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  1. Liu JJ, Sum CF, Tavintharan S, Yeoh LY, Ng XW, Moh AM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Oct;236(2):286-91.
    PMID: 25112799 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the young population has become a serious concern globally, presumably due to the rising trend of obesity. Compared to other forms of diabetes, young-onset T2DM experiences more cardiovascular events and other vascular complications although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of vasculopathy. We aim to study the clinical and metabolic determinants of arterial stiffness in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asians with young-onset T2DM.
    METHODS: 179 subjects with T2DM onset age below 30 years old were selected in this cross sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).
    RESULTS: PWV was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR in bivariate correlation analysis. However, PWV was only significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, urinary ACR and eGFR after adjustment for age. Overweight individuals with young-onset T2DM had significantly higher PWV levels compared to their lean counterparts (7.3 ± 2.4 m/s vs 6.4 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.072 and p < 0.0001 without and with adjustment for age, respectively). Multivariable regression models revealed that age, BMI, eGFR and usage of insulin were independently associated with PWV. These 4 variables explained 35.5% variance in PWV levels.
    CONCLUSION: Age, BMI, renal function and insulin usage are the main determinants of PWV levels in Asians with young-onset T2DM. Notably, obesity is a modifiable determinant of arterial stiffness independent of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in this population.
  2. Govindaraju K, Kamangar S, Badruddin IA, Viswanathan GN, Badarudin A, Salman Ahmed NJ
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Apr;233(2):630-635.
    PMID: 24549189 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.01.043
    Functional assessment of a coronary artery stenosis severity is generally assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is calculated from pressure measurements across the stenosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of porous media of the stenosed arterial wall on this diagnostic parameter. To understand the role of porous media on the diagnostic parameter FFR, a 3D computational simulations of the blood flow in rigid and porous stenotic artery wall models are carried out under steady state and transient conditions for three different percentage area stenoses (AS) corresponding to 70% (moderate), 80% (intermediate), and 90% (severe). Blood was modeled as a non Newtonian fluid. The variations of pressure drop across the stenosis and diagnostic parameter were studied in both models. The FFR decreased in proportion to the increase in the severity of the stenosis. The relationship between the percentage AS and the FFR was non linear and inversely related in both the models. The cut-off value of 0.75 for FFR was observed at 81.89% AS for the rigid artery model whereas 83.61% AS for the porous artery wall model. This study demonstrates that the porous media consideration on the stenotic arterial wall plays a substantial role in defining the cut-off value of FFR. We conclude that the effect of porous media on FFR, could lead to misinterpretation of the functional severity of the stenosis in the region of 81.89 %-83.61% AS.
  3. Cainzos-Achirica M, Rampal S, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, Zhao D, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Aug;241(2):350-6.
    PMID: 26071657 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.031
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors.
    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100.
    CONCLUSIONS: BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis.
    KEYWORDS: Arterial stiffness; Atherosclerosis; Coronary artery calcium; Pulse wave velocity; Subclinical disease
  4. Choi Y, Chang Y, Lee JE, Chun S, Cho J, Sung E, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Aug;241(2):305-12.
    PMID: 26062990 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.036
    OBJECTIVE:
    The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC).
    METHODS:
    Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013).
    RESULTS:
    The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol.
    CONCLUSION:
    Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI.
    KEYWORDS:
    Coronary artery calcium score; Coronary artery disease; Egg consumption
  5. Zhang X, Liu JJ, Sum CF, Ying YL, Tavintharan S, Ng XW, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Sep;242(1):22-8.
    PMID: 26162317 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.06.019
    OBJECTIVE: We previously reported ethnic disparity in adverse outcomes among Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Singapore. Central arterial stiffness can aggravate systemic vasculopathy by propagating elevated systolic and pulse pressures forward, thereby accentuating global vascular injury. We aim to study ethnic disparity in central arterial stiffness and its determinants in a multi-ethnic T2DM Asian cohort.
    METHODS: Arterial stiffness was estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) using applanation tonometry method in Chinese (N = 1045), Malays (N = 458) and Indians (N = 468). Linear regression model was used to evaluate predictors of PWV and AI.
    RESULTS: PWV was higher in Malays (10.1 ± 3.0 m/s) than Chinese (9.7 ± 2.8 m/s) and Indians (9.6 ± 3.1 m/s) (P = 0.018). AI was higher in Indians (28.1 ± 10.8%) than Malays (25.9 ± 10.1%) and Chinese (26.1 ± 10.7%) (P < 0.001). Malays remain associated with higher PWV (β = 0.299, P = 0.048) post-adjustment for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and insulin usage, which were all independent predictors of PWV. Indians remain associated with higher AI (β = 2.776, P < 0.001) post-adjustment for age, gender, BMI, SBP, DBP, and height, which were independent predictors of AI. These variables explained 27.7% and 33.4% of the variance in PWV and AI respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Malays and Indians with T2DM have higher central arterial stiffness, which may explain their higher risk for adverse outcomes. Modifying traditional major vascular risk factors may partially alleviate their excess cardiovascular risk through modulating arterial stiffness.
    KEYWORDS: Arterial stiffness; Augmentation index; Pulse wave velocity; Type 2 diabetes
  6. Teng KT, Chang CY, Kanthimathi MS, Tan AT, Nesaretnam K
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Sep;242(1):281-7.
    PMID: 26232169 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.07.003
    Postprandial lipemia has been reported to affect endothelial function by thrombogenic and inflammatory pathways. We set out to investigate the impact of a) specific amount (50 g vs 20 g fat), and b) type of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, MUFA, PUFA) on postprandial lipemia, thrombogenic and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome subjects.
  7. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM, Deslypere JP, Janus E
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Jul;169(1):1-10.
    PMID: 12860245
    In Western countries, it has been shown that coronary heart disease (CHD) is related to high serum total cholesterol (TC) levels. In less developed continents such as Asia and Africa, serum lipid levels are low and CHD incidence is much lower as compared with Western countries. With growing urbanization and industrialization in Asia, it has been shown that there is a concomitant rise in the level of serum TC and with it a rise in CHD. In all the Asian countries, serum TC levels are also higher in the urban compared with the rural population. Singapore, the only Asian country which is 100% urbanized since 1980, showed a rise of serum TC similar to that seen in the US and UK from the 1950s to the 1980s followed thereafter by a fall. This is reflected in the trend (rise followed by a fall) of CHD morbidity and mortality as well. In spite of a declining trend in serum TC level, CHD morbidity and mortality are still high in Singapore and comparable to the Western countries. The rest of the Asian countries show a different pattern from Singapore. In general, there is still a rising trend in serum TC level and in CHD mortality in most Asian countries. However, Japan is considered an exception in having a decreasing CHD mortality in spite of an increasing trend in serum TC. This may be attributed to a better control of other CHD risk factors such as hypertension and smoking. The rising trend in serum TC level remains a cause for concern, as this will emerge as a major problem for CHD morbidity and mortality in the future.
  8. Tan CE, Emmanuel SC, Tan BY, Tai ES, Chew SK
    Atherosclerosis, 2001 Mar;155(1):179-86.
    PMID: 11223440
    AIMS: To compare cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic subjects of different ethnic groups, and between new and known diabetic subjects, in the Singapore National Health Survey '92.

    METHODS: Disproportionate stratified sampling followed by systematic sampling were used in 3568 (total) respondents of whom 2743 were non-diabetics, 179 newly diagnosed diabetics and 150 known diabetics. Amongst the diabetics, there were 185 Chinese, 66 Malays and 78 Asian Indians. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was based on the 2 h glucose alone, after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, glucose, insulin and anthropometric indices were obtained from all subjects.

    RESULTS: Subjects with diabetes (new and known) exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (TG), lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)/apolipoprotein B (apo B) ratio (LDL size) compared with normoglycaemic subjects. They were more obese (generalised and central) and had higher systolic and diastolic BP. There was no difference in lipid risk factors between the two groups with diabetes although those with new diabetes were more obese whilst those with known diabetes had higher fasting glucose. Amongst subjects with diabetes, there were no significant differences between ethnic groups in TG, HDL-C, LDL/apo B ratio, or waist to hip ratio (WHR). Female Malays with diabetes had higher total cholesterol and were more obese whilst male Asian Indians with diabetes had higher fasting insulin.

    CONCLUSION: Asian Indians had lower HDL-C and LDL/apo B ratio than Chinese or Malays amongst normoglycaemic subjects. However, these differences between ethnic groups were not seen in subjects with DM.

  9. Nawawi H, Osman NS, Annuar R, Khalid BA, Yusoff K
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Aug;169(2):283-91.
    PMID: 12921980
    Adhesion molecules and cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of intimal injury in atherosclerosis but their relationship with endothelial function remains unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atorvastatin on soluble adhesion molecules, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with familial (FH) and non-familial hypercholesterolaemia (NFH). A total of 74 patients (27 FH and 47 NFH) were recruited. Fasting lipid profiles, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin, IL-6 and FMD were measured at baseline, 2 weeks, 3 and 9 months post-atorvastatin treatment (FH--80 mg/day, NFH--10 mg/day). In both groups, compared to baseline, sICAM-1 levels were significantly reduced at 2 weeks, further reduced at 3 months and maintained at 9 months (P<0.0001). The IL-6 levels were significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months compared to baseline for FH (P<0.005) and NFH (P<0.0001). In both groups, the FMD at 2 weeks was higher than baseline (P<0.005), with progressive improvement up to 9 months. FMD was negatively correlated with sICAM-1 and IL-6. In conclusion, both low and high doses of atorvastatin lead to early progressive improvement in endothelial function in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. sICAM-1 and IL-6 levels reflect endothelial dysfunction in these patients.
  10. Hughes K, Choo M, Kuperan P, Ong CN, Aw TC
    Atherosclerosis, 1998 Jan;136(1):25-31.
    PMID: 9544728
    Cardiovascular risk factors were compared between 126 people with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 530 non-diabetics (controls), in a random sample of people (Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians) aged 40-69 years from the general population of Singapore. Data were adjusted for age and ethnicity. For both genders, people with NIDDM had higher mean body mass indices, waist-hip ratios and abdominal diameters. They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension, higher mean levels of fasting serum triglyceride, slightly lower mean levels of serum high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher mean levels of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator (antigen). These factors are components of syndrome X (metabolic syndrome) and increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In contrast, there were no important differences for cigarette smoking, serum total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum apolipoproteins A1 and B, plasma factor VIIc and plasma prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Females with NIDDM, but not males, had a higher mean serum fibrinogen level than non-diabetics, which could explain why NIDDM has a greater cardiovascular effect in females than males. Serum lipoprotein(a) concentrations were lower in people with NIDDM. Mean levels of serum ferritin, a pro-oxidant, were higher in people with NIDDM than controls, but there were no important differences for plasma vitamins A, C and E, and serum selenium, which are anti-oxidants.
  11. Candlish JK, Saha N, Mak JW
    Atherosclerosis, 1997 Feb 28;129(1):49-51.
    PMID: 9069516
    Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoproteins Al (apo Al) and B (apo B) were measured in a sample of subjects from the Semai tribe of Orang Asli in peninsular Malaysia. They appeared to exhibit the lowest TC ever recorded (1.6 for males and 1.9 mmol/l for females) and relatively high TG (1.4 mmol/l for males and 1.5 mmol/l for females)(means for the whole sample). There was little apparent aging gradient in any of the plasma analytes. but the group of men aged 21-40 had lower HDLC than the corresponding female group. Both low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) (calculated) and HDLC as well as their corresponding apolipoproteins were correspondingly very low. There was a significant correlation between apo AI and HDLC in both sexes.
  12. Tan CE, Tai ES, Tan CS, Chia KS, Lee J, Chew SK, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2003 Oct;170(2):253-60.
    PMID: 14612205
    BACKGROUND: Serum lipid concentrations are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, alcohol intake, smoking, obesity and dietary intake and genetic factors. Polymorphisms at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus have consistently shown a significant association with total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their impact on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be population dependent. Having three major ethnic groups within a similar social environment allows us to study the role of genetics and their interactions with lifestyle factors on the serum lipid profile and coronary risk in Asians.

    METHODS: This study included 1740 males (1146 Chinese, 327 Malays and 267 Asian Indians) and 1950 females (1329 Chinese, 360 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) with complete data on anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and genotype at the APOE locus.

    RESULTS: Malays and Asian Indians were more obese compared with the Chinese. Smoking was uncommon in all females but Malay males had significantly higher prevalence of smokers. Malays had the highest LDL-C whilst Indians had the lowest HDL-C, The epsilon 3 allele was the most frequent allele in all three ethnic groups. Malays had the highest frequency of epsilon 4 (0.180 and 0.152) compared with Chinese (0.085 and 0.087) and Indians (0.108 and 0.075) in males and females, respectively. The epsilon 2 allele was the least common in Asian Indians. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was highest in epsilon 4 carriers and lowest in epsilon 2 carriers. The reverse was seen in HDL-C with the highest levels seen in epsilon 2 subjects. The association between ethnic group and HDL-C differed according to APOE genotype and gender. Asian Indians had the lowest HDL-C for each APOE genotype except in Asian Indian males with epsilon 2, where HDL-C concentrations were intermediate between Chinese and Malays.

    CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in lipid profile could be explained in part by the higher prevalence of epsilon 4 in the Malays. Ethnicity may influence the association between APOE genotypes and HDL-C. APOE genotype showed no correlation with HDL-C in Malay males whereas the association in Asian Indians was particularly marked. Further studies of interactions between genes and environmental factors will contribute to the understanding of differences of coronary risk amongst ethnic groups.

  13. EAS Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Studies Collaboration, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, De Marco M, Stevens CAT, Akram A, Freiberger T, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 10;277:234-255.
    PMID: 30270054 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.051
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Management of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) may vary across different settings due to factors related to population characteristics, practice, resources and/or policies. We conducted a survey among the worldwide network of EAS FHSC Lead Investigators to provide an overview of FH status in different countries.

    METHODS: Lead Investigators from countries formally involved in the EAS FHSC by mid-May 2018 were invited to provide a brief report on FH status in their countries, including available information, programmes, initiatives, and management.

    RESULTS: 63 countries provided reports. Data on FH prevalence are lacking in most countries. Where available, data tend to align with recent estimates, suggesting a higher frequency than that traditionally considered. Low rates of FH detection are reported across all regions. National registries and education programmes to improve FH awareness/knowledge are a recognised priority, but funding is often lacking. In most countries, diagnosis primarily relies on the Dutch Lipid Clinics Network criteria. Although available in many countries, genetic testing is not widely implemented (frequent cost issues). There are only a few national official government programmes for FH. Under-treatment is an issue. FH therapy is not universally reimbursed. PCSK9-inhibitors are available in ∼2/3 countries. Lipoprotein-apheresis is offered in ∼60% countries, although access is limited.

    CONCLUSIONS: FH is a recognised public health concern. Management varies widely across countries, with overall suboptimal identification and under-treatment. Efforts and initiatives to improve FH knowledge and management are underway, including development of national registries, but support, particularly from health authorities, and better funding are greatly needed.

  14. Azraii AB, Ramli AS, Ismail Z, Abdul-Razak S, Mohd-Kasim NA, Ali N, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 10;277:508-516.
    PMID: 30270092 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.018
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to determine knowledge, awareness and practice (KAP) regarding familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) among Malaysian primary care physicians (PCP), and to compare KAP between PCP with postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) and PCP without PG qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual).

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving PCP with ≥1-year working experience in Malaysian primary care settings. An adapted and validated 25-item FH-KAP questionnaire was disseminated during primary care courses. Total score for each domain was calculated by summing-up the correct responses, converted into percentage scores. Normality distribution was examined and comparisons of mean/median percentage scores were made between the two groups of PCP.

    RESULTS: A total of 372 PCP completed the questionnaire. Regarding knowledge, 77.7% correctly defined FH. However, only 8.3% correctly identified coronary artery disease risk in untreated FH. The mean percentage knowledge score was significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared to PCP-noPG-Qual (48.9, SD ± 13.92 vs. 35.2, SD ± 14.13), t(370) = 8.66, p 

  15. Hagger MS, Hardcastle SJ, Hu M, Kwok S, Lin J, Nawawi HM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 10;277:493-501.
    PMID: 30270090 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.06.010
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) can be effectively managed using cholesterol-lowering medication, patients often fall short of complete treatment adherence. Identifying the psychological factors associated with self-regulation of FH medication is important to inform interventions to maximize adherence. The aim of the present study was to test an integrated psychological model in predicting FH patients' intentions to take medication.

    METHODS: FH patients attending clinics in seven countries were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey study. Consenting patients (N = 551) completed self-report measures of generalized beliefs about medication overuse and harms, beliefs in treatment effectiveness, specific beliefs about taking medication (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control), and intentions to take medication. Participants also completed measures of demographic variables (age, gender, education level, income, cardiovascular disease status). Data were analysed using path analysis controlling for country and demographic variables.

    RESULTS: Attitudes (β = .331, p<0.001), subjective norms (β = .121, p=0.009), and beliefs about medication overuse (β = -.160, p<0.001) were significant predictors of intentions to take medication. Treatment beliefs predicted intentions indirectly (β = .088, p<0.001) through attitudes and subjective norms. There was also an indirect effect of beliefs about medication overuse on intentions (β = -.045, p=0.056), but the effect was small compared with the direct effect.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate the importance among FH patients of specific beliefs about taking medication and generalized beliefs about medication overuse and treatment in predicting medication intentions. When managing patients, clinicians should emphasize the efficacy of taking cholesterol-lowering drugs and the importance of treatment outcomes, and allay concerns about medication overuse.

  16. Au A, Griffiths LR, Irene L, Kooi CW, Wei LK
    Atherosclerosis, 2017 Oct;265:60-70.
    PMID: 28865324 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.08.003
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetic studies have been reported on the association between APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, but results remain controversial. Hence, this meta-analysis aimed to infer the causal relationships of APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506), APOB (rs693, rs1042031, rs1801701), APOC3 (rs4520, rs5128, rs2854116, rs2854117) and ABCA1 rs2230806 with ischemic stroke risk.

    METHODS: A systematic review was performed for all the articles retrieved from multiple databases, up until March 2017. Data were extracted from all eligible studies, and meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.3 and R package 3.2.1. The strength of association between each studied polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk was measured as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), under fixed- and random-effect models.

    RESULTS: A total of 79 studies reporting on the association between the studied polymorphisms and ischemic stroke risk were identified. The pooled data indicated that all genetic models of APOA5 rs662799 (ORs = 1.23-1.43), allelic and over-dominant models of APOA5 rs3135506 (ORs = 1.77-1.97), APOB rs1801701 (ORs = 1.72-2.13) and APOB rs1042031 (ORs = 1.66-1.88) as well as dominant model of ABCA1 rs2230806 (OR = 1.31) were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, no significant associations were observed between ischemic stroke and the other five polymorphisms, namely ApoB (rs693) and APOC3 (rs4520, rs5128, rs2854116 and rs2854117), under any genetic model.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis confirmed a significant association of APOA5 rs662799 CC, APOA5 rs3135506 CG, APOB rs1801701 GA, APOB rs1042031 GA and ABCA1 rs2230806 GG with increased risk of ischemic stroke.

  17. Safura Ramli A, Osman MT, Nasir NM, Saimin H, Abdul Rahman TH, Abdul Razak S, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2017 Aug;263:e265-e267.
    PMID: 29366009 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2017.06.860
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