Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

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  1. Show KY, Lee DJ, Chang JS
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 May;135:720-9.
    PMID: 22939595 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.08.021
    Biofuels are viewed as promising alternatives to conventional fossil fuels because they have the potential to eliminate major environmental problems created by fossil fuels. Among the still developing biofuel technologies, biodiesel production from algae offers a greater prospect for large-scale practical use, as algae are capable of producing much more yield than other biofuels. While research on algae-based biofuel is still in its developing stage, extensive work on laboratory- and pilot-scale algae harvesting systems with promising prospects has been reported. This paper presented a discussion of the literature review on recent advances in algae separation, harvesting and drying for biofuel production. The review and discussion focus on destabilization of algae, algae harvesting technologies and algae drying processes. Challenges and prospects of algae harvesting are also outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  2. Medipally SR, Yusoff FM, Banerjee S, Shariff M
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:519513.
    PMID: 25874216 DOI: 10.1155/2015/519513
    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  3. Tan CH, Show PL, Chang JS, Ling TC, Lan JC
    Biotechnol Adv, 2015 Nov 1;33(6 Pt 2):1219-27.
    PMID: 25728066 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.02.013
    Microalgae have caught the world's attention for its potential to solve one of the world's most pressing issues-sustainable green energy. Compared to biofuels supplied by oil palm, rapeseed, soybean and sugar cane, microalgae alone can be manipulated to generate larger amounts of biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and biomass in a shorter time. Apart from higher productivity, microalgae can also grow using brackish water on non-arable land, greatly reducing the competition with food and cash crops. Hence, numerous efforts have been put into the commercialisation of microalgae-derived biofuel by both the government and private bodies. This paper serves to review conventional and novel methods for microalgae culture and biomass harvest, as well as recent developments in techniques for microalgal biofuel production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  4. Lai JI, Yusoff FM, Shariff M
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2012 Jul 01;15(13):635-40.
    PMID: 24218933
    Outdoor mass culture of microalgae in the tropical area is important to minimize its production cost. This study evaluates the growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans in 120 L annular photobioreactors at indoor temperature (Treatment I, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) and outdoor tropical ambient temperature, (Treatment II, 30 +/- 6 degrees C). Each treatment was done in duplicates. For both treatments, C. calcitrans was first grown in starter columns of 10 L capacity for a period of 7 days at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. After 7 days, the 9 L culture was transferred to the annular photobioreactors and subsequently brought to a final volume of 100 L by adding 20 L fresh medium every 5 days. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the dry weight of microalgae grown in natural light and those grown indoor. The results suggest that C. calcitrans can be grown in outdoor conditions, hence, saving time and microalgae production cost for the larviculture industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  5. Goli A, Shamiri A, Talaiekhozani A, Eshtiaghi N, Aghamohammadi N, Aroua MK
    J Environ Manage, 2016 Dec 01;183:41-58.
    PMID: 27576148 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.08.054
    The extensive amount of available information on global warming suggests that this issue has become prevalent worldwide. Majority of countries have issued laws and policies in response to this concern by requiring their industrial sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2. Thus, introducing new and more effective treatment methods, such as biological techniques, is crucial to control the emission of greenhouse gases. Many studies have demonstrated CO2 fixation using photo-bioreactors and raceway ponds, but a comprehensive review is yet to be published on biological CO2 fixation. A comprehensive review of CO2 fixation through biological process is presented in this paper as biological processes are ideal to control both organic and inorganic pollutants. This process can also cover the classification of methods, functional mechanisms, designs, and their operational parameters, which are crucial for efficient CO2 fixation. This review also suggests the bio-trickling filter process as an appropriate approach in CO2 fixation to assist in creating a pollution-free environment. Finally, this paper introduces optimum designs, growth rate models, and CO2 fixation of microalgae, functions, and operations in biological CO2 fixation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  6. Lam MK, Lee KT
    Biotechnol Adv, 2012 May-Jun;30(3):673-90.
    PMID: 22166620 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.11.008
    Culturing of microalgae as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production has received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate inside their cells for biodiesel and bioethanol production, respectively. In addition, this superior feedstock offers several environmental benefits, such as effective land utilization, CO(2) sequestration, self-purification if coupled with wastewater treatment and does not trigger food versus fuel feud. Despite having all these 'theoretical' advantages, review on problems and issues related to energy balance in microalgae biofuel are not clearly addressed until now. Base on the maturity of current technology, the true potential of microalgae biofuel towards energy security and its feasibility for commercialization are still questionable. Thus, this review is aimed to depict the practical problems that are facing the microalgae biofuel industry, covering upstream to downstream activities by accessing the latest research reports and critical data analysis. Apart from that, several interlink solutions to the problems will be suggested with the purpose to bring current microalgae biofuel research into a new dimension and consequently, to revolutionize the entire microalgae biofuel industry towards long-term sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  7. Apandi NM, Mohamed RMSR, Al-Gheethi A, Kassim AHM
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Feb;26(4):3226-3242.
    PMID: 30565116 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3937-3
    Microalgal biomass produced from the phycoremediation of wastewater represents an important protein source, lipids, and natural antioxidants and bioproducts. Therefore, the microalgal biomass and their derived compounds are used in animal and aquaculture feed as well as human nutrition and health products. Many microalgal species have shown promising potential for many bioproducts. However, significant processes to find the optimum quality and quantity of microalgal biomass are still required especially when it is used as a replacement for aquaculture feed. The limitations lie in the selection of microalgal species and their production. The present review discusses the potential generation of bioproducts from microalgal biomass resulting from the phycoremediation of wet market wastewater. The consortium approach in wastewater treatment and the comparison between biomass production and available common feeds for aquaculture were reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  8. Barkia I, Saari N, Manning SR
    Mar Drugs, 2019 May 24;17(5).
    PMID: 31137657 DOI: 10.3390/md17050304
    Microalgae represent a potential source of renewable nutrition and there is growing interest in algae-based dietary supplements in the form of whole biomass, e.g., Chlorella and Arthrospira, or purified extracts containing omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. The commercial production of bioactive compounds from microalgae is currently challenged by the biorefinery process. This review focuses on the biochemical composition of microalgae, the complexities of mass cultivation, as well as potential therapeutic applications. The advantages of open and closed growth systems are discussed, including common problems encountered with large-scale growth systems. Several methods are used for the purification and isolation of bioactive compounds, and many products from microalgae have shown potential as antioxidants and treatments for hypertension, among other health conditions. However, there are many unknown algal metabolites and potential impurities that could cause harm, so more research is needed to characterize strains of interest, improve overall operation, and generate safe, functional products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  9. Cheah WY, Show PL, Chang JS, Ling TC, Juan JC
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 May;184:190-201.
    PMID: 25497054 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.026
    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  10. Harun R, Danquah MK, Thiruvenkadam S
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:435631.
    PMID: 24971327 DOI: 10.1155/2014/435631
    Effective optimization of microalgae-to-bioethanol process systems hinges on an in-depth characterization of key process parameters relevant to the overall bioprocess engineering. One of the such important variables is the biomass particle size distribution and the effects on saccharification levels and bioethanol titres. This study examined the effects of three different microalgal biomass particle size ranges, 35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm, 125 μm ≤ x ≤ 180 μm, and 295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm, on the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production. Two scenarios were investigated: single enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase) and double enzyme hydrolysis (cellulase and cellobiase). The glucose yield from biomass in the smallest particle size range (35 μm ≤ x ≤ 90 μm) was the highest, 134.73 mg glucose/g algae, while the yield from biomass in the larger particle size range (295 μm ≤ x ≤ 425 μm) was 75.45 mg glucose/g algae. A similar trend was observed for bioethanol yield, with the highest yield of 0.47 g EtOH/g glucose obtained from biomass in the smallest particle size range. The results have shown that the microalgal biomass particle size has a significant effect on enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  11. Teo CL, Atta M, Bukhari A, Taisir M, Yusuf AM, Idris A
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Jun;162:38-44.
    PMID: 24736210 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.113
    Wavelength of light is a crucial factor which renders microalgae as the potential biodiesel. In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. as famous targets were selected. The effect of different light wavelengths on growth rate and lipid production was studied. Microalgae were cultivated for 14 days as under blue, red, red-blue LED and white fluorescent light. The growth rate of microalgae was analyzed by spectrophotometer and cell counting while oil production under improved Nile red method. Optical density result showed the microalgae exhibited better growth curve under blue wavelength. Besides, Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. under blue wavelength showed the higher growth rate (1.47 and 1.64 day(-1)) and oil production (102.954 and 702.366 a.u.). Gas chromatography analysis also showed that palmitic acid and stearic acid which were compulsory components for biodiesel contribute around 49-51% of total FAME from Nannochloropsis sp. and 81-83% of total FAME from Tetraselmis sp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  12. Atta M, Idris A, Bukhari A, Wahidin S
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Nov;148:373-8.
    PMID: 24063820 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.08.162
    Light quality and the intensity are key factors which render microalgae as a potential source of biodiesel. In this study the effects of various intensities of blue light and its photoperiods on the growth and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by using LED (Light Emitting Diode) in batch culture. C. vulgaris was grown for 13 days at three different light intensities (100, 200 and 300 μmol m(-2)s(-1)). Effect of three different light and dark regimes (12:12, 16:08 and 24:00 h Light:Dark) were investigated for each light intensity at 25°C culture temperature. Maximum lipid content (23.5%) was obtained due to high efficiency and deep penetration of 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) of blue light (12:12 L:D) with improved specific growth (1.26 d(-1)) within reduced cultivation time of 8 days. White light could produce 20.9% lipid content in 10 days at 16:08 h L:D.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  13. Mohamed MS, Tan JS, Mohamad R, Mokhtar MN, Ariff AB
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:948940.
    PMID: 24109209 DOI: 10.1155/2013/948940
    Mixotrophic metabolism was evaluated as an option to augment the growth and lipid production of marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. FTC 209. In this study, a five-level three-factor central composite design (CCD) was implemented in order to enrich the W-30 algal growth medium. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model the effect of three medium variables, that is, glucose (organic C source), NaNO3 (primary N source), and yeast extract (supplementary N, amino acids, and vitamins) on biomass concentration, X(max), and lipid yield, P(max)/X(max). RSM capability was also weighed against an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for predicting a composition that would result in maximum lipid productivity, Pr(lipid). A quadratic regression from RSM and a Levenberg-Marquardt trained ANN network composed of 10 hidden neurons eventually produced comparable results, albeit ANN formulation was observed to yield higher values of response outputs. Finalized glucose (24.05 g/L), NaNO3 (4.70 g/L), and yeast extract (0.93 g/L) concentration, affected an increase of X(max) to 12.38 g/L and lipid a accumulation of 195.77 mg/g dcw. This contributed to a lipid productivity of 173.11 mg/L per day in the course of two-week cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  14. Lananan F, Jusoh A, Ali N, Lam SS, Endut A
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Aug;141:75-82.
    PMID: 23562179 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.03.006
    A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  15. Yee W
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2016 Apr;32(4):64.
    PMID: 26931604 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-016-2023-6
    Over the years, microalgae have been identified to be a potential source of commercially important products such as pigments, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular, biofuels. Current demands for sustainable fuel sources and bioproducts has led to an extensive search for promising strains of microalgae for large scale cultivation. Prospective strains identified for these purposes were among others, mainly from the genera Hematococcus, Dunaliella, Botryococcus, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Nannochloropsis. Recently, microalgae from the Selenastraceae emerged as potential candidates for biodiesel production. Strains from the Selenastraceae such as Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10, M. contortum SAG 47.80, Ankistrodesmus sp. SP2-15 and M. minutum were high biomass and lipid producers when cultivated under optimal conditions. A number of Selenastraceae strains were also reported to be suitable for cultivation in wastewater. This review highlights recent reports on potential strains from the Selenastraceae for biodiesel production and contrasts their biomass productivity, lipid productivity as well as fatty acid profile. Cultivation strategies employed to enhance their biomass and lipid productivity as well as to reduce feedstock cost are also discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  16. Sankaran R, Show PL, Cheng YS, Tao Y, Ao X, Nguyen TDP, et al.
    Mol Biotechnol, 2018 Oct;60(10):749-761.
    PMID: 30116991 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-018-0111-6
    Microalgae are the most promising sources of protein, which have high potential due to their high-value protein content. Conventional methods of protein harnessing required multiple steps, and they are generally complex, time consuming, and expensive. Currently, the study of integration methods for microalgae cell disruption and protein recovery process as a single-step process is attracting considerable interest. This study aims to investigate the novel approach of integration method of electrolysis and liquid biphasic flotation for protein extraction from wet biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 and obtaining the optimal operating conditions for the protein extraction. The optimized conditions were found at 60% (v/v) of 1-propanol as top phase, 250 g/L of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate as bottom phase, crude microalgae loading of 0.1 g, air flowrate of 150 cc/min, flotation time of 10 min, voltage of 20 V and electrode's tip touching the top phase of LBEF. The protein recovery and separation efficiency after optimization were 23.4106 ± 1.2514% and 173.0870 ± 4.4752%, respectively. Comparison for LBEF with and without the aid of electric supply was also conducted, and it was found that with the aid of electrolysis, the protein recovery and separation efficiency increased compared to the LBEF without electrolysis. This novel approach minimizes the steps for overall protein recovery from microalgae, time consumption, and cost of operation, which is beneficial in bioprocessing industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  17. Yaacob NS, Ahmad MF, Kawasaki N, Maniyam MN, Abdullah H, Hashim EF, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 27;26(3).
    PMID: 33513787 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030653
    Soil extracts are useful nutrients to enhance the growth of microalgae. Therefore, the present study attempts for the use of virgin soils from Peninsular Malaysia as growth enhancer. Soils collected from Raja Musa Forest Reserve (RMFR) and Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve (AHFR) were treated using different extraction methods. The total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the autoclave methods were relatively higher than natural extraction with up to 132.0 mg N/L, 10.7 mg P/L, and 2629 mg C/L, respectively for RMFR. The results of TDN, TDP, and DOC suggested that the best extraction methods are autoclaved at 121 °C twice with increasing 87%, 84%, and 95%, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris TRG 4C dominated the growth at 121 °C twice extraction method in the RMRF and AHRF samples, with increasing 54.3% and 14%, respectively. The specific growth rate (µ) of both microalgae were relatively higher, 0.23 d-1 in the Ayer Hitam Soil. This extract served well as a microalgal growth promoter, reducing the cost and the needs for synthetic medium. Mass production of microalgae as aquatic feed will be attempted eventually. The high recovery rate of nutrients has a huge potential to serve as a growth promoter for microalgae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  18. Taghizadeh SM, Berenjian A, Chew KW, Show PL, Mohd Zaid HF, Ramezani H, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):141-153.
    PMID: 31994978 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1718477
    Cell immobilization on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetic harvesting is a novel approach for microalgal cells separation. To date, the effect of these nanoparticles on microalgal cells was only studied over a short period of time. More studies are hence needed for a better understanding of the magnetic harvesting proposes or environmental concerns relating to long-term exposure to nanoparticles. In this study, the impact of various concentrations of MNPs on the microalgal cells growth and their metabolic status was investigated over 12 days. More than 60% reduction in mitochondrial activity and pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids) content occurred during the first 6 days of exposure to ≥50 µg/mL nanoparticles. However, more than 50% growth inhibitory effect was seen at concentrations higher than 400 µg/mL. Exposure to MNPs gradually induced cellular adaptation and after about 6 days of exposure to stress generating concentrations (˂400 µg/mL) of IONs, microalgae could overcome the imposed damages. This work provides a better understanding regarding the environmental impact of MNPs and appropriate concentrations of these particles for future algal cells magnetic immobilization and harvesting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
  19. Tan JS, Lee SY, Chew KW, Lam MK, Lim JW, Ho SH, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):116-129.
    PMID: 31909681 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1711626
    The richness of high-value bio-compounds derived from microalgae has made microalgae a promising and sustainable source of useful product. The present work starts with a review on the usage of open pond and photobioreactor in culturing various microalgae strains, followed by an in-depth evaluation on the common harvesting techniques used to collect microalgae from culture medium. The harvesting methods discussed include filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, and flotation. Additionally, the advanced extraction technologies using ionic liquids as extractive solvents applied to extract high-value bio-compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and other bioactive compounds from microalgae biomass are summarized and discussed. However, more work needs to be done to fully utilize the potential of microalgae biomass for the application in large-scale production of biofuels, food additives, and nutritive supplements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  20. Cheah WY, Show PL, Yap YJ, Mohd Zaid HF, Lam MK, Lim JW, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):61-69.
    PMID: 31884878 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2019.1704536
    Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 was cultivated using palm oil mill effluent (POME) in a novel-designed photobioreactor (NPBR) and glass-made vessel photobioreactor (PBR). The comparison was made on biomass and lipid productions, as well as its pollutants removal efficiencies. NPBR is transparent and is developed in thin flat panels with a high surface area per volume ratio. It is equipped with microbubbling and baffles retention, ensuring effective light and CO2 utilization. The triangular shape of this reactor at the bottom serves to ease microalgae cell harvesting by sedimentation. Both biomass and lipid yields attained in NPBR were 2.3-2.9 folds higher than cultivated in PBR. The pollutants removal efficiencies achieved were 93.7% of chemical oxygen demand, 98.6% of total nitrogen and 96.0% of total phosphorus. Mathematical model revealed that effective light received and initial mass contributes toward successful microalgae cultivation. Overall, the results revealed the potential of NPBR integration in Chlorella sorokiniana CY-1 cultivation, with an aim to achieve greater feasibility in microalgal-based biofuel real application and for environmental sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development
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