Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Benbelgacem, Farah Fadwa, Bellag, Oualid Abdelkader, Soroodi, Fatemeh, Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali
    Biocatalyst should have sufficient and efficient activity for the intended
    biotechnological application. In the quest for novel biocatalyst, there is a need to have a
    genetic diversity either by finding it within the astronomically large number of possible
    candidates or to obtain it by bioengineering an existing gene supported by various
    bioinformatic and molecular engineering tools. Nowadays, it is well-known that a huge
    number of microorganisms is unculturable and poses great challenges to access biocatalysts
    from these microbes. Metagenomics is one of the methods widely applied to reach out
    maximum possible variants to “bioprospect” biocatalysts. On the other hand, other approaches
    are available to bioengineer enzymes by modifying the DNA sequence precisely based on the
    structure and the function information of the protein in the case of rational design, or by a
    brave creation of anarchic mutations of the DNA sequence with directed evolution method. In
    this regard, both approaches, whether to bioprospect or to bioengineer biocatalysts have
    advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed in this paper.KEY WORDS: Sugar
    industry wastewater; aluminium sulphate; primary treatment, ferric chloride; polyaluminium
  2. Nur Shazweena Samsudin, Jami, Mohammed Saedi, Kabbashi, Nassereldeen Ahmed
    sugar industry is one of the industries that produce a high amount of
    pollutant since its wastewater contains high amount of organic material, biochemical
    oxygen demand (bod) and chemical oxygen demand (cod). if this waste is
    discharged without a proper treatment into the watercourse, it can cause problem to aquatic
    life and environment. for the primary treatment process, sugar wastewater can be treated
    by using chemical precipitation method which involves coagulation process. currently,
    ferric chloride has been used as the coagulant but it consumes more alkalinity and
    corrosive. in this study, the suitable coagulant to be used to treat the wastewater from sugar
    industry and the optimum conditions to achieve high percentage removal of cod was
    determined. the characteristic of the wastewater was firstly determined. then, the most
    suitable coagulant to be used for the treatment was studied by determining their efficiency
    to reduce cod and tss in the wastewater at different dosages. aluminium sulphate
    (alum), ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (pac) were chosen to be studied for
    suitable coagulant. The optimum condition of the coagulant (ph, coagulant dosage, fast
    mixing speed) was determined by using design expert software. results showed that alum
    can be used to effectively remove 42.9% of cod and 100% of tss at high dosage (50
    mg/l). the optimum condition of alum was at ph 5.2, 10 mg/l of alum and 250 rpm of
    mixing speed. this shows that at optimum condition, alum can be used to treat wastewater
    from sugar industry.
  3. Hosen, MD Sabuj, Mariatul Fadzillah Mansor, Alam, MD Zahangir
    Biogas is an economical and environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be produced by anaerobic digestion (AD). This biochemical method converts organic compounds (mainly from wastes) into a sustainable source of energy. Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) is a method combining more than one substrate to resolve the difficulties faced in a single substrate AD system. Solid wastes increases as the population increase so do the urbanization and industrial industries. Food waste and sewage sludge are examples of one of the solid wastes. Co-digesting of both substrates may improve process stabilization to increase biogas production and overcome the nutrients imbalance. Thus, anaerobic co-digestion has been recognized as a technology that could provide a clean renewable energy source and helps reduce the landfill problem. The objective of this paper is to investigate the recent achievements and perspectives on the interaction of co-digestion between food waste and sewage sludge to improve biogas production. This may provide valuable information on the optimization of combinations of substrates: food waste and sewage sludge and prediction of bioreactor performance.
  4. Nor Fadhillah Mohmaed Azmin, N Shofia A’yun Syafie, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Mimi Fina Hamidon, Ani Liza Asnawi
    Sg. Papar is one of the rivers in Kota Kinabalu which is mainly used for water supply especially in Papar district. For the past years, many pollution cases concerning Sg. Papar have been reported which originated from various sources including pig farm, agricultural run-off and deforestation. These resulted in a frequent shutdown of the water treatment plants in Papar district leading to water supply disturbance and water supply deficiency in the affected area. The data utilized in this study were obtained from water quality tests performed on river water samples taken from Limbahau water treatment plant recorded from September 2013 to September 2016. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used in this study to analyze and correlate the physicochemical parameters with the water treatment plant shutdown. The results revealed that eight parameters (pH, alum, nitrate, TDS, DO, conductivity, colour and chloride) analysed in this study correlate with each other and the parameter that mostly caused the drastic change in the river water and as pollution index is turbidity. This study is critical for understanding the relationship between the water quality paramters and environmental issues.
  5. Arina Nasruddin, Azura Amid
    Curcuma longa L. uses widely as a traditional medicine especially in India and China for the treatment of diabetic wounds, inflammatory, hepatic, and digestive disorders. These effects lead to the research of this plant for the treatment of chronic diseases. To assess the tumour inhibition effect of curcumin in animal models by integrating various studies into a systematic literature review (SLR) and meta-analysis. Studies of curcumin treatment in tumor-induced animal models were searched in electronic databases. The assessment of the quality of the studies included and the tumor inhibition effect used SYRCLE’s Risk of Bias tool and Review Manager (The Cochrane Collaboration) software. From the 732 articles identified, only 11 studies met the selection criteria and included in the analysis. Curcumin significantly inhibited the tumor volume in the animal models in overall, and the subgroup analyses revealed that high dose, long-duration curcumin treatment, and intervention by injection have a more significant effect compared to the opposite group. Curcumin was effective in inhibiting tumor volume in animal models. The study quality and heterogeneity of the meta-analysis can probably be improved if a larger-scale bases of animal models and a well-designed study were available
  6. Nuriah Mohamad, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Fathilah Ali, Mohamad Firdaus Omar
    Sulfur has been highly sought by many industries everywhere around the world for various applications. This exceptionally useful element has been largely manufactured especially in powder form each year reflecting its increase in demand in line with technological advancement and uses for various product applications. The manufacturing processes include mining as well as chemical reactions in Claus Process. Rubber industries normally use abundance of sulfur in their latex compound to introduce vulcanization. The geneal concern of sulfur for rubber vulcanization is dispersibility in the rubber matrix due to improper optimization of its preparation process prior to latex compounding. Another crucial issue is crystallization of soluble sulfur from its insoluble origin, either during or post-rubber vulcanization that constitutes to formation of sulfur bloom that grows on the surface of the rubber articles. It is known that both issues are related to the process conditions and compounding recipe that could not be fully solved. Various studies have been conducted to minimize such occurences – from process optimization to sulfur chemistry itself – and of continuous improvement and innovation to solve various threats in sulfur applications. This paper reviews on detailed description on elemental sulfur, of respective industrial applications, and most importantly highlights on sulfur trends and issues normally encountered.
  7. Fathin Nadhirah Binti Kamal Ariffin, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Sarina Sulaiman, Nur Ayuni Jamal
    This paper addresses the treatment of waste engine oils (WEO) by acid/clay refining method using glacial acetic acid. An optimization of the process parameters in terms of settling time, stirring speed and mixing temperature for treating the WEO was performed using Response Surface Methodology to improve the quality of treated lubricating oil. The quality of the treated WEO (Castrol brand) was evaluated in terms of viscosity index and flash point value. The treated fuel quality is found to have about 95% similarity to the fresh oil used as a standard at the settling time of 24 hours, temperature of 50 °C and mixing speed of 150 rpm. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) showed that settling time plays the most significant parameters of the process followed by the mixing temperature. Solid contaminants which were collected after the treatment were analyzed using SEM-EDS. They contained rough heteregenous shaped particles with elements such as carbon (97%), calcium (1.12%), zinc (0.74%), sulphur (0.73%) and phosphorus (0.29%). Then, four different brands of WEO (Liqui Moly, Castrol, Shell and Pennzoil) were treated at the optimized conditions to determine the feasibility of the method to treat any brands of WEO. It can be concluded that the optimized treatement method is suitable to treat most of WEO. The findings of this study provide the information on the best process condition for treating WEO as well as the solid contaminants present in it.
  8. Nik-Rashida Nik-Abdul-Ghani, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Ku Mariam Zainab Ku Abdullah
    Lead contamination present in wastewater is one of the major problems due to its toxicity and persistence. This issue increased dramatically and led to the environmental and health concerns worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to remove lead from synthetic wastewater effluent by adsorption process. In this study, nanomaterial called graphene oxide (GO) is used as an adsorbent due to its mechanical strength and high surface area. The parameters were optimized using Fractional factorial design under response surface method. GO demonstrates high adsorption capacity, qmax = 500 mg/g at 100 mg/L of initial lead concentration and at optimum pH 9. Adsorption isotherm of lead was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. The equilibrium data of graphene oxide adsorption was better represented by the Langmuir isotherm and was achieved within 60 minutes. The results showed that GO has potential to be an important adsorbent for lead removal. In the future, GO might be imbedded as adsorbent in the membrane fabrication for wastewater treatment.
  9. Sarah Amalina Adli, Fathilah Binti Ali, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Hazleen Anuar, Rosnani Hasham
    Patches has recently emerged and attracting more attention for its versatility in many areas such as cosmetic, pharmaceutical and medical. Patches can either be used to administer selected drug to skin or deliver some beneficial ingredients for cosmetic purposes. With that, as polymer is used as the matrix for patches, the polymer selected must be non-toxic, have adhesive property and non-irritative to the skin. Currently, synthetic polymer had been used as the matrix. However, as time passes, people are more concern with the environment, therefore biopolymer is chosen over synthetic polymer as they are degradable and also safe to use. Nowadays, as consumers are demanding for a more effective product that is not only good for appearance but also the health of the skin, studies had been done on many kinds of active ingredient that will give the best effect to the skin. Thus in this paper, patches made up of different combinations of polymer and active ingredients, as well as fabrication method currently used to produce patches will be discussed.
  10. Nur Lisa Farhana Mohamad, Fathilah Binti Ali, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Barre, Mohamed Soleiman, Hazleen Anuar
    The concern about our dependency on non-renewable resources and overwhelming environmental issues such as pollution caused by non-degradable packaging materials has prompted researchers to come up with alternatives to solve this problem. Thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) has been gaining interest due to its versatility and easy processability, thus this study was carried out to find out the properties of PLA reinforced with pineapple fibers. However, surface of the natural fibers need to be treated for better properties enhancement in the polymer matrices. Considering this, fibers were treated with 10% (w/v) concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and then continued for mixing with PLA at a fixed ratio of plasticizer by using internal mixer, and then the composites were prepared into sheet via hot press. Characterization for the mechanical and morphological was conducted by using tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. After the analysis, it is found that the surface treated pineapple fiber composite showed better elongation at break compared to untreated fiber composite. The enhance properties of PLA nanocomposites has potential to be used in various packaging materials.
  11. Hosen, Md Sabuj, Mariatul Fadzillah Mansor, Ainoor Mariana Mohd Ali, Alam, Md. Zahangir
    Increasing population, urbanization and industrial activities have increased the amount of solid waste worldwide. Food waste (FW) and sewage sludge (SS) are some of the solid wastes. Co-digesting of both substrates may improve process stabilization to increase biogas production and overcome the nutrients imbalance. Thus, anaerobic co-digestion has been recognized as a technology that could provide a clean renewable energy source and help reducing the landfill problem. In this study, the interaction between FW and SS as co-substrates in anaerobic digestion was studied under mesophilic temperature 36C (± 0.5). The experiments were conducted using five batch reactors with different ratios of substrates. There are four different analyses used to identify the characteristics of FW and SS, which are pH, reducing sugar (RS), total solid (TS), and total carbohydrate (TC). Water displacement method was used to record biogas yield. The experimental results showed that the highest biogas yield was from the composition of 50:50 (FW: SS) with a biogas volume of 1150.14 mL, while the least was the composition of 0:100 (FW: SS) with 170.47 mL biogas produced. The results for substrate degradation showed that the composition of 100:0 (FW: SS) has the highest percentage degradation for reducing sugar with the percentage of 56%, while the minimum was 0:100 (FW: SS) with a percentage of 35%. Besides, for TC, the highest percentage of degradation was the composition 50:50 (FW: SS) with 84%, and the least was 0:100 (FW: SS) with 44%. This study proves that using FW and SS enhanced biogas production as well as reducing the current issues of waste disposal.
  12. Nik Nur Syafika Pahri, Nur Huda Syazwani Jafri, Husna Ahmad Tajuddin, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor
    Effective treatment of wastewater is crucial in order to achieve a sustainable development. For instance, highly efficient treatment processes with low capital requirements are the major prerequisite for implementation of the advanced wastewater treatment operations. Among various available treatment methods, the application of coagulation-flocculation process by using natural coagulant; chitosan has vast advantages such as low operating cost, environmental friendly and highly effective in the wastewater treatment operations. The application of nanotechnology in numerous treatment techniques are considered as the most significant advances in water and wastewater treatment practices. The utilization of magnesium oxide (MgO) as nano-adsorbent has recently gained attention as a potential treatment method in water remediation particularly for treating effluents with high amount of organic dyes and heavy metals due to its high treatment efficiency, low cost, versatility and environment compatibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of coagulation-flocculation process when using novel coagulant in which MgO coated with chitosan by investigating the percentage removal of several significant parameters which were turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid. The removal efficiencies were determined throughout a series of experiments carried out using a standard jar test procedure in which three different coagulants; chitosan, MgO coated with chitosan and MgO were tested on water samples taken from Sg. Pusu. In addition, a set of experiments was designed using response surface methodology (RSM) in order to optimize adsorption of chitosan into MgO. The experiments were conducted at various concentrations of chitosan (10-30 mg/ml) and selected MgO dosage ranges (10-30 mg). From the obtained results, it was found that chitosan-MgO coagulant has good removal efficiencies of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solids at 92%, 91%, and 98% respectively from the optimization of adsorption of chitosan-MgO. The MgO coated with chitosan is the best coagulant in this study compared to chitosan and MgO alone because of the ability of treating the river water with up to 90 % removal for all the main parameters. The results showed that coagulation-flocculation is effective as a treatment for treating river water.
  13. Almakki, Asma, Mirghani, Mohamed E.S., Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A.
    Citric acid (CA) has a high demand due to its various uses in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the natural supply of CA is minimal compared to its growing industrial demand. The increasing demand for CA can be fulfilled by using biotechnological processes. This study utilized liquid state bioconversion by Aspergillus niger for CA production using sugarcane molasses as the primary substrate. Sugarcane molasses which is agricultural waste consists of significant proportion of organic matters such as lipids and carbohydrates. This makes sugarcane molasses as a potential and alternative source of producing CA at a lower cost. In this study, statistical optimization was applied to improve CA production using submerged fermentation in shake flasks. Aspergillus niger was cultured in potato dextrose agar. Then, inoculum spores were introduced into the fermentation media for a specific duration according to the experimental design from Central Composite Design (CCD) tool under Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Design Expert 6.0 software. Three parameters were chosen to be optimized at 32⁰C i.e.agitation rate (160, 80, 200 rpm), substrate concentration (47, 60, 73%) and fermentation time (24, 72, 120 h). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analyses were conducted to measure CA yield. The optimization study showed that the media incubated for 72 hours with a substrate concentration of 60% and an agitation speed of 180 rpm produced the highest CA yield(21.2 g/L).The analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that CCD quadratic model was significant with P-value< 0.0104 and R2is0.8964.
  14. Barkat, Anumsima Ahmad, Jamal, Parveen, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Noorbacha, Ibrahim Ali, Zulkarnain Mohamed Idris, Arbain, Dachyar
    A therapeutic approach for treating diabetes is to decrease thepost-prandial hyperglycaemia. This is done by retarding the absorption of glucose through the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, α-amylaseand α-glucosidase, in the digestive tract. Inhibition of both enzymes helpsto reduce the glucose level in the blood of a diabetic patient. This study was aimed to investigate the production of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors from local fruit wastes (honeydew skin, banana peel, and pineapple skin) using solid state fermentation. Each of the fruit wastes was fermented with three different types of white rot fungus Phenarochaete chrysosporium(PC), Panus tigrinusM609RQY(M6) andRO209RQY(RO2)for 7 days. Sampling was carried out starting from day 4 to day 7 to determine the enzyme inhibition activity. The samples were extracted using water prior to enzyme analysis. Most of the fruit samples showed varying degree of percentage inhibition activity depending on the sampling time. Extract of fermented banana peels with RO2 on day 4 showed the higherα-glucosidase inhibition (56.57±0.32%), followed byhoneydew extract fermented with the same fungus on the same day (39.68±0.05%). Extracts of each fruit wastesample fermented with PCshowed the least α-glucosidase inhibition (below 15%). Meanwhile for α-amylase inhibition activity, the extract from fermented honeydew skins with PCon day7 showed the highest inhibition activity i.e.98.29±0.63%. The least inhibition activity (43.37±0.54%) was observed in the extract from honeydew skins fermented withM6 on day 5. All positive resultsshowed that fruit wastes could be the alternative sourcesfor antidiabetic agent especially for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors.
  15. M. Hafiz Fazren Abd Rahman, Wan Wardatul Amani Wan Salim, M. Firdaus Abd-Wahab
    The steep rise of cases pertaining to Diabetes Mellitus (DM) condition among global population has encouraged extensive researches on DM, which led to exhaustive accumulation of data related to DM. In this case, data mining and machine learning applications prove to be a powerful tool in transforming data into meaningful deductions. Several machine learning tools have shown great promise in diabetes classification. However, challenges remain in obtaining an accurate model suitable for real world application. Most disease risk-prediction modelling are found to be specific to a local population. Moreover, real-world data are likely to be complex, incomplete and unorganized, thus, convoluting efforts to develop models around it. This research aims to develop a robust prediction model for classification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with the interest of a Malaysian population, using three different machine learning algorithms; Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes. Data pre-processing methods are utilised to the raw data to improve model performance. This study uses datasets obtained from the IIUM Medical Centre for classification and modelling. Ultimately, the performance of each model is validated, evaluated and compared based on several statistical metrics that measures accuracy, precision, sensitivity and efficiency. This study shows that the random forest model provides the best overall prediction performance in terms of accuracy (0.87), sensitivity (0.9), specificity (0.8), precision (0.9), F1-score (0.9) and AUC value (0.93) (Normal).
  16. Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Mohamed Anwar Awan, Azura Amid, Noor Illi Mohamad Puad, Fathilah Binti Ali
    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves capturing, transporting and storing CO2 geologically underground permanently. Carbon capture using solvent such as amine and aqueous ammonia has been extensively studied by many researchers. However, this capture technology for CCS scheme is costly. As an alternative, CO2 emission can be cost-effectively captured and stored by utilizing the well-understood natural photosynthetic process of marine cyanobacteria. In contrast, the capturing process using cyanobacteria is very slow compared to the chemical absorption mentioned prior. Hence, this study aimed to investigate carbon capturing and storing process using integrated aqueous ammonia and mutated marine cyanobacteria (Synechococcus PCC 7002 IIUM01). The conditions that can maximize CO2 reduction under various conditions; CO2 flow rate (Lpm), absorption temperature (C) and aqueous ammonia concentrations (% (w/v)) were to be identified. The effectiveness of the mutant cyanobacteria was quantified by measuring the cell concentration, percentage reduction in CO2 concentration and lipid content. Synechococcus PCC 7002 IIUM01 showed it robustness by growing in aqueous ammonia solution at the concentration of 0.5 to 1% (w/v) at which the parent strain was not able to tolerate. The best conditions in maximizing CO2 capture and storage while sustaining growth optimally and being a potential biofuel source was observed at 0.5 Lpm of 15% CO2 gas flow rate, 0.75% (w/v) of ammonia concentration and 33C of absorption temperature. At this specified condition, around 68% of CO2 removal was achieved with 9% (w/w) yield of lipid and more than 13% (w/v) of cell concentration obtained.
  17. Dzun Noraini Jimat, Istisyhad Mohamad, Azura Amid, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Mohd Firdaus Abd. Wahab
    Cellulose facial masks have gained a huge interest in the cosmetic industry. Cellulose can be extracted from plant biomass, bacteria and algae. In this study, several formulated PVA-based facial masks (F1, F2, F3, F4) incorporated with microfibrillated cellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse (MFC-SCB) were prepared. The concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was varied (5%–20% (w/w)) while the concentration of microfibrillated cellulose of sugarcane bagasse (MFC-SCB) was fixed at 5% (w/w) to get the appropriate composition of the facial masks. The MFC-SCB was
    extracted through chemical treatment assisted with ultrasonication. Sensory tests in terms of adhesion to the skin, spreadability, color, odor, and drying time were performed. These tests were carried out by requesting the volunteers to rate the performance of the masks. The results showed that the formulated facial mask F3 (15% [w/w] of PVA and 5% [w/w] of MFC-SCB) has the highest average score (13.9) which is 82% from the total score compared to other formulated masks. However, the standard formulation mask F5 (15% [w/w] of PVA and 5% [w/w] of sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose, CMC) achieved the highest score (13.5) compared to F3 (12.5). The findings of this study proved that the presence of MFC-SCB with PVA has a competitive performance with the standard facial mask formulation.
  18. Noor Illi Mohamad Puad, Muhammad Alif Sarji, Nur Alia M. Fathil, Muhammad Yusuf Abduh
    Citrus is one of the major commodities in many countries including Malaysia.
    However, production of citrus including Citrus suhuiensis (C. suhuiensis) is declining due to
    diseases and inability to withstand low temperatures. Plant cultures such as cell suspension have the
    potential in propagating disease-free and healthy Citrus fruits with value-added characteristics.
    However, studies related to C. suhuiensis is still scarce. Therefore, the growth kinetics of C.
    suhuiensis cell suspension culture was studied. Friable callus of C. suhuiensis which was induced
    from seeds was inoculated into MS medium with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.5 g/L malt extract and 2.0 mg/L
    2, 4-D for the cell suspension initiation. Several batch experiments using a few types of sugars
    (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were carried out. The cell dry weight (CDW) of C. suhuiensis was
    recorded for 30 days of culture period and residual sugars in the medium were analyzed using
    HPLC. Cells grown in 30 g/L sucrose achieved the highest CDW (9.559 g/L) with µmax equals to
    0.00512/h, compared to glucose and fructose. In addition, sucrose is the preferred carbon source
    with the highest uptake rate (0.213 g/L·h). Cells completely hydrolyzed sucrose into glucose and
    fructose after 5 days of inoculation. All sugars were completely utilized by C. suhuiensis cells after
    25 days. The kinetic growth parameters determined from batch experiments were then used for
    model simulation and verification in MATHCAD 15. After adjustments and refinement to the
    selected kinetic parameters, the model has fairly described and predicted the growth and sugars
    profile of C. suhuiensis cells. The proposed model can be used to predict sucrose hydrolysis, glucose
    and fructose formation from sucrose and their consumption by plant cells and also for larger scale
    of growth.
  19. Ahmad, Mani Malam, Abd. Aziz Mohd Azoddein, Jami, Mohammed Saed
    : Studies on bacterial growth pattern from the conventional approach are defective due
    to their failure to explain the interactions or simply the complementary effects of the factors
    influencing the bacterial growth. In this study, the individual and collaborative effects of
    Pseudomonas putida growth variables were evaluated using a 2-level fractional factorial design of
    experiment (FFDOE). The growth of the organism was found to respond remarkably to different
    concentrations of nutrient media (carbon source) and the other independent variables. Factorial
    models were developed from the experimental design to study the individual and interactive effects
    of the studied parameters on the response. The studied parameters and their levels were as follows:
    nutrient concentration (4-16 g/L), acclimatization time (24-72 hrs), agitation (140-200 rpm), and
    temperature (30-40oC). These parameters were statistically validated using analysis of variance
    (ANOVA) and the results revealed that the model terms were statistically significant with an Fvalue of 415.17 at P temperature > nutrient concentration versus temperature >
    agitation > nutrient concentration versus agitation. Based on the R
    and the adjusted R
    values of
    >95%, the estimated variables showed a high degree of relationship between the observed and the
    predicted values; thus, the predictive ability of the models was suggested. It could, therefore, be
    concluded that nutrient concentration, temperature, and agitation can greatly influence the growth
    of P. putida within a specific range.
  20. Arina Nasruddin, Azura Amid, Muhd Ezza Faiez Othman
    Green chemical method was applied to synthesize nanoparticles using recombinant
    bromelain. Among the numerous applications of recombinant bromelain, there is still no research
    on nanoparticles synthesis which encourages its utilization in this study. Four chemicals which are
    copper (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2.2H2O), cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)3.6H2O), sodium
    selenite (Na2SeO3), and iron (III) chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O) were selected to be screened
    for the suitability in nanoparticles biosynthesis by recombinant bromelain. The nanoparticles
    formed were characterized by using UV-visible absorption spectra. The biosynthesis process then
    was optimized by varying the centrifugation speed, temperature, and time to get the maximum
    absorption and weight of nanoparticles through central composite design (CCD) tool. Only
    CuCl2.2H2O showed a positive result for the screening process which was represented by the
    formation of colloidal solution and a maximum absorption at 580 nm. Thus, optimization was
    carried out for this chemical. Based on the optimization model, maximum absorption and weight
    were predicted at 67.5°C, 2 hrs, and 9,600 rpm. These optimal conditions were validated by
    repeating the biosynthesis process. The absorption and weight of the nanoparticles depended on the
    reaction of the chemical with recombinant bromelain. 3D plots showed that the optimal condition
    for high responses mostly depends on temperature and time.
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