Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Mohd. Bakri, M, Mat Salleh, A.
    Ann Dent, 2003;10(1):-.
    Decalcified permanent teeth were sectioned and stained with Van Gieson and Gomori trichome dyes. Sections dyed with the Van Gieson dye did not produce any zones in dentine but with the Gomori trichome dye, four different zones of dentine were produced. Zone 1 begins at the predentine-dentine junction while zone 4 ends at the enamel - dentine junction. In zone 1, the intertubular dentine was stained clearly while in zone 3 intense staining of the peritubular dentine was observed. The result of this study supports the previous findings reported by other workers that the formation of intertubular dentine takes place in zone 1 while peritubular dentine occurs in zone 3.
  2. Marikkar, J.M.N., Tan, S.J., Salleh, A., Shukri, M.A.M., Azrina, A.
    Consumption of banana flower as a vegetable is popular among many countries in Southeast
    Asia. In this study, banana flowers of six different Malaysian cultivars namely, pisang Abu
    (Musa balbisiana cv P. Abu), pisang Berangan (Musa acuminata cv P. Berangan), pisang
    Nipah (Musa balbisiana cv P. Nipah), pisang Susu (Musa acuminata cv P. Susu), pisang
    Mas (Musa acuminate cv P. Mas) and pisang Rastali (Musa paradisiaca cv P. Rastali) were
    investigated for their antioxidant and anti-hyperglyemic properties. The total poly phenolic
    content and antioxidant activities, the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of the
    banana flower extracts were studied in vitro using relevant assays. Among the six cultivars,
    cultivar Susu was found to have the highest phenolic content (80.13 ± 4.64 mg of GAE/g of
    extract) and displayed the highest ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activities (24.73 ±
    0.04 and 25.10 ± 0.15 µmole of Trolox equivalent/g of extract). The anti-amylase and antiglucosidase
    activity of the banana flowers extracts were in the range of 47.31-62.58% and
    74.98-91.62%, respectively. All banana flower extracts inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase
    better than α-amylase at the concentration of 200 µg/ml. This study concluded that the extracts
    of Malaysian banana flowers were potent sources of natural antioxidants, which can be used as
    postprandial hyperglycemia regulators.
  3. Awang H, Salleh AL
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2000;12(2):102-6.
    PMID: 11836918
    The health benefits of breastfeeding to infants and mothers have been well recognised. This study applies linear regression analysis to assess the determinants of breastfeeding duration of first born using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey. The proportion of women who breastfed their first child is 82 percent, of which 97 percent reported their breastfeeding duration. The distribution of breastfeeding duration has a mean of 5.7 months and a median of two months. Important determinants of breastfeeding duration include maternal age, ethnicity, period of first birth, husband's occupation and work status of the woman.
  4. Yusoff SM, Ibrahim J, Salleh A
    Malays J Nutr, 1995 Sep;1(2):171-8.
    PMID: 22692061
    The objective of the present experiments are to determine if sheep could safely consume high amount of PKC in their diets and if sheep's consumption of PKC require a chelating agent to tie up the high copper level in PKC to protect it against toxicity. Two experiments were carried out. Experiment 1, with four treatment groups of animals, using from 30 to 100% PKC, mixed with other feed ingredients except minerals. Mineral mixtures were separately mixed with Sodium Molybdate, acting as the chelating agent, and the mineral was offered in separate feed troughs ad.libitum, in the pens for each animal group. Although all groups gave high ADG, the animals in the 100% group had high copper in their blood, which were above4 the normal physiological level at the end of the experimental duration of three months. Three animals from this group died and their liver copper contents were very high. The groups fed up to 72% PKC in their ration did not show any significant elevation of copper or toxicity. Sheep fed similar proportions of ingredients in experiment 2, but with Molybdate incorporated together into all the four similar rations as in experiment 1, did not show any signs of toxicity or elevated blood copper. The animals in all groups produced high ADG. The experiment proved that sheep can take up to 100% PKC in their diet, but a chelating agent must be incorporated into the feed to ensure its sufficient uptake to protect it against toxicity. Giving Molybdate separately from the feed would not ensure sufficient intake of the chelating agent voluntarily. This would result in copper toxicity in the animals.
  5. Awang R, Basri M, Ahmad S, Salleh AB
    Biotechnol Lett, 2004 Jan;26(1):11-4.
    PMID: 15005144
    The esterification of palm-based 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and 1-octanol in hexane as catalyzed by lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (Lipozyme IM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The esterification reaction follows a Ping-Pong, Bi-Bi mechanism. The maximum rate was estimated to be 1 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) catalyst in hexane at 50 degrees C, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for DHSA and 1-octanol were 1.3 M and 0.7 M, respectively.
  6. Puspitasari Y, Salleh A, Zamri-Saad M
    BMC Vet Res, 2020 Jun 09;16(1):186.
    PMID: 32517749 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02415-2
    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida B:2 causes haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle and buffaloes. However, buffaloes are found to be more susceptible to the infection than cattle. Upon infection, the pathogen rapidly spread from the respiratory tract to the blood circulation within 16-72 h, causing septicaemia. So far, limited study has been conducted to evaluate the response of endothelial cells of buffalo towards P. multocida B:2 and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural changes in the aortic endothelium of buffaloes (BAEC) following exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its endotoxin. The endothelial cells were harvested from the aorta of healthy buffaloes and were prepared as monolayer cell cultures. The cultures were divided into 3 groups before Group 1 was inoculated with 107 cfu/ml of whole cell P. multocida B:2, Group 2 with LPS, which was extracted earlier from 107 cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2 and Group 3 with sterile cell culture medium. The cells were harvested at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h post-inoculation for assessment of cellular changes using transmission electron microscopy.

    RESULTS: The BAEC of Groups 1 and 2 demonstrated moderate to severe endothelial lysis, suggestive of acute cellular injury. In general, severity of the ultrastructural changes increased with the time of incubation but no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the severity of the cellular changes between Groups 1 and 2 was observed in the first 18 h. The severity of lesions became significant (p 

  7. Basri M, Samsudin S, Ahmad MB, Razak CN, Salleh AB
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 1999 Sep;81(3):205-17.
    PMID: 15304777
    Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized by entrapment on poly(N-vinyl- 2-pyrrolidone-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[VP-co-HEMA]) hydrogel, and divinylbenzene was the crosslinking agent. The immobilized enzymes were used in the esterification reaction of oleic acid and butanol in hexane. The activities of the immobilized enzymes and the leaching ability of the enzyme from the support with respect to the different compositions of the hydrogels were investigated. The thermal, solvent, and storage stability of the immobilized lipases was also determined. Increasing the percentage of composition of VP from 0 to 90, which corresponds to the increase in the hydrophilicity of the hydrogels, increased the activity of the immobilized enzyme. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 90:10 exhibited the highest activity. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 50:50 showed the highest thermal, solvent, storage, and operational stability compared to lipase immobilized on other compositions of hydrogels as well as the native lipase.
  8. Mosleh MA, Manssor H, Malek S, Milow P, Salleh A
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2012;13 Suppl 17:S25.
    PMID: 23282059 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-13-S17-S25
    Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated analyses and identification of algae images were limited to only one type of algae. Automated identification system for tropical freshwater algae is even non-existent and this study is partly to fill this gap.
  9. Rahman RN, Chin JH, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Mol Genet Genomics, 2003 May;269(2):252-60.
    PMID: 12756537
    A Bacillus sphaericus strain (205y) that produces an organic solvent-tolerant lipase was isolated in Port Dickson, Malaysia. The gene for the lipase was recovered from a genomic library and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on an alignment of thirteen microbial lipase sequences obtained from the NCBI database. The analysis suggested that the B. sphaericus lipase gene is a novel gene, as it is distinct from other lipase genes in Families I.4 and I.5 reported so far. Expression in Escherichia coli under the control of the lacZ promoter resulted in an eight-fold increase in enzyme activity after a 3-h induction with 1 mM IPTG. The crude enzyme thus obtained showed a slight (10%) enhancement in activity after a 30-min incubation in 25% (v/v) n-hexane at 37 degrees C, and retained 90% of its activity after a similar period in 25% (v/v) p-xylene.
  10. Basri M, Ampon K, Yunus WM, Razak CN, Salleh AB
    J Chem Technol Biotechnol, 1994 Jan;59(1):37-44.
    PMID: 7764496
    A simple and effective method of lipase immobilization is described. Lipase from Candida rugosa was first modified with several hydrophobic modifiers before being adsorbed on to organic polymer beads. The soluble hydrophobic lipase derivatives adsorbed more strongly on to the various polymers as compared with the native lipase. The optimal adsorption temperature of the native and modified lipases on all the polymers was 40 degrees C. The optimal pH of adsorption was between 6 and 7. Lipase immobilized in this manner produced high catalytic recoveries which are affected by the type of modifiers, degree of modification and type of supports used. Monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (1900) activated with p-nitrophenyl chloroformate was found to be the best modifier of the enzyme at 95% modification, for adsorption to the polymers. Increasing the degree of modification of the enzyme increased the activity which was immobilized. Generally, both native and hydrophobic lipase derivatives showed higher specific activities when immobilized on polar polymers compared with non-polar polymers.
  11. Salleh AB, Taib M, Basri M, Ampon K, Yunus WM, Razak CN
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1996 Oct 12;799:328-31.
    PMID: 8958097
  12. Habiba U, Afifi AM, Salleh A, Ang BC
    J Hazard Mater, 2017 Jan 15;322(Pt A):182-194.
    PMID: 27436300 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.06.028
    In this study, chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/zeolite nanofibrous composite membrane was fabricated via electrospinning. First, crude chitosan was hydrolyzed with NaOH for 24h. Afterward, hydrolyzed chitosan solution was blended with aqueous PVA solution in different weight ratios. Morphological analysis of chitosan/PVA electrospun nanofiber showed a defect-free nanofiber material with 50:50 weight ratio of chitosan/PVA. Subsequently, 1wt.% of zeolite was added to this blended solution of 50:50 chitosan/PVA. The resulting nanofiber was characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling test, and adsorption test. Fine, bead-free nanofiber with homogeneous nanofiber was electrospun. The resulting membrane was stable in distilled water, acidic, and basic media in 20 days. Moreover, the adsorption ability of nanofibrous membrane was studied over Cr (VI), Fe (III), and Ni (II) ions using Langmuir isotherm. Kinetic parameters were estimated using the Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. Kinetic study showed that adsorption rate was high. However, the resulting nanofiber membrane showed less adsorption capacity at high concentration. The adsorption capacity of nanofiber was unaltered after five recycling runs, which indicated the reusability of chitosan/PVA/zeolite nanofibrous membrane. Therefore, chitosan/PVA/zeolite nanofiber can be a useful material for water treatment at moderate concentration of heavy metals.
  13. Tavakoly Sany SB, Hashim R, Rezayi M, Salleh A, Safari O
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Jan;21(2):813-33.
    PMID: 24142490 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-2217-5
    The basic aim of this work is (1) to review and present practically operational requirements for a sustainability assessment of marine environment, such as describing the monitoring process, research approaches, objectives, guidelines, and indicators and (2) to illustrate how physico-chemical and biological indicators can be practically applied, to assess water and sediment quality in marine and coastal environment. These indicators should meet defined criteria for practical usefulness, e.g. they should be simple to understand and apply to managers and scientists with different educational backgrounds. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of marine ecosystems.
  14. Anka MS, Hassan L, Khairani-Bejo S, Zainal MA, Mohamad RB, Salleh A, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e108673.
    PMID: 25265020 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108673
    Bovine brucellosis was first reported in Peninsular Malaysia in 1950. A subsequent survey conducted in the country revealed that the disease was widespread. Current knowledge on the potential risk factors for brucellosis occurrence on cattle farms in Malaysia is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify the potential herd-level risk factors for bovine brucellosis occurrence in four states in the country, namely Kelantan, Pahang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. Thirty-five cases and 36 controls of herds were selected where data on farm management, biosecurity, medical history and public health were collected. Multivariable logistic regression identified that Brucella seropositive herds were more likely to; have some interaction with wildlife (OR 8.9, 95% CI = 1.59-50.05); originated from farms where multiple species such as buffalo/others (OR 41.8, 95% CI = 3.94-443.19) and goat/sheep (OR 8.9, 95%Cl = 1.10-71.83) were reared, practice extensive production system (OR 13.6, 95% CI 1.31-140.24) and have had episodes of abortion in the past (OR 51.8, 95% CI = 4.54-590.90) when compared to seronegative herds. Considering the lack of information on the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in peninsular Malaysia and absence of information on preventing the inception or spread of the disease, this report could contribute to the on-going area-wise national brucellosis eradication program.
  15. Tavakoly Sany SB, Hashim R, Rezayi M, Salleh A, Rahman MA, Safari O, et al.
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2014 Jul 15;84(1-2):268-79.
    PMID: 24855978 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.05.004
    The concentration of carcinogenic poly aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) present in water and sediment of Klang Strait as well as in the edible tissue of blood cockle (Anadara granosa) was investigated. The human health risk of c-PAHs was assessed in accordance with the standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The cancer risks of c-PAHs to human are expected to occur through the consumption of blood cockles or via gastrointestinal exposure to polluted sediments and water in Kalng Strait. The non-carcinogenic risks that are associated with multiple pathways based on ingestion rate and contact rates with water were higher than the US EPA safe level at almost all stations, but the non-carcinogenic risks for eating blood cockle was below the level of US EPA concern. A high correlation between concentrations of c-PAHs in different matrices showed that the bioaccumulation of c-PAHs by blood cockles could be regarded as a potential health hazard for the consumers.
  16. Tavakoly Sany SB, Hashim R, Salleh A, Rezayi M, Mehdinia A, Safari O
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e94907.
    PMID: 24747349 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094907
    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.
  17. Malek S, Syed Ahmad SM, Singh SK, Milow P, Salleh A
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2011;12 Suppl 13:S12.
    PMID: 22372859 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-S13-S12
    This study assesses four predictive ecological models; Fuzzy Logic (FL), Recurrent Artificial Neural Network (RANN), Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm (HEA) and multiple linear regressions (MLR) to forecast chlorophyll- a concentration using limnological data from 2001 through 2004 of unstratified shallow, oligotrophic to mesotrophic tropical Putrajaya Lake (Malaysia). Performances of the models are assessed using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (r), and Area under the Receiving Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Chlorophyll-a have been used to estimate algal biomass in aquatic ecosystem as it is common in most algae. Algal biomass indicates of the trophic status of a water body. Chlorophyll- a therefore, is an effective indicator for monitoring eutrophication which is a common problem of lakes and reservoirs all over the world. Assessments of these predictive models are necessary towards developing a reliable algorithm to estimate chlorophyll- a concentration for eutrophication management of tropical lakes.
  18. Keng PS, Basri M, Ariff AB, Abdul Rahman MB, Abdul Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Sep;99(14):6097-104.
    PMID: 18243690 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.049
    Lipase-catalyzed production of palm esters by alcoholysis of palm oil with oleyl alcohol in n-hexane was performed in 2L stirred-tank reactor (STR). Investigation on the performance of reactor operation was carried out in batch mode STR with single impeller mounted on the centrally located shaft. Rushton turbine (RT) impellers provide the highest reaction yield (95.8%) at lower agitation speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil (AL-H) and 2-bladed elephant ear (EE) impellers. Homogenous enzyme particles suspension was obtained at 250 rpm by using RT impeller. At higher impeller speed, the shear effect on the enzyme particles caused by agitation has decreased the reaction performance. Palm esters reaction mixture in STR follows Newtons' law due to the linear relation between the shear stress (tau) and shear rate (dupsilon/dy). High stability of Lipozyme RM IM was observed as shown by its ability to be repeatedly used to give high percentage yield (79%) of palm esters even after 15 cycles of reaction. The process was successfully scale-up to 75 L STR (50 L working volume) based on a constant impeller tip speed approach, which gave the yield of 97.2% after 5h reaction time.
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