This study aims to assess the factor structure and reliability of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Additionally, the study also attempts to evaluate the psychological well-being among university students using the GHQ-12 scale and thereby determine a relationship between select demographic variables and well-being. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students of a public university in Sarawak, Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire consisting of the demographic aspects and the GHQ 12 scale were utilized to assess the well-being of students, who were selected by convenience sampling technique. Results: Factorability of the GHQ-12 was examined and a three-factor model explaining 55% total variance was found to be the best fit. Internal consistency of the scale was 0.78, which is within the acceptable range. The results also suggest that considerable proportion (57%) of students had psychological distress. Participants who were susceptible to psychological distress in the present study were identified as students from low income families, with poor social support, in a relationship with partner as well as the student with Hindu’s religion and male students. By multiple regression analysis, variables that significantly predicted psychological distress were gender; income; area of residence; relationship with parents; negative life events; smoking; drinking and event with the overall model fit were 34%. Conclusion: Based on these findings, it may be foreseen that if prompt intervention is not provided to students in distress, they may be susceptible to depression, anxiety and stress. The findings have implications for teachers and counsellors, who are in a position to influence a wide range of students and provide support to improve the psychological well-being of students.
The incidence of benzodiazepine paradoxical reaction is uncommon. It may be implicated with crime as will be described in this case report. Method: We report a 37 year-old schizophrenia patient who was detained by the authority under Section 392/397 of Penal Code assaulting a lady using sharp weapon. He had history of illicit substance abuse and benzodiazepine dependence with significant history of aggression associated with benzodiazepine. Just prior to the incident, he took a significant amount of various types of benzodiazepine and suffered from amnesia of that event. During the time of the offense, he was in remission as far as schizophrenia is concerned. Result: He was under the forensic psychiatric care and observation at Hospital Bahagia Ulu Kinta (HBUK). He developed withdrawal symptoms of benzodiazepine in the ward. Conclusion: He was found by the expert team to be under the influence of benzodiazepine during the offence. The role of benzodiazepine and relevant factors leading to aggression will be discussed in this manuscript.
Mental illness accounts for 12% of the global burden of disease with a reported 1 in 5 Malaysians suffering from a psychological disorder. Sufferers have been long plagued by stigma, which results in social isolation, low-selfesteem, lower opportunities for employment, housing, and ability to achieve life goals. This essay aims to suggest strategies to overcome such stigma in the local setting. Methods: Literature search was conducted through PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com.my). Data obtained was compiled as an opinion piece. Results: Thefactors contributing to stigma in Malaysia include a lack of public knowledge, language and cultural influences, inaccurate media portrayal, doctors’ attitudes towards the field of psychiatry, and psychiatrists themselves. Stigma can be tackled in four areas: society, media, medical education, and the field of psychiatry. Firstly, psychiatric terminology can be adapted to local languages and cultural beliefs in order to avoid misconceptions. Secondly, public education is more effective if focused to targeted key groups. The media is crucial in influencing the public mind-set, and needs to be creatively engaged. Thirdly, more positive medical practitioner attitudes to mental illness can be moulded through early psychiatric postings during medical school. Finally, psychiatrists play a role in correcting misconceptions, avoiding misdiagnosis and ineffective treatments. Cultural competency leads to better management of patients by awareness towards socio-cultural and religious influences. Conclusion: A multifaceted, united coalition of effort is needed in order to tackle stigma in different contexts, and will require concerted leadership from different parties.
There are a number of validated questionnaires available for the screening of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the PTSD Checklist for Civilians is one of them. However, none was translated into the Malay Language and validated for use in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the Malay PTSD Checklist for Civilians (MPCL-C). Methods: The PCL-C was translated into the Malay Language and back-translated. The reliability and validity of the MPCL-C were then determined by administering them to those who presented at the emergency department for motor vehicle accident at least one month before. Results: The MPCL-C has good face and content validity. In terms of reliability, it is also good, with Chronbach’s alpha values of 0.90, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.74 for the full scale, re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal domains respectively. Conclusions: The MPCL-C is a valid and reliable instrument to screen for PTSD in motor vehicle accident victims for the studied population.
The evaluation of mental health among older adults has become increasingly important in health and social science. Although this has been studied in developed countries, there are also issues for emerging countries, which have aging populations. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of loneliness/social isolation and late-life depression among older adults with cognitive impairment living in institutional care. Methods: A cross sectional survey involving residents of four government nursing homes in West Malaysia was carried out. All residents aged 60 years old and above with cognitive impairment were included in the study. Participants were assessed by the Short Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE), Friendship Scale (FS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results: The prevalence of depression and loneliness/social isolation were 85.5% and 95.5% respectively. Depression was strongly associated with age, education attainment, financial conditions, health, cognitive impairment and loneliness/social isolation. Loneliness/social isolation was strongly associated to depression and relationship satisfaction with children. Conclusion: There was high prevalence of depression and loneliness/social isolation among older adults with cognitive impairment living in institutional care. Depression and loneliness/social isolation are interrelated and influence each other and these problems need to be addressed to improve their quality of life.
Device, Questionnaire & Scale: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE-12); Friendship Scale (FS); Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15)
This case report highlights the success of community services and supported employment program that may be of help to a woman with chronic inhalant use to achieve a complete abstinence. Methods: We report the case of a 45 year old lady who chronically abused glue, presented after 10 years with substance induced psychosis and comorbid mood disorder. Results: Abstinent from inhalant dependence was achieved after series of home treatment services and supported employment program. Conclusion: Provision of acute community service and incorporating this patient in supported employment program contribute to her successful journey in achieving abstinence from inhalant dependence.
Currently, paliperidone palmitate is not approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents. It is only indicated for treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in adults. This case report highlights the successful treatment outcome with paliperidone palmitate in an adolescent with schizophrenia. Methods: We report a case of an adolescent who presented with psychotic symptoms and marked deterioration in functioning over a period of one year. Results: She showed significant improvement in functioning, and her psychotic symptoms gradually subsided with paliperidone palmitate. Conclusions: Paliperidone palmitate could be considered as an effective treatment modality in adolescents with schizophrenia.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the most common phobias and associated factors among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Management and Science University (MSU). Random sampling was performed throughout all faculties. The questionnaires were distributed randomly at classes, library and university cafe within MSU. Diagnosis of anxiety disorders were established according to DSM-IV criteria. These criteria are included in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The questionnaire consists of two sections. The first section consists of socio-demographic characteristics such as (age, sex, race, type of faculty and income); the second section is LSAS standard questionnaire. Multiple linear regression using backward analysis was performed to obtain the associated factors. Results: A total number of four hundred sixty eight (468) students participated in this study. The majority of them were older than 20
years old, female, Malay and from non-medical and heath faculties (59.6%, 69.6%, 77.8%, 68.8%; respectively). Regarding history of abuse during childhood, the majority of the university students reported that there was no sexual, physical and emotional abuse during childhood (98.5%, 97.4%, 82.1%; respectively). The majority of the students (53.85%) reported that they have phobia. The highest type of phobia reported among university students was phobia from snake (11.5%), followed by speaking in front of crowd (9.2%) and the lowest were phobia of speed, dolls phobia, ropes phobia. Types of faculty, smoking status and history of physical abuse during childhood were the factors that significantly influence the social anxiety among university students in univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The prevalence of phobic symptoms among university students was
high types of faculty; smoking status and history of physical abuse during childhood significantly influenced social anxiety among university students. Education and counseling university students is necessary to educate the students who suffer from phobia to cope with different situations during study period.
Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the correlation between psychological factors and insomnia and the impact of insomnia on daytime sleepiness. Methods and Results: The participants were recruited through convenient sampling and consist of 173 working adults in Georgetown, Penang, aged 20 to 60 years. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The results revealed that the prevalent of insomnia was 34.7%. There was a positive correlation between psychological distress and insomnia r = .481, p < .001 and also a positive correlation between insomnia and daytime sleepiness r = .334, p < .001. Conclusion: It is concluded that psychological distress typically causes sleep difficulties, and sleep deprivation leads to daytime sleepiness.
Objective: Truancy is a disciplinary problem, which frequently occurs among school students and it has many contributory as well as inter-related factors. It is a growing problem in this country and it often becomes a prelude to other delinquent behaviours. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of truancy as well as factors related to it including psycho-behavioural factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 556 Malay student’s selected using multi-stage sampling was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of truancy is 30.2%. The predictors to truancy are age, students who frequenting entertainment centre, students who have not completed Quran recital, coping strategies using problems solving methods and time spent watching television/video. There is a significant association between truancy and psycho-behaviour such as watching video/internet pornography, frequenting entertainment centre, smoking, motorcycle racing and dating a special friend. Conclusion: Truancy is a social issue, which must be given serious attention by all concerned components of the society.
Objective: This case report highlights folie a duex of a caregiver that complicate the management of a case of childhood onset schizophrenia.
Methods: We report a case of a young Malay girl with symptoms of schizophrenia and her caregiver who share her delusion.
Result: Folie a duex in the caregiver caused difficulty in the initiation and maintenance of treatment of a child with schizophrenia.
Conclusion: Treating children with schizophrenia is not easy and could be complicated by the folie a duex in caregiver. Although Child Act 2001 can be applied in order to deliver appropriate treatment to this group of patients, one must be cautious about the implication in therapeutic alliance.
Objectives: This review aims to compile and evaluate all available randomised
controlled trials (RCTs) of auricular acupuncture (AA) treatment in drug addiction
population with emphasis on the length of treatment course, needle-points, outcome
measures, reported side-effects and overall outcomes. Methods: Science Direct,
Medline and EBSCOhost databases were searched. From the year 1990 until 2010,
only full-length English articles incorporating RCTs related to AA studies (needlebased only) in drug addiction such as heroin, morphine, methamphetamine and
cocaine were included. Studies involving the usage of various methods of electroacupuncture and investigations relating to cigarette-smoking or alcohol addiction
were excluded. Results: Eight RCTs met all inclusion criteria comprising of 1,594
respondents (age = 19 - 46 years; male = 57% - 76%). Most were involved in cocaine
addiction. Overall, trials were designed with brief periods of treatment course and
utilised three to five standard National Acupuncture Detoxification Association
(NADA) points (Sympathetic, Lung, Liver, Kidney and Shen men), but inconsistent
sham points. All trials included urine toxicology test as the main outcome measure
while data on side-effects incidence was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, four of
the RCTs reported positive outcomes although at this point, AA’s effectiveness and
safety could not be substantially confirmed. For the future, high-quality RCTs of
AA are urgently required to provide a clearer understanding on the usefulness of
this complementary therapy in drug addiction treatment.
Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine medical students’ views on the usefulness of a community project as a venue to train professionalism. Methods:Medical students at Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS) were surveyed following psychiatry community projects organized during year 4 undergraduate attachments in psychiatry. Results: A total of 176 students returned the survey forms. A majority of medical students thought that the psychiatry community project promotes teamwork and leadership skills. About a quarter thought that it helped foster their communication ability and encouraged them to be more reflective in their daily lives. These findings were translated into the potential of the community project to train “collaborative” and “managerial” affective domain learning outcomes of the university. Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychiatry community project or similar programmes may be useful tools to train several elements of medical professionalism. Future research however should utilise specific measurements to confirm this finding.
Objective: Despite the availability of modern anti-emetics, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) symptoms remain distressing to a high number of cancer patients. This study intended to (1) describe the incidence of CINV and antiemetic usage; (2) assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and correlate its components with Global Health Status; (3) evaluate HRQoL status in relation to CINV among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in two government hospitals located in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (Terengganu, Kelantan). The Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis Follow-up (MANE-FU) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were administered. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were employed (SPSS 16). Results: Respondents included 41 female patients (age = 49 ± 9.6 years; Malay = 92.7%; no family history of breast cancer = 68.3% and on moderately emetogenic chemotherapy = 97.6%). Majority of patients experienced nausea during or after chemotherapy (90.2%) and rated it as ‘severe’. Most patients had taken anti-emetic
(87.8%) and considered it ‘somewhat useful’. The median score for Global Health Status was 50 (IqR= 16.7). Emotional Functioning, Fatigue and Pain correlated fairly with HRQoL (rs= +0.435; -0.417; -0.387 respectively). Patients with ‘a lot’ and ‘moderate’ nausea displayed significantly more fatigue compared to those with little nausea (p=0.029). Those who experienced vomiting reported worse HRQoL profile compared to those who did not (p=0.011). Conclusion: These findings generally ascertained that CINV remains poorly controlled and significantly interferes with HRQoL, providing rooms for improvements in therapeutic intervention.
Objective: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is described as the ability to perceive, express,
understand, motivate, control and regulate emotion. The USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) was designed to measure EI and it was found to be a reliable and valid tool in a sample of prospective medical students. The objective of this study is to determine stability of the USMEQ-i to measure EI at different time and occasions. Methods: A prospective cohort study was done on 196 first year medical students. It was administered to the medical students at four different intervals. The Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation analysis were applied to measure the internal consistency and agreement level across the intervals. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Results: A total of 196 first year medical students participated in this study. Its overall Cronbach’s alpha value across intervals ranged between 0.94 and 0.97. The Cronbach’s alpha values of emotional control, emotional maturity, emotional conscientiousness, emotional awareness, emotional commitment, emotional fortitude, and emotional expression scale ranged between 0.59 and 0.91. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the faking index scale ranged from 0.76 to 0.89. The ICC coefficient values for EI total score was 0.83, EI domain score ranged between 0.62 and 0.76 and the faking index score was 0.76. Conclusion: The USMEQ-i has demonstrated a good level of stability and internal consistency to measure EI at different time and occasions. It is a promising psychometric instrument that can be used to measure EI.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to psychological morbidity among doctors in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 442 Yemeni doctors. The (GHQ12) was used as a measure of psychological morbidity. Sources of job stress were determined using a 37-item scale questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 68.1 %. Gender, age range of 30 – 39 years old, chewing Khat, type of residence and income were significantly associated with psychological morbidity (p
Objective: This case report highlights on the challenges in the management of people with bipolar disorder. Method: We report a case of 36 year-old lady living with this disorder and her journey in a search for a meaningful life. Result: Adherence to treatment is a major determinant of outcome in bipolar patient like Ms WMY. Poor insight, negative attitudes towards treatment and poor understanding of medications and the illness can all lead to reduced adherence. Conclusion: This case demonstrates on how poverty of insight, poor social support, on-going stressors with significant life events and poor compliance to treatment create a series of stumbling blocks in recovery from bipolar disorder.
Objectives: To determine the association of students’ perception of schooling with externalizing/internalizing scores; and to examine the different perceptions related to truancy. Methods:A total of 373 predominantly 16 year-old students attending three high risk schools in Pudu, Kuala Lumpur completed the questionnaires on schooling variables (four items) and externalizing/internalizing syndromes (Youth Self-Report, 112 items). Results: Certain negative perceptions (uncertainty of the schooling purpose, thinking schooling as time wasting) were significantly associated with higher internalizing (p
Dissociation, including multiple personality disorder, has long been a controversial topic. Patients with suggestive symptoms are often misdiagnosed as malingering or even having
schizophrenia. The former as a result of the overlooking of a clinician on the fact that suggestibility itself plays a key role in the emergence and perpetuation of this illness and the latter due to the lack of knowledge of the whole dissociative disorder spectrum, often resembling that of a psychotic disorder. Another contributing factor to the small number of patients with this diagnosis is due to the reluctance of a psychiatrist to do so because of his/her lack of experience and also fear of humiliation of being accused of seeking fame from diagnosing this somewhat glamorous phenomenon. In Malaysia, various culture bound syndromes often present with similar symptoms too. This article will attempt to understand this dissociation on the local context using case studies as a reference point.
We aimed to report the first case of anorexia nervosa in a young Malaysian Malay homosexual man with underlying borderline personality disorder and major depression. Patient and parents were interviewed. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV was used to generate Axis-I diagnosis. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale was used to assess the severity of depression. His parents had marital discord. His father was overinvolved. Regarding anorexia nervosa, he had 163 cm height, 46kg weight and a body mass index (BMI) of 17 kg/m2. His four limbs had multiple scratch marks. Laboratory test results showed anemia, leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia. Family pathology, borderline personality disorder and homosexuality could be the risk factors of anorexia nervosa in this patient.