Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Female Orgasmic Dysfunction (FOD) focusing on the orgasm domain among female patients attending PPUKM Psychiatric clinic. To compare the prevalence of orgasmic dysfunction between female patients on Escitalopram and on Fluoxetine therapy.
Methods: A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used to assess orgasmic function. A total of 112 women aged between 24 and 57 participated in this study. The orgasmic dysfunction was compared between patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine and escitalopram.
Results: The prevalence of female orgasmic dysfunction was 58.9% (33/56) among patients treated with Fluoxetine and 41.1% (23/56) among patients treated with Escitalopram. However, there was no statistically significant difference between these two treatment groups (p=0.059). The odds to have FOD among patients on higher dose of antidepressants was found to be higher compared to those patients who were on lower dose of antidepressants (Odds ratio 5.32, p= 0.001).
Conclusion: There was no significant difference of Female Orgasmic Dysfunction between patients on Fluoxetine and Escitalopram.
Study site: Psychiatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Objective: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for depression is popular in Western countries. In the context of Malaysia, CBT has been applied as an individual session in a clinical setting. However, there is limited research in the area of group CBT for depression among Malays. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (GCBT) in reducing the negative cognitions that are related to depression in a group of Malay patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen patients, diagnosed with depression, were randomly allocated to either a Treatment As Usual (TAU)
group (n = 55), or a TAU plus GCBT group (n = 58). All participants completed two questionnaires that measured maladaptive cognitions at pretreatment, midway through treatment, post-treatment (week 4), and at followups after three (week 16) and six months (week 28). Results: The TAU+GCBT patients improved significantly more, and at a faster rate, than the TAU group; which showed minimal improvement. The effect size (Cohen’s d) of the treatment group was 0.93 and 96.55% of the treatment group achieved a clinically significant change. Conclusions: The findings suggest that GCBT, when used in addition to the TAU, is effective in reducing negative thoughts and maladaptive attitudes of Malaysian patients suffering from depression.
Introduction and Objective: Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for oral diseases. Periodontal disease has been known to be associated with tobacco use for over twenty years. Despite that, dentists and particularly periodontist does not include tobacco use cessation as part of their initial treatment in treating periodontal disease or placing implants in patients who use tobacco. The increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis among smokers
cannot be explained by differences in the amount of plaque between smokers and nonsmokers. A possible explanation is that smoking may alter the quality of the flora. Dental professionals also have a crucial role to play in tobacco cessation counseling, particularly for patients with chronic periodontitis. More patients will be affected by periodontitis than will ever be affected by oral cancer. Methods and Results: Reviews of literatures were
done on a clearly formulated question on the need of smoking cessation intervention to increase positive outcome of treatment on periodontal disease. Conclusion: Various epidemiological studies strongly suggest that tobacco use cessation is beneficial to patients following periodontal treatments for a better outcome.
Objective: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress either good or bad depending on how they cope. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistent over stress will impair students’ academic achievement, personal and professional development. This preliminary study is meant to obtain initial data on the stress prevalence, stressors, and coping strategies among secondary school children in Malaysia. Data gained from this preliminary study provides valuable data for subsequence research in the future. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 secondary school students from a Malaysian government secondary school. The validated Malay version 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Soalselidik Stressor Sekolah Menengah (SSSM) and Malay version of Brief COPE were used to identify stress level, stressors, and coping strategies. Results: A number of 90 (90%) students participated in this study. The prevalence of stress among secondary school students was 26.1%. It was found that the main stressors were related to academic. The top five coping strategies were religion, positive reinterpretation, active coping, planning, and use of instrumental support. Conclusion: The prevalence of stress among secondary school students in a Malaysian
stressor among the students. The most frequent coping strategies being used by the students were positive coping strategies.
Objective: Postgraduate medical training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to students. This article described an initial finding on prevalence and sources of stress among postgraduate students. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on postgraduate students in the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Sample size as calculated for this preliminary study was 38 and convenient sampling method was applied. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Postgraduate Stressors Questionnaire (PSQ) were administered during a workshop involving postgraduate students. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Thirty three participants participated in this study. This study found that the prevalence of distressed postgraduate students was 36.4%. The top ten stressors were tests and examinations, large amount of content to be learnt, time pressure to meet deadlines, doing work beyond
ability, work overload, unfair assessment by superior, fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, doing work that mentally straining, work demands affect my personal and home life, and lack of time to review what have been learnt. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high prevalence of distressed postgraduate students. It also found that the major stressors were related to academic and performance pressure.
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stress score and body mass index (BMI) of students of Science in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 126 students. Data about stress score were collected using a questionnaire, the Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI) Data about BMI were calculated from height and weight of the respondents. Results: A total of 117 (92.85%) out of 126 students had responded. The mean difference of stress score among first, second and third year students were 87.6 ± 17.0, 83.4 ± 16.9 and 86.7 ± 15.4 respectively. The mean difference of stress scores between the Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students were 87.9 ± 16.5 and 83.2 ± 15.9 .The mean of body mass Index(BMI) between first, second and third year students were 21.0 ± 3.5, 20.3 ± 2.7 and 21.8 ± 4.3 respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that the stress level is higher in first year, female and bumiputra student. There was no significant relationship between stress score and BMI.
Objectives: The Bahasa Malaysia (BM) version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21-item (DASS-21) has been widely used ever since the establishment of its validity. To consolidate the evidence of the BM DASS-21 validity by examining its concurrent validity.
Methods: The BM DASS was administered together with the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (HADS) to a total of 246 patients at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Infertility Centre.
Results: The anxiety domain of BM DASS-21 had good correlation with anxiety domain in HADS (0.61) but for DASS depressive domain, it had modest correlation with its respective domain in HADS (0.49).
Conclusions: The results of this study further ensconced the evidence that the BM DASS-21 had relatively satisfactory psychometric properties for clinical subjects in Malaysia.
Objective: Medical housemanship training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to doctors. This article described findings on stress, stressors and coping strategies among house officers in a Malaysian hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on house officers in a Malaysian hospital. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), General Stressors Questionnaire (GSQ) and Brief COPE inventory were administered to measure perceived stress, sources of stress and coping strategies among house officers respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Forty two house officers participated in this study. This study found that approximately 31% of the house officers were in distress. The top five stressors were fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, work overload, working with uncooperative colleagues, doing
work that mentally straining and feeling of being underpaid. The most frequent coping strategies used by house officers were religion, acceptance and self-distraction. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high percentage of distressed house officers. It also found that major stressors were related to performance pressure. The main coping strategy used by house officer was emotion-focused coping.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether students exposed to a brief stress reduction intervention would have lesser stress, anxiety and depression levels compared to their non-exposed classmates during stressful events. Methods: The Ex Post Facto design was applied in this study. Students who were exposed and not exposed to a brief stress reduction intervention were surveyed during a continuous examination and during the final examination. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) was used to
examine effects on anxiety, stress, and depression levels. Results: The exposed students statistically had lower anxiety and depression scores than the nonexposed students during the stressful period. Reduction of stress, anxiety and depression scores was sustained during the stressful period. Conclusion: The significant reduction of anxiety and depression scores suggested that brief intervention was effective in the enhancement of the psychological wellbeing of exposed medical students during stressful period.
Objectives: This paper aims to discuss the issue related to the application of temporary insanity plea through a case report of a man who was earlier certified as mentally sound following a murder and suicide attempt. Methods: We report a man who committed murder and attempted suicide 7 years ago, had a psychiatric certification of not having mental illness and recently requested for a second psychiatric assessment. The factors taken into consideration in arriving at the final diagnosis are discussed. Results:The man was found to have brief psychotic disorder precipitated by psychological blow and sleep deprivation with underlying undiagnosed borderline mental retardation.Conclusion: In assessing patient with
temporary insanity plea, various areas in the history need to be explored deeply with thorough investigations to be done in order to arrive at a fair conclusion for the patient’s and victim’s sake.
Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence and factors influencing PTSD among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study of 40 women in two shelters in Malaysia from 2007 to 2008. Measures include the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress; the Measure of Wife Abuse; the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory; the Coping Scale for Adults; and the Provision of Social Relations. Results: Results showed that 60% of subjects
exhibited patterns of symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of PTSD. The most prominent posttraumatic symptoms reported were re-experience, avoidance, dissociative responses, and symptoms of increased arousal. Both negative appraisals about themselves and self blame for the abusive situations were positively associated with increased tendency to develop PTSD. The greater use of optimism coping style and the higher quality social
support appeared to lead to a significantly reduced tendency of developing PTSD. Negative appraisals about themselves were found to be the strongest positive predictor of PTSD [R² = 0.32, F(1,38)=17.67, p
Objective: The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reductions in both fertility and mortality rates, better living standards, nutrition and health care are claimed to be the key factors that increase the proportion of aged people within the population. Nevertheless, growing numbers of older adults also increases the susceptibility to diseases that commonly afflict the elderly, such as dementia. In this article, we discuss on the current issues of dementia in Malaysia and its challenge in providing a
better management and services for this population. Methods and Results:Review of literature by searching the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE and PsychINFO from June 2010 to November 2010 was done on the issues involving dementia patients in Malaysia such as ageing trend, awareness and availability of services. Conclusion: Despite a limited number of studies on dementia in Malaysia, literature revealed the importance of
acknowledging the issues and improving the services for the patients. Efforts should be made by the government and private sectors to promote healthy ageing in Malaysia.
Objective: This paper aimed to determine the prevalence of sleeping pills use among university students and its associated factors in Malaysia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2010 among 200 Malaysia. The survey was conducted by distributing self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaire was developed based on the literature review. The students were chosen randomly using convenience sampling.
Results: A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The prevalence of using sleeping pills among university students is 7.5%. The majority of the participants were Malay 146 (73.0%), from urban area 169 (84.5%), from medical and health sciences background 101 (50.5%). This study showed that there is a significant relationship between using sleeping pills and depression (p= 0.03). There is also a significant relationship between
using sleeping pills and inducing sleep by reading (p=0.04). Conclusion: The prevalence of sleeping pills usage among university students is relatively high. This study showed that there is a significant relationship between using sleeping pills and depression.
Objective: This case report highlights the optimum end-of-life care of an adolescent dying of cancer. Method: We report our experience, as part of a multidisciplinary team in managing the cancers of a female student who died an untimely death at the age of 15. Results: Our role of motivating her for chemotherapy of her initial treatable carcinoma, became that of palliative care upon discovery of a second malignancy. We helped the patient “live life to the fullest” during her last days, she helped us realize that helping her master the tasks of adolescence was optimum “end-of-life care” as well. Conclusion: to help an ill adolescent die with dignity is to help her live whatever time she has left of her life. Allowing her to participate in decisions regarding her treatment and in other bio-psycho-social needs of that stage of life is crucial in helping her prepare for the end of life.
Objective: This study explored the stress and coping strategies among retired people in Malaysia. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 elderly Malaysian subjects. This protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Management and Science University. The data obtained were sorted into various categories. Results: A total number of 36 retired elderly people participated in this study. The majority of them were in the age group of 55-59 years old, females, Malay and married. The majority defined stress as pressure or tension. Financial difficulties, family and work problems were the main causes of stress in the majority. Also, the majority of respondents mentioned that they coped with stress by sharing problems with others, by resting and relaxing, and/or by doing housework during their free time. A few of them coped with stress by hanging out with friends, going shopping,
doing photography, travelling, going fishing, and doing sports. Conclusion: Financial difficulties, family and work problems were the main causes of stress among elderly people. They coped with stress by sharing problems with others, resting and relaxing, and/or doing housework during their free time.
Objective: The present study aims to assess verbal memory performance in patients with schizophrenia attending HUSM and determine the relationship between the patients’ verbal memory performance and their demographic/clinical factors. Methods: A cross sectional study of 114 patients with schizophrenia attending HUSM psychiatric services from December 2007 to May 2008 was conducted. The schizophrenia symptoms as well as verbal memory performance were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Malay version of the Calgary Depression Scale (MVCDS), and the Malay version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT). The relationship between verbal memory performance and demographic/clinical symptoms was evaluated using Pearson Correlation. Results: Overall MVAVLT scores in all the trials were lowered in patients with schizophrenia compared to average healthy controls. There were significant relationships between occupational status and MVAVLT performance in Trial A1-A5 Total; between educational level and MVAVLT performance in Trial A1 and Trial A1-A5 Total and between severities of illness and MVAVLT performance in all indexes except Trial A1 after controlled for occupation and
educational level. Conclusions: Patient with schizophrenia in HUSM performed significantly worse than healthy controls in verbal memory with or without interference. There were significant relationships between MVAVLT performance and patient’s occupational s tatus, educational level and severity of the illness but not depressive symptoms.
Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
Objectives: This review aims to compile and evaluate all available randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) of auricular acupuncture (AA) treatment in drug addiction
population with emphasis on the length of treatment course, needle-points, outcome
measures, reported side-effects and overall outcomes. Methods: Science Direct,
Medline and EBSCOhost databases were searched. From the year 1990 until 2010,
only full-length English articles incorporating RCTs related to AA studies (needlebased only) in drug addiction such as heroin, morphine, methamphetamine and
cocaine were included. Studies involving the usage of various methods of electroacupuncture and investigations relating to cigarette-smoking or alcohol addiction
were excluded. Results: Eight RCTs met all inclusion criteria comprising of 1,594
respondents (age = 19 - 46 years; male = 57% - 76%). Most were involved in cocaine
addiction. Overall, trials were designed with brief periods of treatment course and
utilised three to five standard National Acupuncture Detoxification Association
(NADA) points (Sympathetic, Lung, Liver, Kidney and Shen men), but inconsistent
sham points. All trials included urine toxicology test as the main outcome measure
while data on side-effects incidence was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, four of
the RCTs reported positive outcomes although at this point, AA’s effectiveness and
safety could not be substantially confirmed. For the future, high-quality RCTs of
AA are urgently required to provide a clearer understanding on the usefulness of
this complementary therapy in drug addiction treatment.
Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine medical students’ views on the usefulness of a community project as a venue to train professionalism. Methods:Medical students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) were surveyed following psychiatry community projects organized during year 4 undergraduate attachments in psychiatry. Results: A total of 176 students returned the survey forms. A majority of medical students thought that the psychiatry community project promotes teamwork and leadership skills. About a quarter thought that it helped foster their communication ability and encouraged them to be more reflective in their daily lives. These findings were translated into the potential of the community project to train “collaborative” and “managerial” affective domain learning outcomes of the university. Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychiatry community project or similar programmes may be useful tools to train several elements of medical professionalism. Future research however should utilise specific measurements to confirm this finding.
Objective: Despite the availability of modern anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms remain distressing to a high number of cancer patients. This study intended to (1) describe the incidence of CINV and antiemetic usage; (2) assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and correlate its components with Global Health Status; (3) evaluate HRQoL status in relation to CINV among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals located in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu, Kelantan). The Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis Follow-up (MANE-FU) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were administered. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were employed (SPSS 16). Results: Respondents included 41 female patients (age = 49 ± 9.6 years; Malay = 92.7%; no family history of breast cancer = 68.3% and on moderately emetogenic chemotherapy = 97.6%). Majority of patients experienced nausea during or after chemotherapy (90.2%) and rated it as ‘severe’. Most patients had taken anti-emetic
(87.8%) and considered it ‘somewhat useful’. The median score for Global Health Status was 50 (IqR= 16.7). Emotional Functioning, Fatigue and Pain correlated fairly with HRQoL (rs= +0.435; -0.417; -0.387 respectively). Patients with ‘a lot’ and ‘moderate’ nausea displayed significantly more fatigue compared to those with little nausea (p=0.029). Those who experienced vomiting reported worse HRQoL profile compared to those who did not (p=0.011). Conclusion: These findings generally ascertained that CINV remains poorly controlled and significantly interferes with HRQoL, providing rooms for improvements in therapeutic intervention.
Objective: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is described as the ability to perceive, express,
understand, motivate, control and regulate emotion. The USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) was designed to measure EI and it was found to be a reliable and valid tool in a sample of prospective medical students. The objective of this study is to determine stability of the USMEQ-i to measure EI at different time and occasions. Methods: A prospective cohort study was done on 196 first year medical students. It was administered to the medical students at four different intervals. The Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation analysis were applied to measure the internal consistency and agreement level across the intervals. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Results: A total of 196 first year medical students participated in this study. Its overall Cronbach’s alpha value across intervals ranged between 0.94 and 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha values of emotional control, emotional maturity, emotional conscientiousness, emotional awareness, emotional commitment, emotional fortitude, and emotional expression scale ranged between 0.59 and 0.91. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the faking index scale ranged from 0.76 to 0.89. The ICC coefficient values for EI total score was 0.83, EI domain score ranged between 0.62 and 0.76 and the faking index score was 0.76. Conclusion: The USMEQ-i has demonstrated a good level of stability and internal consistency to measure EI at different time and occasions. It is a promising psychometric instrument that can be used to measure EI.