Recombinant protein fused to an N-terminal signal peptide can be translocated to the periplasm and, eventually, to the extracellular medium of Escherichia coli under specific conditions. In this communication, we described the use and optimization of a heterologous signal peptide (G1 signal peptide) from a Bacillus sp for improved recombinant protein secretion and cell viability in E. coli. Significant advantages in maintaining high cell viability and high specificity of target protein secretion were achieved by using G1 signal peptide compared to the well-known PelB signal peptide. Signal peptide sequence analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of G1 signal peptide demonstrated that an 'MKK' sequence in n-region and the presence of a helix-breaking residue at the centre of h-region are important elements for the design of an optimal signal peptide.
A simple procedure for recovering biodegradable polymer from bacterial cells has been developed using economical and environmentally friendly solvent or chemicals. Recombinant bacterium, Cupriavidus necator harboring pBBR1MCS-C2 plasmid polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene was used for the production of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HHx) from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). NaOH was chosen in this study as it could give high purity and recovery yield. Increase of NaOH concentration had resulted in an increase of the PHA purity, but the recovery yield had decreased. The greater improvement of PHA purity and recovery were achieved by incubating the freeze-dried cells (10-30 g/L) in NaOH (0.1 M) for 1-3 h at 30°C and polishing using 20% (v/v) of ethanol. The treatment caused negligible degradation of the molecular weight of PHA recovered from the bacterial cells. The present review also highlights other extraction methods to provide greater insights into economical and sustainable recovery of PHA from bacterial cells.
FeOOH nanoparticles are commonly synthesized at very high temperature and pressure that makes the process energy consuming and non-economic. Recently, novel approaches were developed for the fabrication of these particles at room temperature. But, the main problem with these methods is that the prepared structures are aggregates of ultra-small nanoparticles where no intact separate nanoparticles are formed. In this study, for the first time, secretory compounds from Chlorella vulgaris cells were employed for the controlled synthesis of FeOOH nanoparticles at room atmosphere. Obtained particles were found to be goethite (α-FeO(OH)) crystals. Controlled synthesis of FeOOH nanoparticles resulted in uniform spherical nanoparticles ranging from 8 to 17 nm in diameter with 12.8 nm mean particle size. Fourier-transform infrared and elemental analyses were indicated that controlled synthesized nanoparticles have not functionalized with secretory compounds of C. vulgaris, and these compounds just played a controlling role over the synthesis reaction.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission will increase due to the increasing global plastic demand. Statistical data shows that plastic production alone will contribute to at least 20% of the annual global carbon budget in the near future. Hence, several alternative methods are recommended to overcome this problem, such as bio-product synthesis. Algae consist of diverse species and have huge potential to be a promising biomass feedstock for a range of purposes, including bio-oil production. The convenient cultivation method of algae could be one of the main support for algal biomass utilization. The aim of this study is to forecast and outline the strategies in order to meet the future demand (year 2050) of plastic production and, at the same time, reduce CO2 emission by replacing the conventional plastic with bio-based plastic. In this paper, the analysis for 25%, 50% and 75% CO2 reduction has been done by using carbon emission pinch analysis. The strategies of biomass utilization in Malaysia are also enumerated in this study. This study suggested that the algal biomass found in Malaysia coastal areas should be utilized and cultivated on a larger scale in order to meet the increasing plastic demand and, at the same time, reduce carbon footprint. Some of the potential areas for macroalgae sea-farming cultivation in Sabah coastline (Malaysia), comprised of about 3885 km2 (388,500 ha) in total, have been highlighted. These potential areas have the potential to produce up to 14.5 million tonnes (Mt)/y of macroalgae in total, which can contribute 370 Mt of phenol for bioplastic production.
Cell immobilization on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic harvesting is a novel approach for microalgal cells separation. To date, the effect of these nanoparticles on microalgal cells was only studied over a short period of time. More studies are hence needed for a better understanding of the magnetic harvesting proposes or environmental concerns relating to long-term exposure to nanoparticles. In this study, the impact of various concentrations of MNPs on the microalgal cells growth and their metabolic status was investigated over 12 days. More than 60% reduction in mitochondrial activity and pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) content occurred during the first 6 days of exposure to ≥50 µg/mL nanoparticles. However, more than 50% growth inhibitory effect was seen at concentrations higher than 400 µg/mL. Exposure to MNPs gradually induced cellular adaptation and after about 6 days of exposure to stress generating concentrations (˂400 µg/mL) of IONs, microalgae could overcome the imposed damages. This work provides a better understanding regarding the environmental impact of MNPs and appropriate concentrations of these particles for future algal cells magnetic immobilization and harvesting.
The richness of high-value bio-compounds derived from microalgae has made microalgae a promising and sustainable source of useful product. The present work starts with a review on the usage of open pond and photobioreactor in culturing various microalgae strains, followed by an in-depth evaluation on the common harvesting techniques used to collect microalgae from culture medium. The harvesting methods discussed include filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, and flotation. Additionally, the advanced extraction technologies using ionic liquids as extractive solvents applied to extract high-value bio-compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and other bioactive compounds from microalgae biomass are summarized and discussed. However, more work needs to be done to fully utilize the potential of microalgae biomass for the application in large-scale production of biofuels, food additives, and nutritive supplements.
Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 was cultivated using palm oil mill effluent (POME) in a novel-designed photobioreactor (NPBR) and glass-made vessel photobioreactor (PBR). The comparison was made on biomass and lipid productions, as well as its pollutants removal efficiencies. NPBR is transparent and is developed in thin flat panels with a high surface area per volume ratio. It is equipped with microbubbling and baffles retention, ensuring effective light and CO2 utilization. The triangular shape of this reactor at the bottom serves to ease microalgae cell harvesting by sedimentation. Both biomass and lipid yields attained in NPBR were 2.3-2.9 folds higher than cultivated in PBR. The pollutants removal efficiencies achieved were 93.7% of chemical oxygen demand, 98.6% of total nitrogen and 96.0% of total phosphorus. Mathematical model revealed that effective light received and initial mass contributes toward successful microalgae cultivation. Overall, the results revealed the potential of NPBR integration in Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 cultivation, with an aim to achieve greater feasibility in microalgal-based biofuel real application and for environmental sustainability.
With the unique properties such as high surface area to volume ratio, stability, inertness, ease of functionalization, as well as novel optical, electrical, and magnetic behaviors, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in various fields with the common types including nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and fullerenes. With the aim of providing useful insights to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for large-scale production, this review focused on the science and applications of inorganic and organic nanomaterials, emphasizing on their synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications on different fields. The applications of nanomaterials on imaging, cell and gene delivery, biosensor, cancer treatment, therapy, and others were discussed in depth. Last but not least, the future prospects and challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology were also explored.
NANNOCHLOROPSIS: sp. is a green alga that is widely used in the aquaculture industry as a feed in Malaysia, but genetic engineering studies of this alga are still underexplored even though there is a growing interest in microalgae genetic engineering for various industrial purposes. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of three transformation methods normally done on microalgae, namely polyethylene glycol (PEG), electroporation, and glass beads on Malaysian indigenous Nannochloropsis sp. using two commercially available plasmids, pUC19 and pGEM-T easy vector as well as an amplicon of ampicillin resistance (AMPR) gene. In this study, out of three transformation methods tested, positive transformants of Nannochloropsis sp. were successfully obtained via electroporation method. Further verification via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing confirmed that the electroporation method was found to be the sole successful method in producing transgenic lines of our locally isolated Nannochloropsis sp. Results from this study proved the efficiency of electroporation for delivery of transgene to this green alga which has been reported to be tedious. The described method also provides the gateway for developing Nannochloropsis sp. as a delivery system to aquatic organism due to its importance in the industry.
Microalgae biomass contains various useful bio-active components. Microalgae derived biodiesel has been researched for almost two decades. However, sole biodiesel extraction from microalgae is time-consuming and is not economically feasible due to competitive fossil fuel prices. Microalgae also contains proteins and carbohydrates in abundance. Microalgae are likewise utilized to extract high-value products such as pigments, anti-oxidants and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which are useful in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industry. These compounds can be extracted simultaneously or sequentially after biodiesel extraction to reduce the total expenditure involved in the process. This approach of bio-refinery is necessary to promote microalgae in the commercial market. Researchers have been keen on utilizing the bio-refinery approach to exploit the valuable components encased by microalgae. Apart from all the beneficial components housed by microalgae, they also help in reducing the anthropogenic CO2 levels of the atmosphere while utilizing saline or wastewater. These benefits enable microalgae as a potential source for bio-refinery approach. Although life-cycle analysis and economic assessment do not favor the use of microalgae biomass feedstock to produce biofuel and co-products with the existing techniques, this review still aims to highlight the beneficial components of microalgae and their importance to humans. In addition, this article also focuses on current and future aspects of improving the feasibility of bio-processing for microalgae bio-refinery.
This study was aimed to identify and optimize the culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by a lactic acid bacterium strain isolated from mam nem, a fermented fish sauce. Among the six isolates obtained from mam nem, the MN12 had the most potent GABA-producing capability. The strain was then identified to be Pedioccocus pentosaceus by employing MALDI-TOF-MS and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase sequencing methods. The initial cell density of 5.106 CFU/mL, monosodium glutamate concentration of 60 mM, initial pH of 7, temperature of 45°C and cultivation time of 72 h were found to be the optimal culture conditions for highest production of GABA, reaching 27.9 ± 0.42 mM, by this strain. The cultivation conditions for GABA production by P. pentosaceus MN12 have been successfully optimized, providing a foundation for the development of fermented foods enriched with GABA.
Traditionally existing 2D culture scaffold has been inappropriately validated due to the failure in generating the precise therapeutic response. Therefore, this leads to the fabrication of 3D culture scaffold resolving the limitations in the in vivo environment. In recent years, tissue engineering played an important role in the field of bio-medical engineering. Biopolymer material, a novel natural material with excellent properties of nontoxic and biodegradable merits can be served as culture scaffold. This review summarizes the modifications of natural biopolymeric culture scaffold with different crosslinkers and their application. In addition, this review provides the recent progress of natural biopolymeric culture scaffold mainly focusing on their properties, synthesizing and modification and application.
The Vaccinium genus comprises more than 126 genera of perennial flowering plants that are commonly adapted to poor and acidic soils or epiphytic environments. Their molecular and genomic characterization is a result of the recent advent in next-generation sequencing technology. In the current research, extracts were prepared in different media, such as petroleum ether, methanol and ethanol. An extract of Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) was used at a dose of 200-400 mg/kg by weight (B.wt). Levels of oxidative stress markers, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured. A histopathological study of six vital organs in rats was also conducted. The results indicated that the antioxidant levels were lower in the group given only ethylene oxide (EtO) but higher in the groups receiving cranberry extract as a treatment. Major improvements were also observed in stress markers such as advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and MDA following cranberry treatment. Histopathological changes induced by EtO were observed in the heart, kidney, liver, lung, stomach and testis and were reversed following cranberry treatment. The major toxic effects of EtO were oxidative stress and organ degeneration, as observed from various stress markers and histopathological changes. Our study showed that this extract contains strong antioxidant properties, which may contribute to the amelioration of the observed toxic effects.
The world at large is facing a new threat with the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though imperceptible by the naked eye, the medical, sociological and economical implications caused by this newly discovered virus have been and will continue to be a great impediment to our lives. This health threat has already caused over two million deaths worldwide in the span of a year and its mortality rate is projected to continue rising. In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19. The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent. Many of the characteristics in algae can provide insights on the development of microalgae to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses and contribute in manufacturing various green and high-value products.
Antibiotics, as antimicrobial drugs, have been widely applied as human and veterinary medicines. Recently, many antibiotics have been detected in the environments due to their mass production, widespread use, but a lack of adequate treatment processes. The environmental occurrence of antibiotics has received worldwide attention due to their potential harm to the ecosystem and human health. Research status of antibiotics in the environment field is presented by bibliometrics. Herein, we provided a comprehensive overview on the following important issues: (1) occurrence of antibiotics in different environmental compartments, such as wastewater, surface water, and soil; (2) toxicity of antibiotics toward non-target organisms, including aquatic and terrestrial organisms; (3) current treatment technologies for the degradation and removal of antibiotics, including adsorption, hydrolysis, photodegradation and oxidation, and biodegradation. It was found that macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides were most frequently detected in the environment. Compared to surface and groundwaters, wastewater contained a high concentration of antibiotic residues. Both antibiotics and their metabolites exhibited toxicity to non-target organisms, especially aquatic organisms (e.g., algae and fish). Fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides can be removed through abiotic process, such as adsorption, photodegradation, and oxidation. Fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides can directly undergo biodegradation. Further studies on the chronic effects of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations on the ecosystem were urgently needed to fully understand the hazards of antibiotics and help the government to establish the permissible limits. Biodegradation is a promising technology; it has numerous advantages such as cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness.
In view of high energy cost and water consumption in microalgae cultivation, microalgal-biofilm-based cultivation system has been advocated as a solution toward a more sustainable and resource friendlier system for microalgal biomass production. Algal-derived extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) form cohesive network to interconnect the cells and substrates; however, their interactions within the biofilm are poorly understood. This scenario impedes the biofilm process development toward resource recovery. Herein, this review elucidates on various biofilm cultivation modes and contribution of EPS toward biofilm adhesion. Immobilized microalgae can be envisioned by the colloid interactions in terms of a balance of both dispersive and polar interactions among three interfaces (cells, mediums and substrates). Last portion of this review is dedicated to the future perspectives and challenges on the EPS; with regard to the biopolymers extraction, biopolymers' functional description and cross-referencing between model biofilms and full-scale biofilm systems are evaluated. This review will serve as an informative reference for readers having interest in microalgal biofilm phenomenon by incorporating the three main players in attached cultivation systems: microalgae, EPS and supporting materials. The ability to mass produce these miniature cellular biochemical factories via immobilized biofilm technology will lay the groundwork for a more sustainable and feasible production.
Nanomedicines are applied as alternative treatments for anticancer agents. For the treatment of cancer, due to the small size in nanometers (nm), specific site targeting can be achieved with the use of nanomedicines, increasing their bioavailability and conferring fewer toxic side effects. Additionally, the use of minute amounts of drugs can lead to cost savings. In addition, nanotechnology is effectively applied in the preparation of such drugs as they are in nm sizes, considered one of the earliest cutoff values for the production of products utilized in nanotechnology. Early concepts described gold nanoshells as one of the successful therapies for cancer and associated diseases where the benefits of nanomedicine include effective active or passive targeting. Common medicines are degraded at a higher rate, whereas the degradation of macromolecules is time-consuming. All of the discussed properties are responsible for executing the physiological behaviors occurring at the following scale, depending on the geometry. Finally, large nanomaterials based on organic, lipid, inorganic, protein, and synthetic polymers have also been utilized to develop novel cancer cures.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing is recently emerging as a valuable technique for measuring the binding constants, association and dissociation rate constants, and stoichimetry for a binding interaction kinetics in a number of emerging biological areas. This technique can be applied to the study of immune system diseases in order to contribute to improved understanding and evaluation of binding parameters for a variety of interactions between antigens and antibodies biochemically and clinically. Since the binding constants determination of an anti-protein dengue antibody (Ab) to a protein dengue antigen (Ag) is mostly complicated, the SPR technique aids a determination of binding parameters directly for a variety of particular dengue Ag_Ab interactions in the real-time. The study highlights the doctrine of real-time dengue Ag_Ab interaction kinetics as well as to determine the binding parameters that is performed with SPR technique. In addition, this article presents a precise prediction as a reference curve for determination of dengue sample concentration.
This study aimed to investigate the expression of autophagy-related proteins in a mouse model of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Mice were assigned to one of four groups: an animal experimental model group (NMO-EAE group, given with exogenous IL-17A), Interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody intervention group (NMO-EAE_0IL17inb), No exogenous interleukin-17 enhanced immune intervention group (NMO-EAE_0IL17), and a control group. Behavioral scores were assessed in each group, and the protein expressions of sequestosome 1 (P62), Beclin-1, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-I), and LC3II/LC3I were detected using Western blotting. In the NMO-EAE_0IL17 group, the expression of Beclin-1 decreased, the LC3II/LC3I ratio was lower, and the expressions of P62, mTOR, and PI3K-I increased; after administration of IL-17A inhibitor into the brain tissue, however, the expression of Beclin-1 increased significantly, along with the LC3II/LC3I ratio, while the expressions of P62, mTOR and PI3K-I protein decreased significantly. In terms of behavioral scores, the scores of optic neuritis and myelitis were more serious, onset occurred earlier and the progress was faster, after the administration of IL-17A. In the mechanism of NMO animal model, IL-17A may regulate autophagy and affect the disease process through the activation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway.