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  1. Kadar M, Ibrahim S, Razaob NA, Chai SC, Harun D
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2018 02;65(1):63-68.
    PMID: 29315609 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12441
    BACKGROUND/AIM: The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale is a tool often used to assess independence among elderly at home. Its suitability to be used with the elderly population in Malaysia has not been validated. This current study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version to Malay speaking elderly in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was divided into three phases: (1) translation and linguistic validity involving both forward and backward translations; (2) establishment of face validity and content validity; and (3) establishment of reliability involving inter-rater, test-retest and internal consistency analyses. Data used for these analyses were obtained by interviewing 65 elderly respondents.

    RESULTS: Percentages of Content Validity Index for 4 criteria were from 88.89 to 100.0. The Cronbach α coefficient for internal consistency was 0.838. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability was 0.957 and 0.950 respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result shows that the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale - Malay Version has excellent reliability and validity for use with the Malay speaking elderly people in Malaysia. This scale could be used by professionals to assess functional ability of elderly who live independently in community.

  2. Romli MH, Wan Yunus F, Mackenzie L
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2019 08;66(4):428-445.
    PMID: 30821362 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12572
    INTRODUCTION: Using standardised instruments is one approach to support evidence-based practice. Referring to systematic reviews is an option to identify suitable instruments. However, with an abundance of systematic reviews available, therapists are challenged to identify an appropriate instrument to use. Therefore, this overview of reviews aimed to summarise relevant systematic review findings about standardised occupation-based instruments relevant for occupational therapy practice.

    METHODS: An overview of reviews was conducted. A systematic search was performed on four databases up to March 2018. Included systematic reviews were analysed for quality using A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR).

    RESULTS: A total of 2187 articles were identified after removing duplicates. Ultimately, 58 systematic reviews were identified that yielded 641 instruments. From those, 45 instruments were selected for appraisal as they met the inclusion criteria of being developed mainly by occupational therapists and were recommended in the summarised findings from the systematic reviews. The instruments were classified according to the following occupation domains: (i) multidimensional, (ii) activities of daily living, (iii) productivity, (iv) social, (v) sleep/rest, (vi) sexuality and (vii) spirituality. No systematic review was identified that specifically focussed on occupations related to school/education, leisure and play.

    DISCUSSION: Certain occupation domains such as activities of daily living, social and sleep/rest received high attention amongst researchers. There is a need for systematic reviews of instruments to measure education/school, play and leisure. Limited numbers of instruments were developed by occupational therapists outside the occupation domain of activities of daily living, and in areas of practice other than children and older people. Nevertheless, this overview can give some guidance for occupational therapists in selecting a suitable occupational therapy instrument for practice.

  3. Kadar M, Wan Yunus F, Tan E, Chai SC, Razaob Razab NA, Mohamat Kasim DH
    Aust Occup Ther J, 2020 02;67(1):3-12.
    PMID: 31799722 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1630.12626
    INTRODUCTION: Handwriting skills play a significant role in all stages of an individual's life. Writing interventions should be considered at a younger age to ensure proper development of writing skills. Hence, the aims of this study is to evaluate the current evidence of occupational therapy interventions in handwriting skills for 4-6 year old children.

    METHODS: Published literature was systematically searched according to PRISMA guidelines using specific key terms. Initial search identified 785 studies; however only seven met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for final review. Studies were methodologically appraised using the McMaster Critical Review Form-Quantitative Studies.

    RESULTS: The review found no randomised control trial study design pertaining to the reviewed area. However, it can be seen that occupational therapy interventions for writing skills in 4-6 year old children managed to increase the targeted skills. The results were similar across samples with or without disabilities. An effective integration of occupational therapy interventions into educational curriculum was found to save both time and cost.

    CONCLUSION: The long-term benefit from these interventions and the effects of these interventions on a broader spectrum of fine motor abilities need to be explored further with stronger research designs. However, the lack of studies adopting high level study designs, i.e., RCT designs means, results need to be approached with caution by occupational therapists when implementing handwriting skills intervention in practice.

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