Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children can be difficult due to atypical presenting symptoms. While there are reported cases of acute appendicitis or appendiceal masses causing unilateral hydronephrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis as a complication of appendiceal mass is very rare. We report a case of a child who presented with cardinal symptomatology associated with the urogenital tract. Ultrasound (US) investigation showed a pelvic mass causing bilateral hydronephrosis. An initial diagnosis of a pelvic teratoma was made based on the US and computed tomography (CT) scan findings. The final diagnosis of an appendiceal mass causing bilateral hydronephrosis was established intraoperatively.
Radiology is a relatively high-cost and high-maintenance aspect of medicine. Expertise is constantly required, from acquisition to its use and quality assurance programmes. However, it is an integral part of healthcare practice, from disease diagnosis, surveillance and prevention to treatment monitoring. It is alarming that two thirds of the world is deficient in or lacks even basic diagnostic imaging. Developing and underdeveloped countries need help in improving medical imaging. Help is coming from various organisations, which are extending hands-on teaching and imparting knowledge, as well as training trainers to increase the pool of skilled practitioners in the use of imaging equipment and other aspects of radiology services. The scene for social radiology is changing and set to positively impact the world in the (near) future.
Fibrin sheath formation around long-term haemodialysis catheter is a common cause of failed dialysis access. Treatment options include pharmacological and mechanical methods. This paper reports a case of failed dialysis access due to fibrin sheath encasement. Pharmacologic thrombolysis, mechanical disruption using guide wire and catheter exchange had failed to address the issue. Eventually, fibrin sheath stripping using the loop snare technique was able to successfully restore the catheter function.
Pre-operative embolisation of vertebral metastases has been known to effectively devascularise hypervascular vertebral tumours and to reduce intra-operative bleeding. However, the complications that occur during the procedure are rarely reported. This case study attempts to highlight one rare complication, which is epidural tumoural haemorrhage intra-procedure. It may occur due to the fragility of the tumour and presence of neovascularisation. A small arterial dissection may also have occurred due to a slightly higher pressure exerted during injection of embolising agent. Haemostasis was secured via injection of Histoacryl into the area of haemorrhage. The patient was able to undergo the decompression surgery and suffered no direct complication from the haemorrhage.
This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient's 5(th) decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour.
Foreign body granuloma is a reaction to either a biodegradable substance or inert material. In a breast cancer patient who had undergone an excision or mastectomy with axillary clearance, a foreign body granuloma in the axilla may be misinterpreted as an axillary lymph node. We report our experience with a case of cotton-ball granuloma of the axilla in a breast cancer patient, which mimics a lymph node radiologically from the CT scan, mammogram and ultrasonography. Following biopsy and excision, the mass was diagnosed histologically as a foreign body granuloma.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy is recognised as a safe and effective treatment option for osteoid osteoma. This case report describes a 27-year-old man who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous RFA for a femoral osteoid osteoma, which was diagnosed based on his clinical presentation and CT findings. The patient developed worsening symptoms complicated by osteomyelitis after the procedure. His clinical progression and subsequent MRI findings had led to a revised diagnosis of a Brodie's abscess, which was further supported by the eventual resolution of his symptoms following a combination of antibiotics treatment and surgical irrigations. This case report illustrates the unusual MRI features of osteomyelitis mimicking soft tissue tumours following RFA of a misdiagnosed Brodie's abscess and highlights the importance of a confirmatory histopathological diagnosis for an osteoid osteoma prior to treatment.
PURPOSE: TO DETERMINE: (i) the mammographic parenchymal patterns in Malaysian women and whether the breasts are dense on mammogram; (ii) the effect of age on breast density; (iii) the effect of parity on breast density; (iv) the difference in breast parenchymal patterns among the major races of women in Malaysia.
METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 1,784 patients (981 Malays, 571 Chinese, 214 Indians and 18 others) who had undergone mammography during the 1-year study period. Majority of women (41.7%) were aged between 51 and 60 years and majority (43%) had 3-4 children. The Tabar classification (Pattern I - V) was used to evaluate breast parenchymal patterns on mammogram. Tabar Pattern I was further divided into 3 sub-groups (Pattern IA, IB, and IC). The different patterns were then grouped into dense (IB, IC, IV, V) and not dense (IA, II, III) breasts. The SPSS package was used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Majority (59%) of Malaysian women had dense breasts (Pattern IB 29%, IC 20%, IV 5%, and V 5%) and 41% did not have dense breasts (Pattern IA 28%, II 6%, and III 7%). Age and parity were inversely related to breast density (p < 0.0001). Chinese women (65.7%) had the highest percentage of dense breasts (p = 0.69, odds ratio = 1.22), followed by the Indians (57.2%) and the Malays (50.5%).
CONCLUSION: Majority of women had dense breasts but Pattern IV, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer, was seen in only 5% of the women. The breast density reduced steadily with increasing age and parity. There was no statistically significant difference in breast density in the three main races.
KEYWORDS: Mammography; breast density; breast parenchymal patterns
An incidental finding of an intense focus of (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) pulmonary uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) without detectable lesions on computed tomography (CT) is highly suggestive of FDG microembolus. Its microscopic nature means it is undetectable on CT. It is an artefact attributable to (18)F-FDG-tracer contamination at the injection site. This paper reports a case of a 61 year-old lady with a past history of breast carcinoma, in whom follow-up PET/CT images demonstrated an incidental intense FDG pulmonary abnormality. A follow-up PET/CT seven months later demonstrated complete resolution of the abnormality.
Chronic osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) is essentially a problem of diagnosis, and there may be considerable difficulty in distinguishing it from other benign and malignant bone lesions. Early diagnosis of Brodie's abscess is deemed important as the disease has a good curative potential following an appropriate antibiotic treatment. Of late, PET/CT using (18)F-FDG is taking a centre stage in the imaging of bone infection though documentation on its role in characterising the feature of Brodie's abscess is exceedingly scarce. On the other hand, it is well known that MRI imaging plays a very important role in distinguishing abscess loculation from malignancy. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old boy with pain in the right heel for few months. Radiograph of the right foot revealed a lucent focus with sclerotic margin in the right calcaneum. MRI T1-weighted images were inconclusive of penumbra sign to characterise abscess cavity due to the small volume lesion. Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan showed multiple small avid lesions at the margin of the sclerotic rim in the right calcaneum. Final diagnosis of Brodie's abscess with Klebsiella culture was confirmed via bone debridement.
The authors propose a musculoskeletal (MSK) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol using selected sequences for common orthopaedic indications. Selected sequences allow optimal visualisation of the indicated pathology while screening for other common conditions. The authors emphasise the need for standard positioning of the patient and standard orientation of scan planes to facilitate comparison with follow-up scans.
When x-rays were first discovered, the harmful effects of radiation had to be manifest in the early users before they were known. Today, radiation protection and safety have been established and the effects of radiation, as well as its risks, are known. Even so, medical radiation, in particular the growth in the use of computed tomography (CT), has resulted in soaring radiation doses received by the population in general. Inappropriate use has resulted in overuse, overdose and, perhaps, overdiagnosis, especially when used in screening. In the quest to control and curb the use of procedures involving radiation, however, we must be careful not to provoke a pandemic of irrational fear of radiation. Overreaction to the overuse and overdose of radiation might deter patients from life-saving procedures.
Magnetic Resonance-guided focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is gaining popularity as an alternative to medical and surgical interventions in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Studies have shown that it is an effective non-invasive treatment with minimal associated risks as compared to myomectomy and hysterectomy. MRgFUS can be offered to a majority of patients suffering from symptomatic uterine fibroids. It has been suggested that the use of broader inclusion criteria as well as the mitigation techniques makes it possible to offer MRgFUS to a much larger subset of patients than previously believed. This paper will describe how MRgFUS treatment for uterine fibroids is performed at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.