Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 154 in total

  1. Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed, Chen, Robert
    Objective: This study explored the stress and coping strategies among retired people in Malaysia. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 elderly Malaysian subjects. This protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Management and Science University. The data obtained were sorted into various categories. Results: A total number of 36 retired elderly people participated in this study. The majority of them were in the age group of 55-59 years old, females, Malay and married. The majority defined stress as pressure or tension. Financial difficulties, family and work problems were the main causes of stress in the majority. Also, the majority of respondents mentioned that they coped with stress by sharing problems with others, by resting and relaxing, and/or by doing housework during their free time. A few of them coped with stress by hanging out with friends, going shopping,
    doing photography, travelling, going fishing, and doing sports. Conclusion: Financial difficulties, family and work problems were the main causes of stress among elderly people. They coped with stress by sharing problems with others, resting and relaxing, and/or doing housework during their free time.
  2. Zahiruddin Othman, Hasanah Che Ismail, Ruzita Jamaluddin, Muhammad Najib Mohamad Alwi
    Objective: The present study aims to assess verbal memory performance in patients with schizophrenia attending HUSM and determine the relationship between the patients’ verbal memory performance and their demographic/clinical factors. Methods: A cross sectional study of 114 patients with schizophrenia attending HUSM psychiatric services from December 2007 to May 2008 was conducted. The schizophrenia symptoms as well as verbal memory performance were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Malay version of the Calgary Depression Scale (MVCDS), and the Malay version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT). The relationship between verbal memory performance and demographic/clinical symptoms was evaluated using Pearson Correlation. Results: Overall MVAVLT scores in all the trials were lowered in patients with schizophrenia compared to average healthy controls. There were significant relationships between occupational status and MVAVLT performance in Trial A1-A5 Total; between educational level and MVAVLT performance in Trial A1 and Trial A1-A5 Total and between severities of illness and MVAVLT performance in all indexes except Trial A1 after controlled for occupation and
    educational level. Conclusions: Patient with schizophrenia in HUSM performed significantly worse than healthy controls in verbal memory with or without interference. There were significant relationships between MVAVLT performance and patient’s occupational s tatus, educational level and severity of the illness but not depressive symptoms.

    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
  3. Lua PL, Wong SY
    Objective: This interventional study was aimed to investigate the effects of dark chocolate
    consumption on anxiety, depression, and stress (ADS) among trainee nurses. Methods: A
    parallel and open-label experimental study was conducted. Of the 128 nurses enrolled, only 47 participated in the intervention study (mean age = 20.32 years; ranging from 19 to 22 years old). They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG, n = 25) or a control group (CG, n = 22). The IG consumed dark chocolate and CG ingested mineral water for 3 consecutive days. The validated Malay Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were utilised for measuring ADS levels. Data were analysed descriptively and score comparisons were conducted using non-parametric tests. Results: No significant differences between IG and CG in ADS scores were detected at baseline (all p > 0.05). At post-consumption, ADS score were significantly reduced in IG (all p < 0.01) compared with CG (all p < 0.05). Larger effect sizes among these respondents had also revealed that there were mood-elevating effects of dark chocolate consumption. Conclusion: This study has discovered that 3-day consumption of dark chocolate may alleviate ADS status among trainee nurses suggesting that dark chocolate may have a more prominent role in improving emotional and mood generally. Further investigations are however warranted to confirm this finding.
  4. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether students exposed to a brief stress reduction intervention would have lesser stress, anxiety and depression levels compared to their non-exposed classmates during stressful events. Methods: The Ex Post Facto design was applied in this study. Students who were exposed and not exposed to a brief stress reduction intervention were surveyed during a continuous examination and during the final examination. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) was used to
    examine effects on anxiety, stress, and depression levels. Results: The exposed students statistically had lower anxiety and depression scores than the nonexposed students during the stressful period. Reduction of stress, anxiety and depression scores was sustained during the stressful period. Conclusion: The significant reduction of anxiety and depression scores suggested that brief intervention was effective in the enhancement of the psychological wellbeing of exposed medical students during stressful period.
  5. Najwa Hanim Md Rosli, Badi’ah Yahya, Abdul Kadir Abu Bakar
    Objectives: This paper aims to discuss the issue related to the application of temporary insanity plea through a case report of a man who was earlier certified as mentally sound following a murder and suicide attempt. Methods: We report a man who committed murder and attempted suicide 7 years ago, had a psychiatric certification of not having mental illness and recently requested for a second psychiatric assessment. The factors taken into consideration in arriving at the final diagnosis are discussed. Results:The man was found to have brief psychotic disorder precipitated by psychological blow and sleep deprivation with underlying undiagnosed borderline mental retardation.Conclusion: In assessing patient with
    temporary insanity plea, various areas in the history need to be explored deeply with thorough investigations to be done in order to arrive at a fair conclusion for the patient’s and victim’s sake.
  6. Nikmat AW, Hawthorne G, Al-Mashoor SHA
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;12(1):95-101.
    Objective: The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reductions in both fertility and mortality rates, better living standards, nutrition and health care are claimed to be the key factors that increase the proportion of aged people within the population. Nevertheless, growing numbers of older adults also increases the susceptibility to diseases that commonly afflict the elderly, such as dementia. In this article, we discuss on the current issues of dementia in Malaysia and its challenge in providing a
    better management and services for this population. Methods and Results:Review of literature by searching the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE and PsychINFO from June 2010 to November 2010 was done on the issues involving dementia patients in Malaysia such as ageing trend, awareness and availability of services. Conclusion: Despite a limited number of studies on dementia in Malaysia, literature revealed the importance of
    acknowledging the issues and improving the services for the patients. Efforts should be made by the government and private sectors to promote healthy ageing in Malaysia.
  7. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):143-157.
    Objective: In the process of growing, adolescents experience stress either good or bad depending on how they cope. School training further adds to this stressful situation. It is noteworthy that persistent over stress will impair students’ academic achievement, personal and professional development. This preliminary study is meant to obtain initial data on the stress prevalence, stressors, and coping strategies among secondary school children in Malaysia. Data gained from this preliminary study provides valuable data for subsequence research in the future. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 100 secondary school students from a Malaysian government secondary school. The validated Malay version 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Soalselidik Stressor Sekolah Menengah (SSSM) and Malay version of Brief COPE were used to identify stress level, stressors, and coping strategies. Results: A number of 90 (90%) students participated in this study. The prevalence of stress among secondary school students was 26.1%. It was found that the main stressors were related to academic. The top five coping strategies were religion, positive reinterpretation, active coping, planning, and use of instrumental support. Conclusion: The prevalence of stress among secondary school students in a Malaysian
    stressor among the students. The most frequent coping strategies being used by the students were positive coping strategies.
  8. Normah Che Din, Soo, Siew Bee, Subramaniam, Ponnusamy, Ng, Lai Oon
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):158-170.
    Objective: The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence and factors influencing PTSD among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing domestic violence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study of 40 women in two shelters in Malaysia from 2007 to 2008. Measures include the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress; the Measure of Wife Abuse; the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory; the Coping Scale for Adults; and the Provision of Social Relations. Results: Results showed that 60% of subjects
    exhibited patterns of symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of PTSD. The most prominent posttraumatic symptoms reported were re-experience, avoidance, dissociative responses, and symptoms of increased arousal. Both negative appraisals about themselves and self blame for the abusive situations were positively associated with increased tendency to develop PTSD. The greater use of optimism coping style and the higher quality social
    support appeared to lead to a significantly reduced tendency of developing PTSD. Negative appraisals about themselves were found to be the strongest positive predictor of PTSD [R² = 0.32, F(1,38)=17.67, p
  9. Rozita Hod, Duni Asmindar Ahmad, Ng, Chong Guan, Hatta Sidi
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;12(1):3-13.
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Female Orgasmic Dysfunction (FOD) focusing on the orgasm domain among female patients attending PPUKM Psychiatric clinic. To compare the prevalence of orgasmic dysfunction between female patients on Escitalopram and on Fluoxetine therapy.
    Methods: A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used to assess orgasmic function. A total of 112 women aged between 24 and 57 participated in this study. The orgasmic dysfunction was compared between patients on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine and escitalopram.
    Results: The prevalence of female orgasmic dysfunction was 58.9% (33/56) among patients treated with Fluoxetine and 41.1% (23/56) among patients treated with Escitalopram. However, there was no statistically significant difference between these two treatment groups (p=0.059). The odds to have FOD among patients on higher dose of antidepressants was found to be higher compared to those patients who were on lower dose of antidepressants (Odds ratio 5.32, p= 0.001).
    Conclusion: There was no significant difference of Female Orgasmic Dysfunction between patients on Fluoxetine and Escitalopram.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  10. Firdaus Mukhtar, Tian, PS Oei, Mohd Jamil Mohd Yaacob
    Objective: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for depression is popular in Western countries. In the context of Malaysia, CBT has been applied as an individual session in a clinical setting. However, there is limited research in the area of group CBT for depression among Malays. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (GCBT) in reducing the negative cognitions that are related to depression in a group of Malay patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen patients, diagnosed with depression, were randomly allocated to either a Treatment As Usual (TAU)
    group (n = 55), or a TAU plus GCBT group (n = 58). All participants completed two questionnaires that measured maladaptive cognitions at pretreatment, midway through treatment, post-treatment (week 4), and at followups after three (week 16) and six months (week 28). Results: The TAU+GCBT patients improved significantly more, and at a faster rate, than the TAU group; which showed minimal improvement. The effect size (Cohen’s d) of the treatment group was 0.93 and 96.55% of the treatment group achieved a clinically significant change. Conclusions: The findings suggest that GCBT, when used in addition to the TAU, is effective in reducing negative thoughts and maladaptive attitudes of Malaysian patients suffering from depression.
  11. Rahima Dahlan, Siti Nor Aizah Ahmad
    Objective: This case report highlights on the challenges in the management of people with bipolar disorder. Method: We report a case of 36 year-old lady living with this disorder and her journey in a search for a meaningful life. Result: Adherence to treatment is a major determinant of outcome in bipolar patient like Ms WMY. Poor insight, negative attitudes towards treatment and poor understanding of medications and the illness can all lead to reduced adherence. Conclusion: This case demonstrates on how poverty of insight, poor social support, on-going stressors with significant life events and poor compliance to treatment create a series of stumbling blocks in recovery from bipolar disorder.
  12. Lua PL, Talib NS
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2012;13(1):55-68.
    Objectives: This review aims to compile and evaluate all available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of auricular acupuncture (AA) treatment in drug addiction population with emphasis on the length of treatment course, needle-points, outcome measures, reported side-effects and overall outcomes.
    Methods: Science Direct, Medline and EBSCOhost databases were searched. From the year 1990 until 2010, only full-length English articles incorporating RCTs related to AA studies (needle-based only) in drug addiction such as heroin, morphine, methamphetamine and cocaine were included. Studies involving the usage of various methods of electroacupuncture and investigations relating to cigarette-smoking or alcohol addiction were excluded.
    Results: Eight RCTs met all inclusion criteria comprising of 1,594 respondents (age = 19 - 46 years; male = 57% - 76%). Most were involved in cocaine addiction. Overall, trials were designed with brief periods of treatment course and utilised three to five standard National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) points (Sympathetic, Lung, Liver, Kidney and Shen men), but inconsistent sham points. All trials included urine toxicology test as the main outcome measure while data on side-effects incidence was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, four of the RCTs reported positive outcomes although at this point, AA’s effectiveness and safety could not be substantially confirmed. For the future, high-quality RCTs of AA are urgently required to provide a clearer understanding on the usefulness of this complementary therapy in drug addiction treatment.
  13. Rafidah Bahari, Muhammad Najib Mohamed Alwi
    Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine medical students’ views on the usefulness of a community project as a venue to train professionalism. Methods:Medical students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) were surveyed following psychiatry community projects organized during year 4 undergraduate attachments in psychiatry. Results: A total of 176 students returned the survey forms. A majority of medical students thought that the psychiatry community project promotes teamwork and leadership skills. About a quarter thought that it helped foster their communication ability and encouraged them to be more reflective in their daily lives. These findings were translated into the potential of the community project to train “collaborative” and “managerial” affective domain learning outcomes of the university. Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychiatry community project or similar programmes may be useful tools to train several elements of medical professionalism. Future research however should utilise specific measurements to confirm this finding.
  14. Selamat Widiasmoro Neni, Pei, Lin Lua
    Objective: The relationships between awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) and coping mechanisms among people with epilepsy (PWE) have not been well-explored particularly in Asia. This study aimed to: identify preferred coping strategies, correlate between AKA and coping mechanisms and compare coping strategies of PWE with different AKA levels. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of epilepsy outpatients was recruited from the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu. The participants completed the Malay AKA Epilepsy and the Malay Brief COPE instruments. The data was analysed using non-parametric statistics. Results: Sixty out of 72 patients (response rate = 83.3%) consented
    participation (median age = 27.5 years; male = 53.3%; unmarried = 63.3%; Malay = 90.0%; SPM education = 54.2%; unemployed = 35.0%; rural residents = 70.0%). Religion was the most preferred coping strategy (93.3%), followed by Emotional Support (86.7%) and Instrumental Support (81.7%). Awareness was negatively correlated with Instrumental Support (rs = -0.268; p

    Study site: Neurology Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu.
  15. Suriati Mohamed Saini, Susan, Mooi KoonTan.
    Objective: This case report highlights the optimum end-of-life care of an adolescent dying of cancer. Method: We report our experience, as part of a multidisciplinary team in managing the cancers of a female student who died an untimely death at the age of 15. Results: Our role of motivating her for chemotherapy of her initial treatable carcinoma, became that of palliative care upon discovery of a second malignancy. We helped the patient “live life to the fullest” during her last days, she helped us realize that helping her master the tasks of adolescence was optimum “end-of-life care” as well. Conclusion: to help an ill adolescent die with dignity is to help her live whatever time she has left of her life. Allowing her to participate in decisions regarding her treatment and in other bio-psycho-social needs of that stage of life is crucial in helping her prepare for the end of life.
  16. Nurul Asyikin Yahya, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin
    Introduction and Objective: Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for oral diseases. Periodontal disease has been known to be associated with tobacco use for over twenty years. Despite that, dentists and particularly periodontist does not include tobacco use cessation as part of their initial treatment in treating periodontal disease or placing implants in patients who use tobacco. The increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis among smokers
    cannot be explained by differences in the amount of plaque between smokers and nonsmokers. A possible explanation is that smoking may alter the quality of the flora. Dental professionals also have a crucial role to play in tobacco cessation counseling, particularly for patients with chronic periodontitis. More patients will be affected by periodontitis than will ever be affected by oral cancer. Methods and Results: Reviews of literatures were
    done on a clearly formulated question on the need of smoking cessation intervention to increase positive outcome of treatment on periodontal disease. Conclusion: Various epidemiological studies strongly suggest that tobacco use cessation is beneficial to patients following periodontal treatments for a better outcome.
  17. Ramli Musa, Kartini Abdullah, Roszaman Ramli, Rosnani Sarkarsi
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;12(1):66-70.
    Objectives: The Bahasa Malaysia (BM) version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21-item (DASS-21) has been widely used ever since the establishment of its validity. To consolidate the evidence of the BM DASS-21 validity by examining its concurrent validity.
    Methods: The BM DASS was administered together with the Hospital Anxiety and Depressive Scale (HADS) to a total of 246 patients at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Infertility Centre.
    Results: The anxiety domain of BM DASS-21 had good correlation with anxiety domain in HADS (0.61) but for DASS depressive domain, it had modest correlation with its respective domain in HADS (0.49).
    Conclusions: The results of this study further ensconced the evidence that the BM DASS-21 had relatively satisfactory psychometric properties for clinical subjects in Malaysia.
  18. Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Tan, Ying Jie, Ab Rahman Esa
    Objective: Medical housemanship training has always been regarded as a highly stressful environment to doctors. This article described findings on stress, stressors and coping strategies among house officers in a Malaysian hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on house officers in a Malaysian hospital. The 12 items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), General Stressors Questionnaire (GSQ) and Brief COPE inventory were administered to measure perceived stress, sources of stress and coping strategies among house officers respectively. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results: Forty two house officers participated in this study. This study found that approximately 31% of the house officers were in distress. The top five stressors were fears of making mistakes that can lead to serious consequences, work overload, working with uncooperative colleagues, doing
    work that mentally straining and feeling of being underpaid. The most frequent coping strategies used by house officers were religion, acceptance and self-distraction. Conclusion: This study found that there was a high percentage of distressed house officers. It also found that major stressors were related to performance pressure. The main coping strategy used by house officer was emotion-focused coping.
  19. Chan, Lai Fong, Hatta Sidi, Suzaily Wahab
    The critical review paper is a component of the theory examination for postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia. Majority of students find this paper difficult, thus this article is intended to help the students understand the critical review paper better. The paper discussed below aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards sleep among medical students of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). Model answers were provided at the end of each question, as marked in italic font.
  20. Lua, Pei Lin, Wong, Sok Yee, Neni Widiasmoro Selamat
    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms , to examine their association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profiles and to determine the predictors on overall HRQoL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The Malay Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MMQoL) were administered to a sample of 150 cancer patients (mean age = 50.4 years).
    Chi-square test, correlation and multiple regression were utilised for data analysis. Results: The prevalence for mild anxiety and depressive symptoms was 30.7% and 23.3% espectively. The HADS-A correlated strongest with Total MMQoL Score (r = - 0.578) and Psychological Well-Being (r = -0.526). Only HADS-A (beta = - 0.486), and HADS-D (beta = -0.173) were significant in predicting overall health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Findings in our study indicated that the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in
    Terengganu cancer patients are moderate. If anxiety and depression are identified and treated, health-related quality of life among oncology patients appropriately could significantly be improved.
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