Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

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  1. Dhiyaaldeen SM, Amin ZA, Darvish PH, Mustafa IF, Jamil MM, Rouhollahi E, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:961.
    PMID: 25551777 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-014-0303-7
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in peptic ulcer disease (PUD) which is a common condition worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer properties of (1-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-m-tolyl-propenone) (HPTP) chalcone in rats using indomethacin as ulcerogenic agent.
  2. Loh TC, Choe DW, Foo HL, Sazili AQ, Bejo MH
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:149.
    PMID: 24996258 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-149
    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics.
  3. Annas S, Zamri-Saad M, Jesse FF, Zunita Z
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:88.
    PMID: 24721163 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-88
    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute septicaemic disease of buffalo and cattle caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 and E:2. Field outbreaks of HS are known to result in localisation of bacteria in the tonsils of surviving buffalo, confirming that animals can become carriers and the role of respiratory tract in the transmission of the disease. This report describes additional sites of localisation of P. multocida B:2 in surviving buffalo following experimental induction of HS.
  4. Tan TK, Panchadcharam C, Low VL, Lee SC, Ngui R, Sharma RS, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:38.
    PMID: 24502557 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-38
    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. are reported to be the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasites in livestock, particularly in small ruminants. However, the routine conventional tool used in Malaysia could not differentiate the species accurately and therefore limiting the understanding of the co-infections between these two genera among livestock in Malaysia. This study is the first attempt to identify the strongylids of veterinary importance in Malaysia (i.e., H. contortus and Trichostrongylus spp.) by amplification and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer II DNA region.
  5. Anka MS, Hassan L, Adzhar A, Khairani-Bejo S, Mohamad RB, Zainal MA
    BMC Vet Res, 2013;9:230.
    PMID: 24246015 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-230
    Bovine brucellosis is an important disease affecting cattle characterised by abortion, still birth, reduced milk production, weak foetus and infertility in both males and females. There is wide distribution of the disease among cattle and several wildlife species. Bovine brucellosis is commonly caused by B. abortus and very occasionally B. melitensis and B. suis. The distribution of bovine brucellosis in cattle has not been described in Malaysia. In this paper we describe the distribution, pattern and trend of bovine brucellosis in Peninsular Malaysia between 2000 and 2008 based on serological data obtained from nationwide B. abortus serosurveillance activities in cattle populations.
  6. Ho WS, Tan LK, Ooi PT, Yeo CC, Thong KL
    BMC Vet Res, 2013;9:109.
    PMID: 23731465 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-9-109
    Postweaning diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli, in particular verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC), has caused significant economic losses in the pig farming industry worldwide. However, there is limited information on VTEC in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolated from post-weaning piglets and growers with respect to their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, pathotypes, production of hemolysins and fimbrial adhesins, serotypes, and genotypes.
  7. Lim KL, Jazayeri SD, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB, Bejo MH, Ideris A, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2012;8:132.
    PMID: 22866758 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-132
    DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines in the development of effective vaccines against avian influenza virus (AIV). However, one of the limitations of the DNA vaccine in poultry is that it induces poor immune responses. In this study, chicken interleukin (IL) -15 and IL-18 were used as genetic adjuvants to improve the immune responses induced from the H5 DNA vaccination in chickens. The immunogenicity of the recombinant plasmid DNA was analyzed based on the antibody production, T cell responses and cytokine production, following inoculation in 1-day-old (Trial 1) and 14-day-old (Trial 2) specific-pathogen-free chickens. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to explore the role of chicken IL-15 and IL-18 as adjuvants following the vaccination of chickens with the H5 DNA vaccine.
  8. Bande F, Arshad SS, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Sapian NA, Rahman NA, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2012;8:33.
    PMID: 22439903 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-33
    Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in domestic and wild felids. Despite the clinical importance of feline retroviruses and the growing interest in cats as pets, information about FeLV and FIV in Malaysia is presently insufficient to properly advise veterinarians and pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2010 to December 2010 to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with FeLV and FIV among domestic cats in peninsular Malaysia. Plasma samples were harvested from the blood of 368 domestic cats and screened for evidence of FeLV p27 antigen and FIV antibodies, using an immunochromatographic kit. Additionally, data on cat demographics and health were collected using a structured questionnaire, and were evaluated as potential risk factors for FeLV or FIV status.
  9. Jaganathan S, Ooi PT, Phang LY, Allaudin ZN, Yip LS, Choo PY, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2015;11:219.
    PMID: 26293577 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0537-z
    Newcastle disease virus remains a constant threat in commercial poultry farms despite intensive vaccination programs. Outbreaks attributed to ND can escalate and spread across farms and states contributing to major economic loss in poultry farms.
  10. Ahmed IM, Khairani-Bejo S, Hassan L, Bahaman AR, Omar AR
    BMC Vet Res, 2015;11:275.
    PMID: 26530141 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0587-2
    Brucella melitensis is the most important pathogenic species of Brucella spp. which affects goats and sheep and causes caprine and ovine brucellosis, respectively. Serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis such as Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) usually utilize smooth lipopolysaccharides (S-LPS) as a diagnostic antigen which could give false positive serological reactions. Outer membrane proteins (OMP) of B. melitensis have been used as alternative diagnostic antigens rather than S-LPS for differential serological diagnosis of brucellosis, mainly in ELISA with single recombinant OMP (rOMP) as a diagnostic antigen. Nevertheless, the use of single format mainly showed lack of sensitivity against the desired rOMP. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether a newly developed rOMPs indirect ELISA (rOMPs I-ELISA), based on combination of rOMP25, rOMP28 and rOMP31of B. melitensis, has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of brucellosis.
  11. Jeber ZK, MohdJin Z, Jesse FF, Saharee AA, Sabri J, Yusoff R, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2016;12:48.
    PMID: 26961495 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0675-y
    Goat caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. However, there is paucity of data about goat's acute phase response during the course of CLA. This study was conducted to investigate the response of acute phase proteins, mainly haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and the negative acute phase response, especially albumin after an experimental challenge of C. pseudotuberculosis and phospholipase D (PLD) in Cross bred Boer goats.
  12. Ibrahim MR, Singh S, Merican AM, Raghavendran HR, Murali MR, Naveen SV, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2016 Jun 16;12(1):112.
    PMID: 27307015 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0724-6
    Fracture healing in bone gap is one of the major challenges encountered in Orthopedic Surgery. At present, the treatment includes bone graft, employing either internal or external fixation which has a significant impact on the patient, family and even society. New drugs are emerging in the markets such as anabolic bone-forming agents including teriparatide and strontium ranelate to stimulate bone growth. Based on the mechanism of their actions, we embarked on a study on the healing of a fractured ulna with bone gap in a rabbit model. We segregated ten rabbits into two groups: five rabbits in the test group and five rabbits in the control group. We created a 5 mm bone gap in the ulna bone, removing the periosteum as well. Rabbits in the test group received 450 mg/kg of strontium ranelate via oral administration, daily, for six weeks. The x-rays, CT scans and blood tests were performed every two weeks. At the end of six weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the radius and ulna bones harvested for histopathological examination.
  13. Kho KL, Koh FX, Jaafar T, Nizam QN, Tay ST
    BMC Vet Res, 2015;11:153.
    PMID: 26179499 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0470-1
    Bartonellosis is an emerging zoonotic infection responsible for a variety of clinical syndromes in humans and animals. Members of the genus Bartonella exhibit high degrees of genetic diversity and ecologic plasticity. The infection is usually transmitted to animals and humans through blood-feeding arthropod vectors such as fleas, lice, ticks and sandflies. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella species in 184 beef cattle, 40 dairy cattle, 40 sheep and 40 goats in eight animal farms across Peninsular Malaysia. Bartonella-specific PCR assays and sequence analysis of partial fragments of the citrate synthase gene were used for detection and identification of B. bovis. Isolation of B. bovis was attempted from PCR-positive blood samples. Molecular heterogeneity of the isolates was investigated based on sequence analysis of gltA, ITS, rpoB genes, ERIC-PCR, as well as using an established multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. The carriage rate of B. bovis in ticks was also determined in this study.
  14. Rasoli M, Yeap SK, Tan SW, Roohani K, Kristeen-Teo YW, Alitheen NB, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2015;11:75.
    PMID: 25884204 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-015-0377-x
    Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) induces immunosuppression and inflammation in young birds, which subsequently leads to high mortality. In addition, infectious bursal disease (IBD) is one of the leading causes of vaccine failure on farms. Therefore, understanding the immunopathogenesis of IBDV in both the spleen and the bursae could help effective vaccine development. However, previous studies only profiled the differential expression of a limited number of cytokines, in either the spleen or the bursae of Fabricius of IBDV-infected chickens. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo immunoregulatory effects of vvIBDV infection on macrophage-like cells, spleen and bursae of Fabricius.
  15. Che-Amat A, Risalde MÁ, González-Barrio D, Ortíz JA, Gortázar C
    BMC Vet Res, 2016 Sep 05;12(1):184.
    PMID: 27596591 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0825-2
    Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) is challenging and might require combining cellular and humoral diagnostic tests. Repeated skin-testing with mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs) might sensitize or desensitize the subjects to both kinds of diagnostic tools. We evaluated the effect of repeated (every 6 months) comparative tuberculin skin testing on skin test and ELISA responsiveness in farmed red deer hinds from a TB-free herd. Eighteen 8-month old hinds were inoculated with bovine and avian PPDs and the mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), as positive control and concurrently tested by ELISA for antibodies against avian (avian PPD, aPPD and protoplasmatic antigen 3, PPA3) and bovine antigens (bPPD and MPB70). Blood serum was also sampled three weeks after each skin testing round and tested for antibodies against aPPD and bPPD, in order to detect eventual antibody level boosts. Testing took place every six months from winter 2012 until winter 2015.
  16. Kareem KY, Loh TC, Foo HL, Akit H, Samsudin AA
    BMC Vet Res, 2016;12(1):163.
    PMID: 27496016 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0790-9
    Postbiotics (metabolic products by lactic acid bacteria) and prebiotics have been established as substitute to antibiotics in order to enhance immunity and growth performance in broiler chickens. Nonetheless, insufficient information is available on the effects of postbiotics and prebiotics combination on growth performance, faecal microbiota, pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA), as well as liver insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA expressions in broiler chickens. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of different types of postbiotics with different levels of prebiotic (inulin) on broiler for those parameters.
  17. Jesse FF, Ibrahim HH, Abba Y, Chung EL, Marza AD, Mazlan M, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Apr 05;13(1):88.
    PMID: 28381248 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1010-y
    BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic septicemia is a fatal disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by P. multocida. Although the pathogenesis of the bacteria has been well established in literature, there is a paucity of information on the possible role of the bacteria and its immunogens; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) on the reproductive capacity of buffalo heifers.

    METHODS: In this study, twenty one healthy prepubertal female buffaloes aged 8 months were divided into seven groups of 3 buffaloes each (G1-G7). Group 1 (G1) served as the negative control group and were inoculated orally with 10 mL sterile Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), groups 2 (G2) and 3 (G3) were inoculated orally and subcutaneously with 10 mL of 10(12) colony forming unit (cfu) of P.multocida type B: 2, while groups 4 (G4) and 5 (G5) received 10 mL of bacterial LPS orally and intravenously, respectively. Lastly, groups 6 (G6) and 7 (G7) were orally and subcutaneously inoculated with 10 mL of bacterial OMPs. Whole blood was collected in EDTA vials at stipulated time points (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 312, 360, 408, 456 and 504 h), while tissue sections of the pituitary glands were collected and transported to the histopathology laboratory in 10% buffered formalin for processing and Hematoxylin and eosin staining. Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (PG), estradiol (EST) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) were determined.

    RESULTS: The histopathological lesions observed in the pituitary gland included hemorrhage, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, hydropic degeneration, necrosis and edema. These changes were higher (p 

  18. Safi N, Haghani A, Ng SW, Selvarajah GT, Mustaffa-Kamal F, Omar AR
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Apr 07;13(1):92.
    PMID: 28388950 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1019-2
    BACKGROUND: There are two biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV): the self-limiting feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), which causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal disease associated with cats living in multi-cat environments. This study provides an insight on the various immune mediators detected in FCoV-positive cats which may be responsible for the development of FIP.

    RESULTS: In this study, using real-time PCR and multiplex bead-based immunoassay, the expression profiles of several immune mediators were examined in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with the feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV 79-1146 and in samples obtained from FCoV-positive cats. CRFK cells infected with FIPV 79-1146 showed an increase in the expression of interferon-related genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MX1, viperin, CXCL10, CCL8, RANTES, KC, MCP1, and IL8. In addition, an increase in the expression of the above cytokines as well as GM-CSF and IFNγ was also detected in the PBMC, serum, and peritoneal effusions of FCoV-positive cats. Although the expression of MX1 and viperin genes was variable between cats, the expression of these two genes was relatively higher in cats having peritoneal effusion compared to cats without clinically obvious effusion. Higher viral load was also detected in the supernatant of peritoneal effusions compared to in the plasma of FCoV-positive cats. As expected, the secretion of IL1β, IL6 and TNFα was readily detected in the supernatant of peritoneal effusions of the FCoV-positive cats.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified various pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferon-related genes such as MX1, viperin, CXCL10, CCL8, RANTES, KC, MCP1, IL8, GM-CSF and IFNγ in FCoV-positive cats. With the exception of MX1 and viperin, no distinct pattern of immune mediators was observed that distinguished between FCoV-positive cats with and without peritoneal effusion. Further studies based on definitive diagnosis of FIP need to be performed to confirm the clinical importance of this study.

  19. Kamal NM, Zamri-Saad M, Masarudin MJ, Othman S
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 Jun 19;13(1):186.
    PMID: 28629460 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1109-1
    BACKGROUND: Pasteurella multocida B:2 causes bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), leading to rapid fatalities in cattle and buffaloes. An attenuated derivative of P. multocida B:2 GDH7, was previously constructed through mutation of the gdhA gene and proved to be an effective live attenuated vaccine for HS. Currently, only two potential live attenuated vaccine candidates for HS are being reported; P. multocida B:2 GDH7 and P. multocida B:2 JRMT12. This study primarily aims to investigate the potential of P. multocida B:2 GDH7 strain as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine for future multivalent applications.

    RESULTS: An investigation on the adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of bacterial strains within the bovine aortic endothelial cell line (BAEC) were carried out. The potential vaccine strain, P. multocida B:2 GDH7, was significantly better (p ≤ 0.05) at adhering to and invading BAEC compared to its parent strain and to P. multocida B:2 JRMT12 and survived intracellularly 7 h post treatment, with a steady decline over time. A dual reporter plasmid, pSRGM, which enabled tracking of bacterial movement from the extracellular environment into the intracellular compartment of the mammalian cells, was subsequently transformed into P. multocida B:2 GDH7. Intracellular trafficking of the vaccine strain, P. multocida B:2 GDH7 was subsequently visualized by tracking the reporter proteins via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

    CONCLUSIONS: The ability of P. multocida B:2 GDH7 to model bactofection represents a possibility for this vaccine strain to be used as a delivery vehicle for DNA vaccine for future multivalent protection in cattle and buffaloes.

  20. Kristeen-Teo YW, Yeap SK, Tan SW, Omar AR, Ideris A, Tan SG, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2017 May 31;13(1):151.
    PMID: 28569155 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-1071-y
    BACKGROUND: Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was reported to cause rapid depletion of chicken bursa of Fabricius. Severe pathological condition of the organ is commonly associated with high levels of virus replication, intense inflammatory response and also the degree of apoptosis. In this study, the responses of chicken bursa of Fabricius infected with two different strains of velogenic NDV, namely AF2240 and IBS002, were investigated by observing cell population changes, oxidative stress, viral replication and cytokine expression in the organ. Subsequently, apoptosis of enriched bursal IgM+ cells was determined to help us elucidate possible host pathogen relationships between the chicken bursa of Fabricius and NDV infection.

    RESULTS: The depletion of IgM+ cells and infiltration of macrophages were observed to be higher in bursa infected with AF2240 as compared to IBS002. In line with the increment of the macrophage population, higher nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents which indicated higher oxidative stress were also detected in bursa infected with NDV AF2240. In addition, higher pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine gene expression such as chicken CXCLi2, IL-18 and IFN-γ were observed in AF2240 infected bursa. Depletion of IgM+ cells was further confirmed with increased cell death and apoptosis of the cells in AF2240 infected bursa as compared to IBS002. However, it was found that the viral load for NDV strain IBS002 was comparatively higher than AF2240 although the magnitude of the pro- inflammatory cytokines expression and cell apoptosis was lower than AF2240.

    CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrated that infection of NDV strains AF2240 and IBS002 caused apoptosis in bursa IgM+ cells and its severity was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine, macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress as the infection duration was prolonged. However, of the two viruses, we observed that NDV AF2240 induced a greater magnitude of apoptosis in chicken bursa IgM+ cells in comparison to IBS002. This might be due to the high level of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines/chemokine as well as lower IL10 expression which subsequently led to a high rate of apoptosis in the chicken bursa of Fabricius although the detected viral load of AF2240 was lower than IBS002.

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