METHODS: Articles published in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Science Direct from 2005 to 2015 were searched systematically. Studies were included if constipation satisfied the Rome II and or III criteria. Study populations consisted of Asian adults above 18 years old and with sample size above 50.
RESULTS: Of 2812 articles screened, 11 met the eligibility criteria. Constipation among Asian adults was characterized by three core symptoms of 'straining' at 82.8%, 'lumpy and hard stool' at 74.2% and 'sensation of incomplete evacuation' at 68.1% and the least frequent symptom was 'manual maneuver to facilitate defecation' at 23.3%. There was heterogeneity in frequency patterns of core symptoms between different Asian studies but also differences in core symptoms between constipation subtypes of functional constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.
CONCLUSIONS: In general, Asian adults perceive constipation symptoms in a similar but not equivalent manner to the West. Recognition of core symptoms will increase the diagnostic confidence of constipation and its subtypes but more studies of the various specific Asian populations are needed to address their differences.
METHODS: Fifty-two patients with colorectal cancer were randomized at four weeks after surgery to receive either a placebo (n = 25) or 30 billion colony-forming unit (CFU) of a mixture of six viable strains including 107 mg of Lactobacillus acidophilus BCMC® 12,130, Lactobacillus lactis BCMC® 12,451, Lactobacillus casei subsp BCMC® 12,313, Bifidobacterium longum BCMC® 02120, Bifidobacterium bifidum BCMC® 02290 and Bifidobacterium infantis BCMC® 02129 (n = 27). Patients were instructed to take the product orally twice daily for six months. Infection status, diarrhea or hospital admission were recorded throughout the study. Blood was taken pre- and post-intervention to measure TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22 using ELISA multiplex kit.
RESULTS: The majority of cases (~ 70%) were in Duke's C colorectal cancer for both groups. No surgical infection occurred and no antibiotics were required. Chemotherapy induced diarrhea was observed in both groups. Significant reduction in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-17C and IL-22 were observed in CRC patients who received probiotics as compared to pre-treatment level (P
METHODS: We abstracted the data of 1008 patients with NAFLD from nine centers across eight countries. Characteristics of elderly and non-elderly patients with NAFLD were compared using 1:3 sex-matched analysis.
RESULTS: Of the 1008 patients, 175 were elderly [age 64 (62-67) years], who were matched with 525 non-elderly patients [46 (36-54) years]. Elderly patients were more likely to have advanced fibrosis (35.4% vs. 13.3%; p
METHODS: Out of the 44 healthy individuals screened, 31 (14 females; mean age: 28.4 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled and underwent GES using the standardized egg-white meal. All participants were randomly assigned to either 99mTc-SP or 99mTc-SC on the first GES session before crossed over to the other formulation after 2 weeks.
RESULTS: Both kits achieved the radiochemical purities of > 95%. The median rate (95th upper normative limit) of gastric emptying, reported as total gastric meal retention between 99mTc-SP and 99mTc-SC, was found to be comparable at all measured time points: 0.5 h [85.0% (96.6%) vs. 82.0% (94.0%)], 1 h [70.0% (86.4%) vs. 65.0% (86.6%)], 2 h [31.0% (55.8%) vs. 25.0% (64.4%)], 3 h [7.0% (26.3%) vs. 5.0% (29.9%)], and 4 h [3.0% (10.3%) vs. 2.0% (9.9%)]; P > 0.05. In addition, both radiotracers correlated well (Kendall's Tau (τ) coefficient = 0.498, P
CASE PRESENTATION: 55 year old gentlemen presented with generalised pruritic erythematous rash on trunk and extremities. Six weeks prior to his consultation, antiviral agent entecavir was commenced for his chronic hepatitis B infection. Skin biopsy revealed acanthosis and focal lymphocytes with moderate perivascular lymphocyte infiltration. Skin condition recovered completely after caesation of offending drug and short course of oral corticosteroids.
CONCLUSION: This case highlight the awareness of clinicians on the spectrum of cutaneous drug reaction related to entecavir therapy.
METHODS: Systematic review and NMA of randomised controlled trials were performed, and the most suitable CPA was chosen based on efficacy and the most favourable risk-benefit profile. The economic benefits of CPA alone, 3 yearly SC alone, and a combination of CPA and SC were determined using the cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in the Malaysian health-care perspective. Outcomes were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in 2018 US Dollars ($) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and life-years (LYs) gained.
RESULTS: According to NMA, the risk-benefit profile favours the use of aspirin at very-low-dose (ASAVLD, ≤ 100 mg/day) for secondary prevention in individuals with previous ACAs. Celecoxib is the most effective CPA but the cardiovascular adverse events are of concern. According to CEA, the combination strategy (ASAVLD with 3-yearly SC) was cost-saving and dominates its competitors as the best buy option. The probability of being cost-effective for ASAVLD alone, 3-yearly SC alone, and combination strategy were 22%, 26%, and 53%, respectively. Extending the SC interval to five years in combination strategy was more cost-effective when compared to 3-yearly SC alone (ICER of $484/LY gain and $1875/QALY). However, extending to ten years in combination strategy was not cost-effective.
CONCLUSION: ASAVLD combined with 3-yearly SC in individuals with ACAs may be a cost-effective strategy for CRC prevention. An extension of SC intervals to five years can be considered in resource-limited countries.