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  1. Ji X, Usman A, Razalli NH, Sambanthamurthi R, Gupta SV
    Anticancer Res, 2015 Jan;35(1):97-106.
    PMID: 25550539
    Oil palm phenolics (OPP) or Palm Juice (PJ), a water soluble extract from the palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) has been documented to have anti-carcinogenic activities in various cancer types.
  2. Rashid NN, Yusof R, Watson RJ
    Anticancer Res, 2014 Nov;34(11):6557-63.
    PMID: 25368258
    It is well-established that HPV E7 proteins, encoded by human papillomavirus (HPV) genes, frequently associated with cervical cancers bind avidly to the retinoblastoma (RB) family of pocket proteins and disrupt their association with members of the E2F transcription factor family. Our previous study showed that the repressive p130-dimerization partner, RB-like, E2F and multi-vulval class (DREAM) complex was disrupted by HPV16 E7 proteins in order to maintain the viral replication in CaSki cells. However, we would like to address whether the activator B-myb-DREAM complex is critical in regulating the replication and mitosis phase since our previous study showed increased B-myb-DREAM expression in HPV-transformed cell lines when compared to control cells.
  3. Mutalip SS, Yunos NM, Abdul-Rahman PS, Jauri MH, Osman A, Adenan MI
    Anticancer Res, 2014 Aug;34(8):4141-51.
    PMID: 25075041
    AIM: Abnormalities in apoptotic signalling pathways often occur in cancer cells and limit the successful chemotherapy outcomes in cancers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover new anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of action to overcome the resistance effect in chemotherapy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the anticancer effects and the mechanisms of action of 17βH-neriifolin (cardiac glycoside) were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and a proteomic approach in treated and non-treated SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells.

    RESULTS: 17βH-neriifolin was found to be active with IC50 values of 0.01 ± 0.001 in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line, as evaluated by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. RESULTS from TUNEL assay indicated that 17βH-neriifolin caused apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Based on differential analysis of treated and non-treated SKOV-3 two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) profiles, four proteins, namely vimentin (VIM), pyruvate kinase, muscle (PKM), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1) and transgelin (TAGLN1) were identified to be involved in apoptosis. Other proteins including piggybac transposable element derived 5 (PGBD5), DENN/MADD domain containing 2D (DENND2D) and formin-like 1(FMNL) have also been identified to be associated in SKOV-3 cell death induced by 17βH-neriifolin.

    CONCLUSION: These findings may provide new insights on the potential of 17βH-neriifolin's mechanism of action in killing ovarian cancer cells.

  4. Yunos NM, Mutalip SS, Jauri MH, Yu JQ, Huq F
    Anticancer Res, 2013 Oct;33(10):4365-71.
    PMID: 24123004
    Andrographolide (Andro) is a diterpenoid that is isolated from Andrographis paniculata and reported to be active against several cancer cell lines. However, few in-depth studies have been carried out on its effects on ovarian cancer cell lines alone or in combination with cisplatin (Cis), which is commonly used to treat ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Andro administered alone and in combination with Cis in the ovarian A2780 and A2780(cisR) cancer cell lines using five different sequences of administration (Cis/Andro h): 0/0h, 4/0 h, 0/4 h, 24/0 h and 0/24 h. The results were evaluated in terms of medium-effect dose (Dm) and combination indices (CI) using the CalcuSyn software. Unlike Cis, whose activity was lower in the resistant A2780(cisR) cell line than in the parent A2780 cell line, Andro was found to be three times more active in the A2780(cisR) cell line as compared to that in A2780 cell line. Synergism was observed when Cis and Andro were administered using the sequences 0/4 h and 4/0 h. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was found to be greater for the 0/4 h combination of Andro and Cis as compared to those values from single-drug treatments. The results may be clinically significant if confirmed in vivo.
  5. Cheah YH, Nordin FJ, Tee TT, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z
    Anticancer Res, 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89.
    PMID: 19189649
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
  6. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Hawariah LP
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30.
    PMID: 17970090
    F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
  7. Cheah YH, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR
    Anticancer Res, 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6B):4527-34.
    PMID: 17201174
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb (Zingiberaceae). Xanthorrhizol was tested for a variety of important pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. An antiproliferation assay using the MTT method indicated that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with an EC50 value of 1.71 microg/ml. Three parameters including annexin-V binding assay, Hoechst 33258 staining and accumulation of sub-G1 population in DNA histogram confirmed the apoptosis induction in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Western-blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein expression. However, xanthorrhizol did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, bax, at a concentration of 1 microg/ml, 2.5 microg/ml and 5 microg/ml. The level of p53 was greatly increased, whilst PARP-1 was cleaved to 85 kDa subunits, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol at a dose-dependent manner. These results, thereby, suggest that xanthorrhizol has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of bcl-2, p53 and PARP-1 protein levels.
  8. Handayani T, Sakinah S, Nallappan M, Pihie AH
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):965-71.
    PMID: 17465228
    Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect and the mechanism of action of xanthorrhizol on human hepatoma cells, HepG2, and the mode of cell death. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells with a 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50) value of 4.17 +/- 0.053 microg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of xanthorrhizol was due to apoptosis induced in the HepG2 cells and not necrosis, which was confirmed by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The xanthorrhizol-treated HepG2 cells showed typical apoptotic morphology such as DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage and elongated lamellipodia. The apoptosis mediated by xanthorrhizol in the HepG2 cells was associated with the activation of tumor suppressor p53 and down-regulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression, but not Bax. The levels of Bcl-2 protein expression decreased 24-h after treatment with xanthorrhizol and remained lower than controls throughout the experiment, resulting in a shift in the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio thus favouring apoptosis. The processing of the initiator procaspase-9 was detected. Caspase-3 was also found to be activated, but not caspase-7. Xanthorrhizol exerts antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.
  9. Ismail N, Pihie AH, Nallapan M
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2221-7.
    PMID: 16158967
    Xanthorrhizol is a sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza, which is known locally as Temulawak. Traditionally, C. xanthorrhiza was found to have antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. The rhizome has also been used to treat inflammation in postpartum uterine bleeding. An antiproliferative assay using methylene blue staining revealed that xanthorrhizol inhibited the proliferation of the cervical cancer cell line HeLa with an EC50 value of 6.16 microg/ml. Xanthorrhizol significantly increased apoptosis in HeLa cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and nuclear morphology by Hoechst 33258 staining. Western blot analysis, which was further confirmed by the immunostaining results, implied an up-regulation of tumor suppressor protein p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, following the treatment with xanthorrhizol. Xanthorrhizol, however, did not affect the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 and the viral oncoprotein, E6. Hence, xanthorrhizol is a promising antiproliferative and anticancer agent which induces p53 and Bax-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells.
  10. Tee TT, Azimahtol HL
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13.
    PMID: 16158965
    Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
  11. Elsadig RE, Reimann K, Yip CH, Lai LC
    Anticancer Res, 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2693-6.
    PMID: 11724341
    Oestrone sulphate is a major source of active oestrogens in the breast. It is converted to oestrone by oestrone sulphatase. Breast cyst fluid (BCF) is a rich source of sex hormones and growth factors. BCF obtained from British women has been shown to inhibit oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cell line. The aim of the present study was to assess whether BCF obtained from Malaysian women inhibited oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines were grown in supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium for 3 days, following which a 3-day incubation with sterilised BCF was carried out. At the end of the treatment period the cell monolayers were assayed for oestrone sulphatase activity and the number of cell nuclei counted on a Coulter Counter. BCF was also fractionated on a Bio-Sil SEC 125-5 column by HPLC and the effects of the fractions collected on oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line were assessed. All 18 samples of BCF tested inhibited cell growth in the MDA-MB-231 cell line while 8 out of 10 samples inhibited MCF-7 cell growth; 15 out of 18 BCF samples inhibited oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line whereas 5 out of 10 samples stimulated oestrone sulphatase activity in the MCF-7 cell line. HPLC fractions corresponding to molecular weights of > 158 kDa and 28 kDa were found to inhibit oestrone sulphatase activity in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Further work is required to fully characterise these substances as they may have roles to play in the prevention of breast cancer.
  12. Hawariah A, Stanslas J
    Anticancer Res, 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6A):4383-6.
    PMID: 9891496
    Previous studies have shown that a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) from a local tropical plant had antiprogestin and antiestrogenic effects in early pregnant mice models (Azimahtol et al. 1991). Antiprogestins and antiestrogens can be exploited as a therapeutic approach to breast cancer treatment and thus the antitumor activity of SPD was tested in three different human breast cancer cell lines that is: MCF- 7, T47D and MDA-MB-231, employing, the antiproliferative assay of Lin and Hwang (1991) slightly modified. SPD (10(-10) - 10(-6) M) exhibited strong antiproliferative activity in estrogen and progestin-dependent MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 2.24 x 10(-7) M) and in hormone insensitive MDA-MB-231 (EC50 = 5.62 x 10(-7) M), but caused only partial inhibition of the estrogen- insensitive T47D cells (EC50 = 1.58 x 10(-6) M). However, tamoxifen showed strong inhibition of MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 1.41 x 10(-6) M) and to a lesser extent the T47D cells (EC50 = 2.5 x 10(-6) M) but did not affect the MDA-MB-231 cells. SPD at 1 microM exerted a beffer antiestrogenic activity than 1 microM tamoxifen in suppressing the growth of MCF-7 cells stimulated by 1 nM estradiol. Combined treatment of both SPD and tamoxifen at 1 microM showed additional inhibition on the growth of MCF-7 cells in culture. The antiproliferative properties of SPD are effective on both receptor positive and receptor negative mammary cancer cells, and thus appear to be neither dependent on cellular receptor status nor cellular hormone responses. This enhances in vivo approaches as tumors are heterogenous masses with varying receptor status.
  13. Naidu R, Yadav M, Nair S, Kutty KK
    Anticancer Res, 1998 Jan-Feb;18(1A):65-70.
    PMID: 9568057
    Expression of p53 protein was investigated by immunohistochemical techniques in archival cases of 134 primary breast carcinomas comprising 13 comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 105 invasive ductal carcinomas, 7 contained the comedo DCIS component adjacent to the invasive ductal component, 5 invasive lobular carcinomas, three colloid carcinomas and one medullary carcinoma. Overexpression of p53 gene product was studied to determine the association with clinico-pathological parameters and also its relationship to c-erbB2. Overexpression of p53 protein was observed in 31% (4/13) of comedo DCIS, 37% (39/105) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 57% (4/7) of carcinomas containing both the in situ and invasive lesions and all medullary carcinomas. A significant relationship (p < 0.05) was observed between strong immunoreactivity of p53 protein and absence of estrogen receptor, histological grade and c-erbB2 but not with lymph node metastases or age of patient. These observations suggest that overexpression of p53 protein may play an important role in tumor progression from noninvasive to invasive in some breast carcinomas and may have potential as an indicator for poorer prognosis.
  14. Pihie AH, Stanslas J, Din LB
    Anticancer Res, 1998 May-Jun;18(3A):1739-43.
    PMID: 9673398
    The antiproliferative activity of a styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) plant extract, was studied in three different human breast cancer cell lines in culture, and was compared with tamoxifen. The number of living cells was evaluated by Methylene Blue staining technique. SPD showed strong antiproliferative activity in estrogen receptor (ER) and progestin receptor (PgR) positive MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 6.30 x 10(-7) M) and receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 (EC50 = 5.62 x 10(-7) M), but it partially inhibited the high progestin receptor positive T47D cells (EC50 = 1.58 x 10(-6) M). Whereas tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen exhibited strong inhibition on MCF-7 cells (EC50 = 1.41 x 10(-6) M) and partial inhibition on T47D cells (EC50 = 2.5 x 10(-6) M), but did not affect the MDA-MB-231 cells in the concentration range 0.1 nM-1 microM (EC50 = 5.01 microM). At the same concentration range SPD and tamoxifen did not inhibit the proliferation of normal human liver cell line CCL 13 and normal bovine kidney MDBK; whereas adriamycin, a common chemotherapy drug for the treatment of advance cancer, caused 95% inhibition at 10(-6) M. Competitive binding studies showed SPD had no ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]estradiol and [3H]progesterone to ER and PgR, respectively but, tamoxifen exhibited affinity for ER. Therefore, it can be concluded that the antiproliferative activity of SPD was selective towards breast cancer cell lines and not mediated by ER or PgR.
  15. Jennings CJ, Zainal N, Dahlan IM, Kay EW, Harvey BJ, Thomas W
    Anticancer Res, 2016 11;36(11):5905-5913.
    PMID: 27793915
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but highly aggressive malignancy most often associated with exposure to asbestos. Recent evidence points to oestrogen receptor (ER)-β having a tumour-suppressor role in MPM progression, and this raises the question of whether selective modulators of ERs could play a role in augmenting MPM therapy.
  16. Musa M, Ouaret D, Bodmer WF
    Anticancer Res, 2020 Nov;40(11):6063-6073.
    PMID: 33109544 DOI: 10.21873/anticanres.14627
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Interactions between colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and myofibroblasts govern many processes such as cell growth, migration, invasion and differentiation, and contribute to CRC progression. Robust experimental tests are needed to investigate the nature of these interactions for future anticancer studies. The purpose of the study was to design and validate in vitro assays for studying the communication between myofibroblasts and CRC epithelial cell lines.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of co-culture of myofibroblasts and CRC cell lines is discussed using various in vitro assays including direct co-culture, transwell assays, Matrigel-based differentiation and cell invasion experiments.

    RESULTS: The results from these in vitro assays clearly demonstrated various aspects of the crosstalk between myofibroblasts and CRC cell lines, which include cell growth, differentiation, migration and invasion.

    CONCLUSION: The reported in vitro assays provide a basis for investigating the factors that control the myofibroblast-epithelial cell interactions in CRC in vivo.

  17. Duc NM, Huy HQ, Nadarajan C, Keserci B
    Anticancer Res, 2020 May;40(5):2975-2980.
    PMID: 32366451 DOI: 10.21873/anticanres.14277
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Even though advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can effectively differentiate between medulloblastoma and ependymoma, it is not readily available throughout the world. This study aimed to investigate the role of simple quantified basic MRI sequences in the differentiation between medulloblastoma and ependymoma in children.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study. The brain MRI protocol, including sagittal T1-weighted, axial T2-weighted, coronal fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and axial T1-weighted with contrast enhancement (T1WCE) sequences, was assessed in 26 patients divided into two groups: Medulloblastoma (n=22) and ependymoma (n=4). The quantified region of interest (ROI) values of tumors and their ratios to parenchyma were compared between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to find significant factors influencing the differential diagnosis between the two groups. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to create the predictive model for the discrimination of medulloblastoma from ependymoma.

    RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the T2- and T1WCE-ROI values of tumors and the ratios of T1WCE-ROI values to parenchyma were the most significant factors influencing the diagnosis between these two groups. GEE produced the model: y=exn/(1+exn) with predictor xn=-8.773+0.012x1 - 0.032x2 - 13.228x3, where x1 was the T2-weighted signal intensity (SI) of tumor, x2 the T1WCE SI of tumor, and x3 the T1WCE SI ratio of tumor to parenchyma. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of the GEE model were 77.3%, 100%, and 92%, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The GEE predictive model can discriminate between medulloblastoma and ependymoma clinically. Further research should be performed to validate these findings.

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