Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Ab Rahman N, Sivasampu S, Mohamad Noh K, Khoo EM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 06 14;16:197.
    PMID: 27301972 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1444-0
    BACKGROUND: The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care.

    RESULTS: Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters.

    CONCLUSIONS: More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public clinics suggests a need for improved access to maternal care and pregnancy related care. This has implication on policy and health care provision and access for foreigners and future studies are needed to look into strategies to solve these problems.
  2. Ng CJ, Mathers N, Bradley A, Colwell B
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2014 Oct 24;14:503.
    PMID: 25341370 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-014-0503-7
    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of practical research frameworks to guide the development of patient decision aids [PtDAs]. This paper described how a PtDA was developed using the International Patient Decision Aids (IPDAS) guideline and UK Medical Research Council (UKMRC) frameworks to support patients when making treatment decisions in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    METHODS: This study used mixed methods to develop a PtDA for use in a UK general practice setting. A 10-member expert panel was convened to guide development and patients and clinicians were also interviewed individually using semi-structured interview guides to identify their decisional needs. Current literature was reviewed systematically to determine the best available evidence. The Ottawa Decision Support Framework was used to guide the presentation of the information and value clarification exercise. An iterative draft-review-revise process by the research team and review panel was conducted until the PtDA reached content and format 'saturation'. The PtDA was then pilot-tested by users in actual consultations to assess its acceptability and feasibility. The IPDAS and UKMRC frameworks were used throughout to inform the development process.

    RESULTS: The PANDAs PtDA was developed systematically and iteratively. Patients and clinicians highlighted the needs for information, decisional, emotional and social support, which were incorporated into the PtDA. The literature review identified gaps in high quality evidence and variations in patient outcome reporting. The PtDA comprised five components: background of the treatment options; pros and cons of each treatment option; value clarification exercise; support needs; and readiness to decide.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of combining the IPDAS and the UKMRC frameworks for the development and evaluation of a PtDA. Future studies should test this model for developing PtDAs across different decisions and healthcare contexts.

  3. Dalaba MA, Akweongo P, Aborigo RA, Saronga HP, Williams J, Aninanya GA, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2015;15:34.
    PMID: 25608609 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-014-0659-1
    The cost of treating maternal complications has serious economic consequences to households and can hinder the utilization of maternal health care services at the health facilities. This study estimated the cost of maternal complications to women and their households in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana.
  4. Atif M, Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Asif M, Babar ZU
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2014 Aug 19;14:353.
    PMID: 25138659 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-353
    BACKGROUND: Studies from both developed and developing countries have demonstrated a considerable fluctuation in the average cost of TB treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the medical resource utilization among new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. We also estimated the cost of tuberculosis treatment from the provider and patient perspectives, and identified the significant cost driving factors.
    METHODS: All new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were registered at the chest clinic of the Penang General Hospital, between March 2010 and February 2011, were invited to participate in the study. Provider sector costs were estimated using bottom-up, micro-costing technique. For the calculation of costs from the patients' perspective, all eligible patients who agreed to participate in the study were interviewed after the intensive phase and subsequently at the end of the treatment by a trained nurse. PASW was used to analyze the data (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).
    RESULTS: During the study period, 226 patients completed the treatment. However, complete costing data were available for 212 patients. The most highly utilized resources were chest X-ray followed by sputum smear examination. Only a smaller proportion of the patients were hospitalized. The average provider sector cost was MYR 992.34 (i.e., USD 325.35 per patient) whereby the average patient sector cost was MYR 1225.80 (i.e., USD 401.90 per patient). The average patient sector cost of our study population accounted for 5.7% of their annual family income. In multiple linear regression analysis, prolonged treatment duration (i.e., > 6 months) was the only predictor of higher provider sector costs whereby higher patient sector costs were determined by greater household income and persistent cough at the end of the intensive phase of the treatment.
    CONCLUSION: In relation to average provider sector cost, our estimates are substantially higher than the budget allocated by the Ministry of Health for the treatment of a tuberculosis case in Malaysia. The expenses borne by the patients and their families on the treatment of the current episode of tuberculosis were not catastrophic for them.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  5. Mohd Nordin NA, Aziz NA, Abdul Aziz AF, Ajit Singh DK, Omar Othman NA, Sulong S, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2014;14:118.
    PMID: 24606911 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-118
    The importance of long term rehabilitation for people with stroke is increasingly evident, yet it is not known whether such services can be materialised in countries with limited community resources. In this study, we explored the perception of rehabilitation professionals and people with stroke towards long term stroke rehabilitation services and potential approaches to enable provision of these services. Views from providers and users are important in ensuring whatever strategies developed for long term stroke rehabilitations are feasible and acceptable.
  6. Ali Jadoo SA, Aljunid SM, Sulku SN, Nur AM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2014;14:30.
    PMID: 24447374 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-30
    Since 2003, Turkey has implemented major health care reforms to develop easily accessible, high-quality, efficient, and effective healthcare services for the population. The purpose of this study was to bring out opinions of the Turkish people on health system reform process, focusing on several aspects of health system and assessing whether the public prefer the current health system or that provided a decade ago.
  7. Ng CJ, Lee PY, Lee YK, Chew BH, Engkasan JP, Irmi ZI, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2013 Oct 11;13:408.
    PMID: 24119237 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-408
    BACKGROUND: Involving patients in decision-making is an important part of patient-centred care. Research has found a discrepancy between patients' desire to be involved and their actual involvement in healthcare decision-making. In Asia, there is a dearth of research in decision-making. Using Malaysia as an exemplar, this study aims to review the current research evidence, practices, policies, and laws with respect to patient engagement in shared decision-making (SDM) in Asia.

    METHODS: In this study, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to collect information on healthcare decision-making in Malaysia. We also consulted medical education researchers, key opinion leaders, governmental organisations, and patient support groups to assess the extent to which patient involvement was incorporated into the medical curriculum, healthcare policies, and legislation.

    RESULTS: There are very few studies on patient involvement in decision-making in Malaysia. Existing studies showed that doctors were aware of informed consent, but few practised SDM. There was limited teaching of SDM in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula and a lack of accurate and accessible health information for patients. In addition, peer support groups and 'expert patient' programmes were also lacking. Professional medical bodies endorsed patient involvement in decision-making, but there was no definitive implementation plan.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, there appears to be little training or research on SDM in Malaysia. More research needs to be done in this area, including baseline information on the preferred and actual decision-making roles. The authors have provided a set of recommendations on how SDM can be effectively implemented in Malaysia.

  8. Turner TJ
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2009;9:235.
    PMID: 20003536 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-235
    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines support clinical decision-making by making recommendations to guide clinical practice. These recommendations are developed by integrating the expertise of a multidisciplinary group of clinicians with the perspectives of consumers and the best available research evidence. However studies have raised concerns about the quality of guideline development, and particularly the link between research and recommendations. The reasons why guideline developers are not following the established development methods are not clear.We aimed to explore the barriers to developing evidence-based guidelines in eleven hospitals in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, so as to better understand how evidence-based guideline development could be facilitated in these settings. The research aimed to identify the value clinicians place on guidelines, what clinicians want in guidelines developed in hospital settings and what factors limit rigorous evidence-based guideline development in these settings.
  9. Chua SS, Kok LC, Yusof FA, Tang GH, Lee SW, Efendie B, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2012;12:388.
    PMID: 23145922 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-388
    BACKGROUND: The roles of pharmacists have evolved from product oriented, dispensing of medications to more patient-focused services such as the provision of pharmaceutical care. Such pharmacy service is also becoming more widely practised in Malaysia but is not well documented. Therefore, this study is warranted to fill this information gap by identifying the types of pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) encountered by primary care patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or hyperlipidaemia in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This study was part of a large controlled trial that evaluated the outcomes of multiprofessional collaboration which involved medical general practitioners, pharmacists, dietitians and nurses in managing diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia in primary care settings. A total of 477 patients were recruited by 44 general practitioners in the Klang Valley. These patients were counselled by the various healthcare professionals and followed-up for 6 months.
    RESULTS: Of the 477 participants, 53.7% had at least one PCI, with a total of 706 PCIs. These included drug-use problems (33.3%), insufficient awareness and knowledge about disease condition and medication (20.4%), adverse drug reactions (15.6%), therapeutic failure (13.9%), drug-choice problems (9.5%) and dosing problems (3.4%). Non-adherence to medications topped the list of drug-use problems, followed by incorrect administration of medications. More than half of the PCIs (52%) were classified as probably clinically insignificant, 38.9% with minimal clinical significance, 8.9% as definitely clinically significant and could cause patient harm while one issue (0.2%) was classified as life threatening. The main causes of PCIs were deterioration of disease state which led to failure of therapy, and also presentation of new symptoms or indications. Of the 338 PCIs where changes were recommended by the pharmacist, 87.3% were carried out as recommended.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of pharmacists working in collaboration with other healthcare providers especially the medical doctors in identifying and resolving pharmaceutical care issues to provide optimal care for patients with chronic diseases.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00490672.
    Study name: Cardiovascular Risk Factors Intervention Strategies (CORFIS) trial
  10. Colombini M, Mayhew S, Ali SH, Shuib R, Watts C
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2013;13:65.
    PMID: 23419141 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-65
    This study explores the views and attitudes of health providers in Malaysia towards intimate partner violence (IPV) and abused women and considers whether and how their views affect the provision or quality of services. The impact of provider attitudes on the provision of services for women experiencing violence is particularly important to understand since there is a need to ensure that these women are not re-victimised by the health sector, but are treated sensitively.
  11. Foo CY, Lim KK, Sivasampu S, Dahian KB, Goh PP
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2015;15:349.
    PMID: 26315283 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-015-1011-0
    Rising demand of ophthalmology care is increasingly straining Malaysia's public healthcare sector due to its limited human and financial resources. Improving the effectiveness of ophthalmology service delivery can promote national policy goals of population health improvement and system sustainability. This study examined the performance variation of public ophthalmology service in Malaysia, estimated the potential output gain and investigated several factors that might explain the differential performance.
  12. Kohno A, Musa G, Nik Farid ND, Abdul Aziz N, Nakayama T, Dahlui M
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2016 May 05;16:167.
    PMID: 27151089 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-016-1417-3
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, international retirement migration is growing in its popularity and Japanese retirees choose Malaysia as their most preferred destination. This study examines the pertinent issues related to healthcare services as experienced by Japanese retirees in this country.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: From January to March 2015, we conducted focus group discussions with 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh. Guided by the social-ecological model, we discovered seven pertinent themes: 'language barriers','healthcare decisions', 'medical check-ups','healthcare insurance', 'nursing and palliative care', 'trust and distrust of healthcare services', and 'word-of-mouth information'.

    DISCUSSION: We identified seven pertinent issues related to healthcare services among Japanese retirees in Malaysia, of which four are especially important. These issues are explained as integrated themes within the social-ecological model. Language barriers prohibit them from having difficulty accessing to healthcare in Malaysia, but lack of will to improve their language skills exist among them. For that reason, they rely heavily on word-of-mouth information when seeking for healthcare. As a consequence, some develop feelings of trust and distrust of healthcare services. In addition, we have identified the needs for provide nursing and palliative care among Japanese retirees in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: Based on the magnitude of the discussion, we concluded that there are four crucial healthcare issues among Japanese retirees; 'language barriers', 'trust and distrust of healthcare services', 'word-of-mouth information' and 'nursing and palliative care'. We propose that further dialogue by healthcare stakeholders should be carried out to improve further the healthcare service provisions for Japanese retirees in Malaysia.

  13. Risso-Gill I, Balabanova D, Majid F, Ng KK, Yusoff K, Mustapha F, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2015;15:254.
    PMID: 26135302 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-015-0916-y
    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia.
  14. Upadhyay DK, Mohamed Ibrahim MI, Mishra P, Alurkar VM
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2015;15:57.
    PMID: 25888828 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-015-0715-5
    Patient satisfaction is the ultimate goal of healthcare system which can be achieved from good patient-healthcare professional relationship and quality of healthcare services provided. Study was conducted to determine the baseline satisfaction level of newly diagnosed diabetics and to explore the impact of pharmaceutical care intervention on patients' satisfaction during their follow-ups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal.
  15. Du S, Cao Y, Zhou T, Setiawan A, Thandar M, Koy V, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Aug 27;19(1):602.
    PMID: 31455377 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4402-9
    BACKGROUND: Primary health care (PHC) is usually the initial point of contact for individuals seeking to access health care and providers of PHC play a crucial role in the healthcare model. However, few studies have assessed the knowledge, ability, and skills (capacity) of PHC providers in delivering care. This study aimed to identify the capacity of PHC providers in countries of the Southeast and East Asian Nursing Education and Research Network (SEANERN).

    METHODS: A multi-national cross-sectional survey was performed among SEANERN countries. A 1-5 Likert scale was used to measure eight components of knowledge, ability, and skill of PHC providers. Descriptive statistics were employed, and radar charts were used to depict the levels of the three dimensions (knowledge, skill and ability) and eight components.

    RESULTS: Totally, 606 valid questionnaires from PHC providers were returned from seven countries of SEANERN (China, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Malaysia), with a responsive rate of 97.6% (606/621). For the three dimensions the ranges of total mean scores were distributed as follows: knowledge dimension: 2.78~3.11; skill dimension: 2.66~3.16; ability dimension: 2.67~3.06. Furthermore, radar charts revealed that the transition of PHC provider's knowledge into skill and from skill into ability decreased gradually. Their competencies in four areas, including safe water and sanitation, nutritional promotion, endemic diseases prevention, and essential provision of drugs, were especially low.

    CONCLUSIONS: The general capacity perceived by PHC providers themselves seems relatively low and imbalanced. To address the problem, SEANERN, through the collaboration of the members, can facilitate the appropriate education and training of PHC providers by developing feasible, practical and culturally appropriate training plans.

  16. Kamaliah MN, Jaafar S, Ehsan FZ, Safiee I, Ismail F, Mohd Saleh N, et al.
    DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-S1-A7
    Introduction. Malaysian health care is a parallel system with both public and private sectors. The MOH (Ministry of Health) is the main provider of health services in the country, delivering comprehensive medical, health, dental and pharmaceutical services at primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care. The public health services are heavily subsidized by the government. The practice of financial distribution within the Ministry of Health of Malaysia has traditionally been dependent on historical information, i.e., looking at past performance. Any additional increment has been based on arbitrary predictions of the consumer index or inflation. A more appropriate distribution would be based not only on the volume of patients, but also on the morbidity profiles of these populations. Because of the development of the TPC (Tele-Primary Care) electronic system, considerable data is now collected, and there exists a vast potential for data-mining. One potential area of study is to account for the differences in the health status of populations and their anticipated need for healthcare services. An earlier project demonstrated that the TPC dataset provides viable data that can be used for understanding differences in case mix and resource need by various population sub-groups. This was the first step in a multi-stage process to demonstrate the benefits of integrating case mix into the Malaysian healthcare system. As a result of the first project, an increased understanding of the TPC database was gained, which is providing usable data. However, to make full and effective use of TPC, a resource-use measure based on micro-costing information needed to be developed and validated. This project evaluated the plausibility of recently developed cost measures. This new resource-use measure would enable a clearer understanding of the resource consumption based on the morbidity profile of populations across regions, as well as individual clinics.
    Methods. The primary sources of data for this project came from public, primary care clinics using the TPC system; an alternative electronic system; a small group practice of private primary care clinics using a separate electronic system; and the network of a private medical insurance group with nationwide enrollees. The objective of the project was, first, to take the analyses a step further by incorporating new data input streams from private providers, and then to validate that the newly developed micro-costing information was meaningful. In addition, the project sought to assess the ability to link patient information across different providers, re-analyze the results from Phase 1 using the new resource measure, and then develop a program targeted at improving data quality. Lastly, the aim was to compare differences in service delivery patterns between TPC facilities and providers to assess the efficiency of resource use.
    Results. a) The success of the coding-quality training programs to ensure continually improved data quality in TPC over time was demonstrated. The data quality is sufficiently high to create more sophisticated models. Models to identify "high risk" patients or "high cost" patients are already possible.
    b) The ACG system has been proven to work with Malaysian TPC data, and the micro-costing data works for the TPC population and allows us to better understand differences in resource allocation/need. The 2008 Total Visits model is extremely predictive. However, the cost data for health clinics needs to be improved before the Total Cost can be used to predict costs with the same predictive ability as the Total Visit models.
    c) The analyses of the UPIN's (Unique Patient Identification Number) ability to link data to better capture the services being provided from multiple providers show that existing challenges are surmountable. A better understanding of the differences in service delivery in public vs. private sectors is imperative before a national capitation scheme is possible.
    d) The profiling of providers on a regional basis as the initial step to determining the viability of a morbidity-based capitation formula was successful.
    Conclusions. The initial project successfully demonstrated the ability of Malaysia to apply readily available diagnostic and other clinical information to develop state-of-the-art case-mix measures relevant to medical and fiscal management activities using the TPC database. It also offered an example of how risk adjustment tools can be used to monitor the TPC data collection process. The ACG system has been proven to work with Malaysian data, and it works very well for Total Visits where they can now be used to predict Total Visits with a very high certainty. Where the data quality has improved, the predictive modeling has improved in tandem. The data quality is sufficiently high to create more sophisticated models. Models to identify “high risk” patients or “high cost” patients are already possible.
  17. Fun WH, Sararaks S, Tan EH, Tang KF, Chong DWQ, Low LL, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Apr 24;19(1):248.
    PMID: 31018843 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4072-7
    BACKGROUND: Health Research Priority Setting (HRPS) in the Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia was initiated more than a decade ago to drive effort toward research for informed decision and policy-making. This study assessed the impact of funded prioritised research and identified research gaps to inform future priority setting initiatives for universal access and quality healthcare in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Research impact of universal access and quality healthcare projects funded by the National Institutes of Health Malaysia were assessed based on the modified Payback Framework, addressing categories of informing policy, knowledge production, and benefits to health and health sector. For the HRPS process, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology was adapted and adopted, with the incorporation of stakeholder values using weights and monetary allocation survey. Workshop discussions and interviews with stakeholders and research groups were conducted to identify research gaps, with the use of conceptual frameworks to guide the search.

    RESULTS: Seventeen ongoing and 50 completed projects were identified for research funding impact analysis. Overall, research fund allocation differed from stakeholders' expectation. For research impact, 48 out of 50 completed projects (96.0%) contributed to some form of policy-making efforts. Almost all completed projects resulted in outputs that contributed to knowledge production and were expected to lead to health and health sector benefits. The HRPS process led to the identification of research priority areas that stemmed from ongoing and new issues identified for universal access and quality healthcare.

    CONCLUSION: The concerted efforts of evaluation of research funding impact, prioritisation, dissemination and policy-maker involvement were valuable for optimal health research resource utilisation in a resource constrained developing country. Embedding impact evaluation into a priority setting process and funding research based on national needs could facilitate health research investment to reach its potential.

  18. Balqis-Ali NZ, Saw PS, Jailani AS, Fun WH, Mohd Saleh N, Tengku Bahanuddin TPZ, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2021 Jan 07;21(1):32.
    PMID: 33413325 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-06012-9
    BACKGROUND: The Person-centred Practice Inventory-Staff (PCPI-S) instrument was developed to measure healthcare providers' perception towards their person-centred practice. The study aimed to explore the influence of culture, context, language and local practice towards the PCPI-S instrument adaptation process for use among public primary care healthcare providers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The original PCPI-S was reviewed and adapted for cultural suitability by an expert committee to ensure conceptual and item equivalence. The instrument was subsequently translated into the local Malay language using the forward-backward translation by two independent native speakers, and modified following pre-tests involving cognitive debriefing interviews. The psychometric properties of the corresponding instrument were determined by assessing the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and correlation of the instrument, while the underlying structure was analysed using exploratory factor analysis.

    RESULTS: Review by expert committee found items applicable to local context. Pre-tests on the translated instrument found multiple domains and questions were misinterpreted. Many translations were heavily influenced by culture, context, and language discrepancies. Results of the subsequent pilot study found mean scores for all items ranged from 2.92 to 4.39. Notable ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha > 0.9). Exploratory factor analysis found formation of 11 components as opposed to the original 17 constructs.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence regarding the reliability and underlying structure of the PCPI-S instrument with regard to primary care practice. Culture, context, language and local practice heavily influenced the adaptation as well as interpretation of the underlying structure and should be given emphasis when translating person-centred into practice.

  19. Rafi A, Sayeed Z, Sultana P, Aik S, Hossain G
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2020 Jul 09;20(1):633.
    PMID: 32646521 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-05505-x
    BACKGROUND: Delayed hospital presentation is a hindrance to the optimum clinical outcome of modern therapies of Myocardial infarction (MI). This study aimed to investigate the significant factors associated with prolonged pre-hospital delay and the impact of this delay on in-hospital mortality among patients with MI in Northern Bangladesh.

    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted in December 2019 in cardiology ward of a 1000-bed tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Patients admitted in the ward with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction were included in the study. Socio demographic data, clinical features and patients' health seeking behavior was collected in a structured questionnaire from the patients. Median with interquartile range (IQR) of pre hospital delay were calculated and compared between different groups. Chi-square (χ2) test and binary logistic regression were used to estimate the determinants of pre-hospital delay and effect of pre-hospital delay on in-hospital mortality.

    RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-seven patients was enrolled in the study and their median (IQR) pre-hospital delay was 9.0 (13.0) hours. 39.5% patients admitted in the specialized hospital within 6 h. In logistic regression, determinants of pre-hospital delay were patients age (for

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