An optical DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) utilizing synthesized quantum dot (QD) has been developed for the detection of specific-sequence of DNA for Ganoderma boninense, an oil palm pathogen. Modified QD that contained carboxylic groups was conjugated with a single-stranded DNA probe (ssDNA) via amide-linkage. Hybridization of the target DNA with conjugated QD-ssDNA and reporter probe labeled with Cy5 allows for the detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense gene based on FRET signals. Detection of FRET emission before and after hybridization was confirmed through the capability of the system to produce FRET at 680 nm for hybridized sandwich with complementary target DNA. No FRET emission was observed for non-complementary system. Hybridization time, temperature and effect of different concentration of target DNA were studied in order to optimize the developed system. The developed biosensor has shown high sensitivity with detection limit of 3.55 × 10(-9) M. TEM results show that the particle size of QD varies in the range between 5 to 8 nm after ligand modification and conjugation with ssDNA. This approach is capable of providing a simple, rapid and sensitive method for detection of related synthetic DNA sequence of Ganoderma boninense.
Cell migration is a key contributor to wound repair. This study presents findings indicating that the liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer (LCTFT) system can be used in conjunction with a bespoke cell traction force mapping (CTFM) software to monitor cell/surface traction forces from quiescent state in real time. In this study, time-lapse photo microscopy allowed cell induced deformations in liquid crystal coated substrates to be monitored and analyzed. The results indicated that the system could be used to monitor the generation of cell/surface forces in an initially quiescent cell, as it migrated over the culture substrate, via multiple points of contact between the cell and the surface. Future application of this system is the real-time assaying of the pharmacological effects of cytokines on the mechanics of cell migration.
Gallium Nitride (GaN) is considered as the second most popular semiconductor material in industry after silicon. This is due to its wide applications encompassing Light Emitting Diode (LED) and power electronics. In addition, its piezoelectric properties are fascinating to be explored as electromechanical material for the development of diverse microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) application. In this article, we conducted a theoretical study concerning surface mode propagation, especially Rayleigh and Sezawa mode in the layered GaN/sapphire structure with the presence of various guiding layers. It is demonstrated that the increase in thickness of guiding layer will decrease the phase velocities of surface mode depending on the material properties of the layer. In addition, the Q-factor value indicating the resonance properties of surface mode appeared to be affected with the presence of fluid domain, particularly in the Rayleigh mode. Meanwhile, the peak for Sezawa mode shows the highest Q factor and is not altered by the presence of fluid. Based on these theoretical results using the finite element method, it could contribute to the development of a GaN-based device to generate surface acoustic wave, especially in Sezawa mode which could be useful in acoustophoresis, lab on-chip and microfluidics applications.
A miniature tyrosinase-based electrochemical sensing platform for label-free detection of protein tyrosine kinase activity was developed in this study. The developed miniature sensing platform can detect the substrate peptides for tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src, Hck and Her2, in a low sample volume (1-2 μL). The developed sensing platform exhibited a high reproducibility for repetitive measurement with an RSD (relative standard deviation) of 6.6%. The developed sensing platform can detect the Hck and Her2 in a linear range of 1-200 U/mL with the detection limit of 1 U/mL. The sensing platform was also effective in assessing the specificity and efficacies of the inhibitors for protein tyrosine kinases. This is demonstrated by the detection of significant inhibition of Hck (~88.1%, but not Her2) by the Src inhibitor 1, an inhibitor for Src family kinases, as well as the significant inhibition of Her2 (~91%, but not Hck) by CP-724714 through the platform. These results suggest the potential of the developed miniature sensing platform as an effective tool for detecting different protein tyrosine kinase activity and for accessing the inhibitory effect of various inhibitors to these kinases.
Dengue is a major threat to public health globally. While point-of-care diagnosis of acute/recent dengue is available to reduce its mortality, a lack of rapid and accurate testing for the detection of previous dengue remains a hurdle in expanding dengue seroepidemiological surveys to inform its prevention, especially vaccination, to reduce dengue morbidity. This study evaluated ViroTrack Dengue Serostate, a biosensors-based semi-quantitative anti-dengue IgG (immunoglobulin G) immuno-magnetic agglutination assay for the diagnosis of previous and recent dengue in a single test. Blood samples were obtained from 484 healthy participants recruited randomly from two communities in Petaling district, Selangor, Malaysia. The reference tests were Panbio Dengue IgG indirect and capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, in-house hemagglutination inhibition assay, and focus reduction neutralization test. Dengue Serostate had a sensitivity and specificity of 91.1% (95%CI 87.8-93.8) and 91.1% (95%CI 83.8-95.8) for the diagnosis of previous dengue, and 90.2% (95%CI 76.9-97.3) and 93.2% (95%CI 90.5-95.4) for the diagnosis of recent dengue, respectively. Its positive predictive value of 97.5% (95%CI 95.3-98.8) would prevent most dengue-naïve individuals from being vaccinated. ViroTrack Dengue Serostate's good point-of-care diagnostic accuracy can ease the conduct of dengue serosurveys to inform dengue vaccination strategy and facilitate pre-vaccination screening to ensure safety.
The detection of cancer antigens is a major aim of cancer research in order to develop better patient management through early disease detection. Many cancers including prostate, lung, and ovarian secrete a protein disulfide isomerase protein named AGR2 that has been previously detected in urine and plasma using mass spectrometry. Here we determine whether a previously developed monoclonal antibody targeting AGR2 can be adapted from an indirect two-site ELISA format into a direct detector using solid-phase printed gold electrodes. The screen-printed gold electrode was surface functionalized with the anti-AGR2 specific monoclonal antibody. The interaction of the recombinant AGR2 protein and the anti-AGR2 monoclonal antibody functionalized electrode changed its electrochemical impedance spectra. Nyquist diagrams were obtained after incubation in an increasing concentration of purified AGR2 protein with a range of concentrations from 0.01 fg/mL to 10 fg/mL. In addition, detection of the AGR2 antigen can be achieved from cell lysates in medium or artificial buffer. These data highlight the utility of an AGR2-specific monoclonal antibody that can be functionalized onto a gold printed electrode for a one-step capture and quantitation of the target antigen. These platforms have the potential for supporting methodologies using more complex bodily fluids including plasma and urine for improved cancer diagnostics.
Large-scale food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella are rarely seen nowadays, thanks to the advanced nature of the medical system. However, small, localised outbreaks in certain regions still exist and could possess a huge threat to the public health if eradication measure is not initiated. This review discusses the progress of Salmonella detection approaches covering their basic principles, characteristics, applications, and performances. Conventional Salmonella detection is usually performed using a culture-based method, which is time-consuming, labour intensive, and unsuitable for on-site testing and high-throughput analysis. To date, there are many detection methods with a unique detection system available for Salmonella detection utilising immunological-based techniques, molecular-based techniques, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, optical phenotyping, and biosensor methods. The electrochemical biosensor has growing interest in Salmonella detection mainly due to its excellent sensitivity, rapidity, and portability. The use of a highly specific bioreceptor, such as aptamers, and the application of nanomaterials are contributing factors to these excellent characteristics. Furthermore, insight on the types of biorecognition elements, the principles of electrochemical transduction elements, and the miniaturisation potential of electrochemical biosensors are discussed.
Aptamers are a group of synthetic single-stranded nucleic acids. They are generated from a random library of single-stranded DNA or RNA by a technology named systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). SELEX is a repetitive process to select and identify suitable aptamers that show high affinity and specificity towards target cells. Great strides have been achieved in the design, construction, and use of aptamers up to this point. However, only a small number of aptamer-based applications have achieved widespread commercial and clinical acceptance. Additionally, finding more effective ways to acquire aptamers with high affinity remains a challenge. Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly examine the existing dearth and advancement in aptamer-related technologies. This review focuses on aptamers that are generated by SELEX to detect pathogenic microorganisms and mammalian cells, as well as in cell-internalizing SELEX for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The development of novel aptamer-based biosensors using optical and electrical methods for microbial detection is reported. The applications and limitations of aptamers are also discussed.
Diabetes has become a major health problem in society. Invasive glucometers, although precise, only provide discrete measurements at specific times and are unsuitable for long-term monitoring due to the injuries caused on skin and the prohibitive cost of disposables. Remote, continuous, self-monitoring of blood sugar levels allows for active and better management of diabetics. In this work, we present a radio frequency (RF) sensor based on a stepped impedance resonator for remote blood glucose monitoring. When placed on top of a human hand, this RF interdigital sensor allows detection of variation in blood sugar levels by monitoring the changes in the dielectric constant of the material underneath. The designed stepped impedance resonator operates at 3.528 GHz with a Q factor of 1455. A microfluidic device structure that imitates the blood veins in the human hand was fabricated in PDMS to validate that the sensor can measure changes in glucose concentrations. To test the RF sensor, glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0 to 240 mg/dL were injected into the fluidic channels and placed underneath the RF sensor. The shifts in the resonance frequencies of the RF sensor were measured using a network analyzer via its S11 parameters. Based on the change in resonance frequencies, the sensitivity of the biosensor was found to be 264.2 kHz/mg·dL-1 and its LOD was calculated to be 29.89 mg/dL.
Understanding environmental information is necessary for functions correlated with human activities to improve healthcare quality and reduce ecological risk. Tapered optical fibers reduce some limitations of such devices and can be considerably more responsive to fluorescence and absorption properties changes. Data have been collected from reliable sources such as Science Direct, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. In this narrative review, we have summarized and analyzed eight classes of tapered-fiber forms: fiber Bragg grating (FBG), long-period fiber grating (LPFG), Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), photonic crystals fiber (PCF), surface plasmonic resonance (SPR), multi-taper devices, fiber loop ring-down technology, and optical tweezers. We evaluated many issues to make an informed judgement about the viability of employing the best of these methods in optical sensors. The analysis of performance for tapered optical fibers depends on four mean parameters: taper length, sensitivity, wavelength scale, and waist diameter. Finally, we assess the most potent strategy that has the potential for medical and environmental applications.
Surface plasmonic sensors have received considerable attention, found extensive applications, and outperformed conventional optical sensors. In this work, biopolymer chitosan (CS) was used to prepare the bilayer structure (CS/Au) of a plasmonic refractive index sensor for dopamine (DA) detection. The sensing characteristics of the developed plasmonic sensor were evaluated. Increasing DA concentrations significantly shifted the SPR dips. The sensor exhibited stability and a refractive index sensitivity of 8.850°/RIU in the linear range 0.1 nM to 1 µM with a detection limit of 0.007 nM and affinity constant of 1.383 × 108 M-1. The refractive index and thickness of the CS/Au structure were measured simultaneously by fitting the obtained experimental findings to theoretical data based on Fresnel equations. The fitting yielded the refractive index values n (1.5350 ± 0.0001) and k (0.0150 ± 0.0001) for the CS layer contacting 0.1 nM of DA, and the thickness, d was (15.00 ± 0.01) nm. Then, both n and d values increased by increasing DA concentrations. In addition, the changes in the FTIR spectrum and the variations in sensor surface roughness and structure obtained by AFM analysis confirmed DA adsorption on the sensing layer. Based on these observations, CS/Au bilayer has enhanced the performance of this plasmonic sensor, which showed promising importance as a simple, low-cost, and reliable platform for DA sensing.
This review covers the progress of nanomaterial-modified electrodes for enzymatic and non-enzymatic glucose biosensors. Fundamental insights into glucose biosensor components and the crucial factors controlling the electrochemical performance of glucose biosensors are discussed in detail. The metal, metal oxide, and hybrid/composite nanomaterial fabrication strategies for the modification of electrodes, mechanism of detection, and significance of the nanomaterials toward the electrochemical performance of enzymatic and non-enzymatic glucose biosensors are compared and comprehensively reviewed. This review aims to provide readers with an overview and underlying concept of producing a reliable, stable, cost-effective, and excellent electrochemical performance of a glucose biosensor.
In this paper, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for hip implant geometry was proposed for the application of total hip replacement. A two-port SAW device was numerically investigated for implementation with an operating frequency of 872 MHz that can be used in more common radio frequency interrogator units. A finite element analysis of the device was developed for a lithium niobate (LiNBO3) substrate with a Rayleigh velocity of 3488 m/s on COMSOL Multiphysics. The Multiphysics loading and frequency results highlighted a good uniformity with numerical results. Afterwards, a hip implant geometry was developed. The SAW sensor was mounted at two locations on the implant corresponding to two regions along the shaft of the femur bone. Three discrete conditions were studied for the feasibility of the implant with upper- and lower-body loading. The loading simulations highlighted that the stresses experienced do not exceed the yield strengths. The voltage output results indicated that the SAW sensor can be implanted in the hip implant for hip implant-loosening detection applications.
This paper describes the development of an integrated system using a dry film resistant (DFR) microfluidic channel consisting of pulsed field dielectrophoretic field-flow-fractionation (DEP-FFF) separation and optical detection. The prototype chip employs the pulse DEP-FFF concept to separate the cells (Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from a continuous flow, and the rate of release of the cells was measured. The separation experiments were conducted by changing the pulsing time over a pulsing time range of 2⁻24 s and a flow rate range of 1.2⁻9.6 μ L min - 1 . The frequency and voltage were set to a constant value of 1 M Hz and 14 V pk-pk, respectively. After cell sorting, the particles pass the optical fibre, and the incident light is scattered (or absorbed), thus, reducing the intensity of the transmitted light. The change in light level is measured by a spectrophotometer and recorded as an absorbance spectrum. The results revealed that, generally, the flow rate and pulsing time influenced the separation of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. It was found that E. coli had the highest rate of release, followed by S. cerevisiae. In this investigation, the developed integrated chip-in-a lab has enabled two microorganisms of different cell dielectric properties and particle size to be separated and subsequently detected using unique optical properties. Optimum separation between these two microorganisms could be obtained using a longer pulsing time of 12 s and a faster flow rate of 9.6 μ L min - 1 at a constant frequency, voltage, and a low conductivity.
In view of the presence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) bacteria in environmental waters, including drinking water, which may pose a potential health risk to humans, an ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae DNA in the environmental sample was developed. Silica nanospheres were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) for effective immobilization of the capture probe, and gold nanoparticles were used for acceleration of electron transfer to the electrode surface. The aminated capture probe was immobilized onto the Si-Au nanocomposite-modified carbon screen printed electrode (Si-Au-SPE) via an imine covalent bond with glutaraldehyde (GA), which served as the bifunctional cross-linking agent. The targeted DNA sequence of V. cholerae was monitored via a sandwich DNA hybridization strategy with a pair of DNA probes, which included the capture probe and reporter probe that flanked the complementary DNA (cDNA), and evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in the presence of an anthraquninone redox label. Under optimum sandwich hybridization conditions, the voltammetric genosensor could detect the targeted V. cholerae gene from 1.0 × 10-17-1.0 × 10-7 M cDNA with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10-18 M (i.e., 1.1513 × 10-13 µg/µL) and long-term stability of the DNA biosensor up to 55 days. The electrochemical DNA biosensor was capable of giving a reproducible DPV signal with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <5.0% (n = 5). Satisfactory recoveries of V. cholerae cDNA concentration from different bacterial strains, river water, and cabbage samples were obtained between 96.5% and 101.6% with the proposed DNA sandwich biosensing procedure. The V. cholerae DNA concentrations determined by the sandwich-type electrochemical genosensor in the environmental samples were correlated to the number of bacterial colonies obtained from standard microbiological procedures (bacterial colony count reference method).
In recent years, the number of interdisciplinary research works related to the development of miniaturized systems with integrated chemical and biological analyses is increasing. Digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) are one kind of miniaturized systems designed for conducting inexpensive, fast, convenient and reliable biochemical assay procedures focusing on basic scientific research and medical diagnostics. The role of a dielectric layer in the digital microfluidic biochips is prominent as it helps in actuating microliter droplets based on the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technique. The advantages of using three different material layers of dielectric such as parafilm, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) were reported in the current work. A simple fabrication process of a digital microfluidic device was performed and good results were obtained. The threshold of the actuation voltage was determined for all dielectric materials of varying thicknesses. Additionally, the OpenDrop device was tested by utilizing a single-plate system to transport microliter droplets for a bioassay operation. With the newly proposed fabrication methods, these dielectric materials showed changes in contact angle and droplet velocity when the actuation voltage was applied. The threshold actuation voltage for the dielectric layers of 10⁻13 μm was 190 V for the open plate DMFBs.
The use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization to detect disease-related gene expression is a valuable diagnostic tool. An ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) with a graphene layer has been utilized for detecting DNA hybridization. Silicene is a two-dimensional silicon allotrope with structural properties similar to graphene. Thus, it has recently experienced intensive scientific research interest due to its unique electrical, mechanical, and sensing characteristics. In this paper, we proposed an ISFET structure with silicene and electrolyte layers for the label-free detection of DNA hybridization. When DNA hybridization occurs, it changes the ion concentration in the surface layer of the silicene and the pH level of the electrolyte solution. The process also changes the quantum capacitance of the silicene layer and the electrical properties of the ISFET device. The quantum capacitance and the corresponding resonant frequency readout of the silicene and graphene are compared. The performance evaluation found that the changes in quantum capacitance, resonant frequency, and tuning ratio indicate that the sensitivity of silicene is much more effective than graphene.