of human skin normal flora at the cellular and molecular level in a chronic injury. This article will review wound healing physiology and discuss the role of normal flora in the skin and chronic wounds.