Displaying all 6 publications

  1. van Prooije T, Ibrahim NM, Azmin S, van de Warrenburg B
    Parkinsonism Relat Disord, 2021 11;92:112-118.
    PMID: 34711523 DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.10.023
    This paper reviews and summarizes three main aspects of spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) in the Asian population. First, epidemiological studies were comprehensively reviewed. Overall, the most common subtypes include SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6, but there are large differences in the relative prevalence of these and other SCA subtypes between Asian countries. Some subtypes such as SCA12 and SCA31 are rather specific to certain Asian populations. Second, we summarized distinctive phenotypic manifestations of SCA patients of Asian origin, for example a frequent co-occurrence of parkinsonism in some SCA subtypes. Lastly, we have conducted an exploratory survey study to map SCA-specific expertise, resources, and management in various Asian countries. This showed large differences in accessibility, genetic testing facilities, and treatment options between lower and higher income Asian countries. Currently, many Asian SCA patients remain without a final genetic diagnosis. Lack of prevalence data on SCA, lack of patient registries, and insufficient access to genetic testing facilities hamper a wider understanding of these diseases in several (particularly lower income) Asian countries.
  2. Yap KH, Kessels RPC, Azmin S, van de Warrenburg B, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    Cerebellum, 2021 Jul 07.
    PMID: 34231180 DOI: 10.1007/s12311-021-01282-3
    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), the commonest dominantly inherited ataxia worldwide, is characterized by disruption in the cerebellar-cerebral and striatal-cortical networks. Findings on SCA3-associated cognitive impairments are mixed. The classification models, tests and scoring systems used, language, culture, ataxia severity, and depressive symptoms are all potential confounders in neuropsychological assessments and may have contributed to the heterogeneity of the neurocognitive profile of SCA3. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating neurocognitive function in SCA3 patients. Of 1304 articles identified, 15 articles met the eligibility criteria. All articles were of excellent quality according to the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for case-control studies. In line with the disrupted cerebellar-cerebral and striatal-cortical networks in SCA3, this systematic review found that the neurocognitive profile of SCA3 is characterized by a core impairment of executive function that affects processes such as nonverbal reasoning, executive aspects of language, and recall. Conversely, neurocognitive domains such as general intelligence, verbal reasoning, semantic aspect of language, attention/processing speed, recognition, and visuospatial perception and construction are relatively preserved. This review highlights the importance of evaluating neurocognitive function in SCA3 patients. Considering the negative impact of cognitive and affective impairment on quality of life, this review points to the profound impairments that existing or future treatments should prioritize.
  3. Yap KH, Azmin S, Che Hamzah J, Ahmad N, van de Warrenburg B, Mohamed Ibrahim N
    J Neurol, 2021 Nov 06.
    PMID: 34743220 DOI: 10.1007/s00415-021-10874-2
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) comprise a rare, genetic subgroup within the degenerative ataxias and are dominantly inherited, with up to 48 recognized genetic subtypes. While an updated review on the management of degenerative ataxia is published recently, an evidence-based review focussed on the management of SCA is lacking. Here, we reviewed the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of SCA by conducting a systematic review on Medline Ovid and Scopus. Of 29,284 studies identified, 47 studies (pharmacological: n = 25; non-pharmacological: n = 22) that predominantly involved SCA patients were included. Twenty studies had a high risk of bias based on the Cochrane's Collaboration risk of bias tool. As per the European Federation of Neurological Societies 2004 guideline for therapeutic intervention, the remaining 27 studies were of Class I (n = 4) and Class II (n = 23) evidence. Only two therapies had Level A recommendations for the management of ataxia symptoms: riluzole and immediate in-patient neurorehabilitation. Ten therapies had Level B recommendations for managing ataxia symptoms and require further investigations with better study design. These include high dose valproate acid, branched-chain amino acid, intravenous trehalose; restorative rehabilitation using cycling regimen and videogame; and cerebellar stimulations using transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lithium and coaching on psychological adjustment received Level B recommendation for depressive symptoms and quality of life, respectively. Heterogeneous study designs, different genotypes, and non-standardized clinical measures alongside short duration and small sample sizes may hamper meaningful clinical translation. Therefore, rating of recommendations only serve as points of reference.
  4. Hii CST, Gan KB, Zainal N, Mohamed Ibrahim N, Azmin S, Mat Desa SH, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2023 Jul 18;23(14).
    PMID: 37514783 DOI: 10.3390/s23146489
    Gait analysis is an essential tool for detecting biomechanical irregularities, designing personalized rehabilitation plans, and enhancing athletic performance. Currently, gait assessment depends on either visual observation, which lacks consistency between raters and requires clinical expertise, or instrumented evaluation, which is costly, invasive, time-consuming, and requires specialized equipment and trained personnel. Markerless gait analysis using 2D pose estimation techniques has emerged as a potential solution, but it still requires significant computational resources and human involvement, making it challenging to use. This research proposes an automated method for temporal gait analysis that employs the MediaPipe Pose, a low-computational-resource pose estimation model. The study validated this approach against the Vicon motion capture system to evaluate its reliability. The findings reveal that this approach demonstrates good (ICC(2,1) > 0.75) to excellent (ICC(2,1) > 0.90) agreement in all temporal gait parameters except for double support time (right leg switched to left leg) and swing time (right), which only exhibit a moderate (ICC(2,1) > 0.50) agreement. Additionally, this approach produces temporal gait parameters with low mean absolute error. It will be useful in monitoring changes in gait and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions such as rehabilitation or training programs in the community.
  5. Mohamed Ibrahim N, Lau YH, Ariffin N, Md Desa SH, Azizan E, Chin LK, et al.
    PMID: 32922823 DOI: 10.1186/s40673-020-00120-2
    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are highly heterogenous group of neurodegenerative diseases causing progressive cerebellar dysfunction. We report the first description of relative frequencies of the common SCA mutations and of phenotypic characteristics of SCA3 patients among Malaysians. Pooled data from adult Malaysian patients who had undergone genetic testing for SCA 1,2,3,6 and 7 at UKM Medical Centre and Institute for Medical Research from 2017 to 2020 were analysed. Fifteen patients with SCA 3 had detailed clinical phenotype evaluation using Inventory for Non -Ataxia Signs (INAS) and Ataxia Severity evaluation using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Out of 152 adults patients who were tested for common SCA mutations, 64(42.1%) patients were tested positive for either SCA 1,2,3,6 or 7. Of the 64 positive cases, 44 (68.9%) patients were diagnosed with SCA 3 followed by SCA 2 in 13(20.3%) patients and SCA 1 in 5 (7.8%) patients. Our findings suggest that Malay race had the highest frequency of SCA (n = 34, 50%), followed by the Chinese (n = 16, 23.5%) and approximately 60 (93.8%) SCA patients had first degree family history. In conclusion, SCA 3 is the commonest SCA in Malaysia, followed by SCA 2 and SCA 1. It is important to develop a proper registry of SCA patients to further understand the true prevalence and local impact of the disease in Malaysia.
  6. Vollstedt EJ, Schaake S, Lohmann K, Padmanabhan S, Brice A, Lesage S, et al.
    Mov Disord, 2023 Feb;38(2):286-303.
    PMID: 36692014 DOI: 10.1002/mds.29288
    BACKGROUND: As gene-targeted therapies are increasingly being developed for Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying and characterizing carriers of specific genetic pathogenic variants is imperative. Only a small fraction of the estimated number of subjects with monogenic PD worldwide are currently represented in the literature and availability of clinical data and clinical trial-ready cohorts is limited.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives are to (1) establish an international cohort of affected and unaffected individuals with PD-linked variants; (2) provide harmonized and quality-controlled clinical characterization data for each included individual; and (3) further promote collaboration of researchers in the field of monogenic PD.

    METHODS: We conducted a worldwide, systematic online survey to collect individual-level data on individuals with PD-linked variants in SNCA, LRRK2, VPS35, PRKN, PINK1, DJ-1, as well as selected pathogenic and risk variants in GBA and corresponding demographic, clinical, and genetic data. All registered cases underwent thorough quality checks, and pathogenicity scoring of the variants and genotype-phenotype relationships were analyzed.

    RESULTS: We collected 3888 variant carriers for our analyses, reported by 92 centers (42 countries) worldwide. Of the included individuals, 3185 had a diagnosis of PD (ie, 1306 LRRK2, 115 SNCA, 23 VPS35, 429 PRKN, 75 PINK1, 13 DJ-1, and 1224 GBA) and 703 were unaffected (ie, 328 LRRK2, 32 SNCA, 3 VPS35, 1 PRKN, 1 PINK1, and 338 GBA). In total, we identified 269 different pathogenic variants; 1322 individuals in our cohort (34%) were indicated as not previously published.

    CONCLUSIONS: Within the MJFF Global Genetic PD Study Group, we (1) established the largest international cohort of affected and unaffected individuals carrying PD-linked variants; (2) provide harmonized and quality-controlled clinical and genetic data for each included individual; (3) promote collaboration in the field of genetic PD with a view toward clinical and genetic stratification of patients for gene-targeted clinical trials. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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