The biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 cultivated on mixed carbon sources was investigated. The mixed carbon sources consisted of heptanoic acid (HA) and oleic acid (OA). A relatively low PHA content at 1.2% (w/w) and 11.4% (w/w) was obtained when HA or OA was used as the sole carbon source. When these fatty acids were supplied as a mixture, PHA content increased threefold. Interestingly, the mixture-derived PHA composed of both odd and even monomer units, namely. 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, 3-hydroxydecanoate, and 3-hydroxydodecanoate and no unsaturated monomer was detected. It is hypothesized that the even-numbered monomers were derived primarily from OA, whereas the odd-numbered monomer was derived from HA. This also points out to an efficient and yet distinct fatty acids metabolism that fed the PHA biosynthesis machinery of this particular microorganism. PHA obtained was elastomeric because melting temperature (Tm ) and crystallinity were absent. It showed good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 275.96 to 283.05 °C.
Smoking, passive smoking, and nonsmoking are conditions that give different degrees of stress to the body. In this study, a proteomic technique was used to analyze differentially urinary protein expression between these three groups of subjects. Urinary proteins were precipitated using ammonium sulfate followed by separation according to molecular weights using SDS-PAGE. The gel was stained by Coommassie blue, and the image of the gel was captured for the comparison study. The protein bands that were consistently detected but expressed at different intensity between the smokers and nonsmokers were targeted for further analysis. Three targeted protein bands were excised from the gel, consisting of a unique protein band of smokers and a pair of differentially expressed protein bands from smokers and nonsmokers. The proteins were digested in gel by trypsin. The tryptic peptides were analyzed with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identity was determined by the product ion spectrum in the MS/MS scan. Four unique proteins from the smokers, namely, pancreatic alpha amylase, proepidermal growth factor, protein 4.1, and prostatic acid phosphatase, were found to be potential urinary biomarkers to indicate smoking status of a person.
Major concern about the presence of fluoranthene, which consists of four fused benzene rings, in the environment has been raised in the past few years due to its toxic, mutagenic, and persistent organic pollutant properties. In this study, we investigated the removal of fluoranthene under static and agitated conditions. About 89% fluoranthene was removed within 30 days under the agitated condition, whereas under the static condition, only 54% fluoranthene was removed. We further investigated the behavior and mechanism of fluoranthene biosorption and biotransformation by Pleurotus eryngii F032 to accelerate the elimination of fluoranthene. The optimum conditions for the elimination of fluoranthene by P. eryngii F032 included a temperature of 35 °C, pH 3, 0.2% inoculum concentration, and a C/N ratio of 16. Under these conditions at the initial fluoranthene concentration of 10 mg/L, more than 95% of fluoranthene was successfully removed within 30 days. Of those factors influencing the biodegradation of fluoranthene, salinity, glucose, and rhamnolipid content were of the greatest importance. Degradation metabolites identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were 1-naphthalenecarboxylic acid and salicylic acid, suggesting possible metabolic pathways. Finally, it can be presumed that the major mechanism of fluoranthene elimination by white-rot fungi is to mineralize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via biotransformation enzymes like laccase.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). The ability of M. tuberculosis to be quiescent in the cell has caused the emergence of latent infection. A comprehensive proteomic analysis of M. tuberculosis H37Rv over three growth phases, namely mid-log (14-day culture), early stationary (28-day culture), and late stationary (50-day culture), was performed in order to study the change in proteome from the mid-log phase to late-stationary phase. Combination methods of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and tandem mass spectrometry were used to generate proteome maps of M. tuberculosis at different growth phases. Ten proteins were detected differentially expressed in the late-stationary phase compared with the other two phases. These proteins were SucD, TrpD, and Rv2161c, which belong to metabolic pathway proteins; FadE5, AccD5, DesA1, and Rv1139c are proteins involved in cell wall or lipid biosynthesis, whereas TB21.7 and Rv3224 are conserved hypothetical proteins with unknown function. A surface antigen protein, DesA1, was not detectable in the late-stationary phase, although present in both log and early-stationary phases. The changes in the expression levels of these proteins were in line with the growth environment changes of the bacteria from mid-log phase to late-stationary phase. The information gathered may be valuable in the intervention against latent TB infection.
A white-rot fungus of Polyporus sp. S133 was isolated from an oil-polluted soil. The metabolism of pyrene by this fungus was investigated in liquid medium with 5 mg of the compound. Depletion of pyrene was evident during the 30-day growth period and was 21% and 90%, respectively, in cometabolism and metabolism of pyrene alone. Pyrene was absorbed to fungal cells or biodegraded to form simpler structural compounds. Seventy-one percent of eliminated pyrene was transformed by Polyporus sp. S133 into other compounds, whereas only 18% was absorbed in the fungal cell. The effects of pH and temperature on biomass production of Polyporus sp. S133 for pyrene were examined; the properties of laccase and 1,2-dioxygenase produced by Polyporus sp. S133 during pyrene degradation were investigated. The optimal values of pH were 3, 5, and 4 for laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase, and biomass production, respectively, whereas the optimal values of temperature were 25 °C for laccase and 50 °C for 1,2-dioxygenase and biomass production. Under optimal conditions, pyrene was mainly metabolized to 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid. The structure of 1-hydroxypyrene and gentisic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after identification using thin-layer chromatography.
Proteomic analysis of plants relies on high yields of pure protein. In plants, protein extraction and purification present a great challenge due to accumulation of a large amount of interfering substances, including polysaccharides, polyphenols, and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the extraction protocols. A study was conducted to compare four protein extraction and precipitation methods for proteomic analysis. The results showed significant differences in protein content among the four methods. The chloroform-trichloroacetic acid-acetone method using 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer provided the best results in terms of protein content, pellets, spot resolution, and intensity of unique spots detected. An overall of 83 qualitative or quantitative significant differential spots were found among the four methods. Based on the 2-DE gel map, the method is expected to benefit the development of high-level proteomic and biochemical studies of Andrographis paniculata, which may also be applied to other recalcitrant medicinal plant tissues.
One of the advantages of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine is that they can be harvested in abundance. However, the stemness biomarkers, which marked the safety and efficacy of ASCs in accordance with the good manufacturing practice guidelines, is not yet well established. This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term culture on the stemness properties of ASCs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results showed the growth rate of ASCs was at its peak when they reached P10 (population doubling; PD = 26) but started to decrease when they were expanded to P15 (PD = 36) and P20 (PD = 46). The ASCs can be culture expanded with minimal alteration in the stemness genes and cluster of differentiation (CD) markers expression up to P10. Expression level of Sox2, Nestin, and Nanog3 was significantly decreased at later passage. CD31, CD45, CD117, and human leukocyte antigen DR, DQ, and DP were lowly expressed at P5 and P10 but their expressions increased significantly at P15 or P20. The differentiation ability of ASCs (adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and neurogenesis) also decreased in long-term culture. Our findings suggested that P10 (PD = 26) should be the "cutoff point" for clinical usage because ASCs at passage 15 onward showed significant changes in the stemness genes, CD markers expression, and differentiation capability.
Induction strategies for the periplasmic production of recombinant human IFN-alpha2b (interferon-alpha2b) by recombinant Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami 2(DE3) were optimized in shake-flask cultures using response surface methodology based on the central composite design. The factors included in the present study were induction point, which related to the attenuance of the cell culture, IPTG (isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactoside) concentration and induction temperature. Second-order polynomial models were used to correlate the abovementioned factors to soluble periplasmic IFN-alpha2b formation and percentage of soluble IFN-alpha2b translocated to the periplasmic space of E. coli. The models were found to be significant and subsequently validated. The proposed induction strategies consisted of induction at an attenuance of 4 (measured as D600), IPTG concentration of 0.05 mM and temperature of 25 degrees C. The optimized induction strategy reduced inclusion-body formation as evidenced by electron microscopy and yielded 323.8 ng/ml of IFN-alpha2b in the periplasmic space with translocation of 74% of the total soluble product. In comparison with the non-optimized condition, soluble periplasmic production and the percentage of soluble IFN-alpha2b translocated to the periplasmic space obtained in optimized induction strategies were increased by approx. 20-fold and 1.4-fold respectively.
The structural gene of elastase strain K (elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K), namely HindIII1500PstI, was successfully sequenced to contain 1497 bp. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature elastase consists of 301 amino acids, with a molecular mass of 33.1 kDa, and contains a conserved motif HEXXH, zinc ligands and residues involved in the catalysis of elastase strain K. The structural gene was successfully cloned to a shuttle vector, pUCP19, and transformed into Escherichia coli strains TOP10, KRX, JM109 and Tuner™ pLacI as well as P. aeruginosa strains PA01 (A.T.C.C. 47085) and S5, with detection of significant protein expression. Overexpression was detected from transformants KRX/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of E. coli and PA01/pUCP19/HindIII1500PstI of P. aeruginosa, with increases in elastolytic activity to 13.83- and 5.04-fold respectively relative to their controls. In addition, recombinant elastase strain K showed considerable stability towards numerous organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, undecan-1-ol and n-dodecane, which typically pose a detrimental effect on enzymes; our finding provides further information to support the potential application of the enzyme in synthetic industries, particularly peptide synthesis.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and IDC (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) is the most common type of invasive breast cancer. The changes in the biological behaviour of cancer tissue can be predicted by measuring the differential protein expression of normal and cancerous tissues. Using a combination of SDS/PAGE and LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem MS), we identified 82 common and differentially expressed proteins from normal and cancerous breast tissues in 20 Malaysian Chinese patients with IDC. These proteins are extracted from the normal and cancerous tissue of patients and therefore represent the actual proteins involved in cancer development. Proteins identified possibly have significant roles in the development of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese patients in view of their consistent expression in most of the patients, although some of the proteins had not been detected in earlier studies that were mostly carried out in Western countries. This observation suggests that molecular mechanisms leading to breast cancer development in this region may not be identical with those leading to IDC in Western regions.
HBcAg (hepatitis B core antigen) is a nanoplex bioproduct that has a great potential in the development of therapeutic drugs and vaccines. In the present study, a continuous-flow bead milling for the disruption of Escherichia coli was optimized and a direct recovery protocol to isolate the recombinant HBcAg from the unclarified E. coli disruptate was developed. The optimal condition for continuous-flow bead milling for the release of HBcAg from E. coli was achieved at a feed flow rate of 15 litres/h, biomass concentration of 10% [ww/v (wet weight/vol.)] and impeller tip speed of 14 m/s. The sucrose-density-gradient analysis showed that the particulate form of the HBcAg released by this optimal condition is still preserved. In the direct purification of HBcAg from the unclarified disruptate, the AE-EBAC (anion-exchange expanded-bed adsorption chromatography) technique was employed. A 54% adsorption and 50.7% recovery of HBcAg were achieved in this direct recovery process. The purity of HBcAg recovered was 49.8%, which corresponds to a purification factor of 2.0. ELISA showed that the HBcAg recovered is functionally active.
Pseudomonas putida Bet001 and Delftia tsuruhatensis Bet002, isolated from palm oil mill effluent, accumulated poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) when grown on aliphatic fatty acids, sugars, and glycerol. The substrates were supplied at 20:1 C/N mole ratio. Among C-even n-alkanoic acids, myristic acid gave the highest PHA content 26 and 28 wt% in P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Among C-odd n-alkanoic acids, undecanoic gave the highest PHA content at 40 wt% in P. putida and 46 wt% in D. tsuruhatensis on pentadecanoic acid. Sugar and glycerol gave <10 wt% of PHA content for both bacteria. Interestingly, D. tsuruhatensis accumulated both short- and medium-chain length PHA when supplied with n-alkanoic acids ranging from octanoic to lauric, sucrose, and glycerol with 3-hydroxybutyrate as the major monomer unit. In P. putida, the major hydroxyalkanoates unit was 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate when grown on C-even acids. Conversely, 3-hydroxyheptanoate, 3-hydrxoynonanoate, and 3-hydroxyundecanoate were accumulated with C-odd acids. Weight-averaged molecular weight (Mw ) was in the range of 53-81 kDa and 107-415 kDa for P. putida and D. tsuruhatensis, respectively. Calorimetric analyses indicated that both bacteria synthesized semicrystalline polymer with good thermal stability with degradation temperature (Td ) ranging from 178 to 282 °C.
The gene encoding a cellobiohydrolase 7B (CBH7B) of the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris was identified, subcloned, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. CBH7B encoded 455 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 51.8 kDa. Domain analysis indicated that CBH7B contains a family 7 glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core but lacks a carbohydrate-binding module. Purified CBH7B exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 55 °C with 4-methylumbelliferryl-cellobioside as the substrate and retained 85% of its activity following 24 H incubation at 50 °C. Despite the lack of activity toward microcrystalline substrates, this enzyme worked synergistically with the commercial enzyme cocktail Cellic(®) CTec2 to enhance saccharification by 39% when added to a reaction mixture containing 0.25% alkaline pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested a reduction of lignin and crystalline cellulose in OPEFB samples supplemented with CBH7B. Scanning electron microscopy revealed greater destruction extent of OPEFB strands in samples supplemented with CBH7B as compared with the nonsupplemented control. Therefore, CBH7B has the potential to complement commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing lignocellulosic biomass.
Results from the present study have shown that the ionic species of buffers, pH values and reaction temperature can affect the enzyme unit activities and product specificity of Toruzyme (Novo Nordisk A/S Bagsvaerd, Denmark) CGTase (cyclodextrin glucanotransferase). Applying a similar reaction environment (acetate buffer, pH 6.0; temperature, 60 degrees C), the CGTase was found to be capable of producing pre dominantly beta-cyclodextrin from either raw or gelatinized sago (Cycas revoluta) starch. Changing the buffer from acetate to phosphate reduced the yield of beta-cyclodextrin from 2.48 to 1.42 mg/ml and also affected the product specificity, where production of both alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins were more pronounced. The decrease in the production of cyclodextrins in phosphate buffer was significant at both pH 6.0 and 7.0. However, changing the buffer to Tris/HCl (pH 7.0) showed a significant increase in beta-cyclodextrin production. Increasing the ionic strength of sodium acetate and Tris/HCl buffers at pH 6.0 and 7.0 to equivalent ionic strength of phosphate buffers showed no significant effects on cyclodextrin production. Higher yield of cyclodextrins at pH 7.0 when Tris/HCl was used might be due to the binding of chloride ions at the calcium-binding sites of the CGTase, resulting in the shift of the optimum pH close to physiological environment, leading to an increase in the activities and specificity.
Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, and the dynamic range of detection of hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip-based approach with Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as recognition element were established through the scouting for optimal conditions for the improvement of immobilization efficiency and in the use of optimal regeneration buffer. Recombinant HBsAg was immobilized onto the sensor surface of a CM5 chip at a concentration of 150 mg/L in sodium acetate buffer at pH 4 with added 0.6% Triton X-100. A regeneration solution of 20 mM HCl was optimally found to effectively unbind analytes from the ligand, thus allowing for multiple screening cycles. A dynamic range of detection of ∼0.00098-0.25 mg/L was obtained, and a sevenfold higher LOD, as well as a twofold increase in coefficient of variance of the replicated results, was shown as compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Evaluation of the assay for specificity showed no cross-reactivity with other antibodies tested. The ability of SPR chip-based assay and ELISA to detect anti-HBs in human serum was comparable, indicating that the SPR chip-based assay with its multiple screening capacity has greater advantage over ELISA.
Biosynthesis and in vivo depolymerization of intracellular medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 grown on lauric acid were studied. Highest mcl-PHA fraction (>50 % of total biomass) and cell concentration (8 g L-1 ) were obtained at carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio 20, starting cell concentration 1 g L-1 , and 48 H fermentation. The mcl-PHA comprised of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (C6 ), 3-hydroxyoctanote (C8 ), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 ), and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (C12 ) monomers. In vivo action was studied in a mineral liquid medium without carbon source, and in different buffer solutions with varied pH, molarity, ionic strength, and temperature. The monomer liberation rate reflected the mol percentage distribution of the initial polymer subunit composition. Rate and percentage of in vivo depolymerization were highest in 0.2 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9, strength = 0.2 M, 30 °C) at 0.21 g L-1 H-1 and 98.6 ± 1.3 wt%, respectively. There is a congruity vis-à-vis to specific buffer type, molarity, pH, ionic strength, and temperature values for superior in vivo depolymerization activities. Direct products from in vivo depolymerization matched the individual monomeric composition of native mcl-PHA. It points to exo-type reaction for the in vivo process, and potential biological route to chiral molecules.
Differentially expressed aqueous soluble proteins between Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra and H37Rv were identified. The protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve proteins were detected to be differentially expressed significantly between virulent strain H37Rv and attenuated strain H37Ra. The differentially expression of these proteins was validated by a recently isolated clinical virulent strains of M. tuberculosis, TB138. Out of the 12 proteins identified, which consisted of ten upregulated and two downregulated proteins, nine were belonged to intermediate metabolism and respiration protein group, two were in lipid metabolism, and one protein was involved in information pathways and virulence. Among these proteins, two of the upregulated proteins, namely, mmsA and pntAa, showed a consistent expression pattern in both virulent mycobacterium strains. These proteins can serve as potential biomarkers for the intervention treatment of TB.
Phage display has been applied successfully as a tool for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Naive antibody libraries are unique as they are able to overcome several limitations associated with conventional mAb generation methods like the hybridoma technology. Here, we performed an in vitro selection and generation of Fab antibodies against Brugia malayi SXP protein (BmSXP), a recombinant antigen for the detection of lymphatic filariasis. We developed a naïve multi ethnic Fab antibody library with an estimated diversity of 2.99 × 109 . The antibody library was used to screen for mAbs against BmSXP recombinant antigen. Soluble monoclonal Fab antibodies against BmSXP were successfully isolated from the naïve library. The Fab antibodies obtained were expressed and analyzed to show its binding capability. The diversity obtained from a pool of donors from various ethnic groups allowed for a diverse antibody library to be generated. The mAbs obtained were also functional in soluble form, which makes it useful for further downstream applications. We believe that the Fab mAbs are valuable for further studies and could also contribute to improvements in the diagnosis of filariasis.
A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilize antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilization were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites toward the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain. Hence, vector cloning and recombinant protein expression were carried out to express the p51 α-heavy chain of the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn-α). The recombinant protein expressed, hFcRn-α, was adopted to pin rabbit IgG against hepatitis B virus surface antigen to a solid phase. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was further developed to evaluate the efficiency of hFcRn-α-directed immobilization in antigen detection. The result was compared with the conventional physical adsorption method. The findings demonstrated that human neonatal Fc receptor was efficient in pinning antibodies and generating higher signals compared with the physical adsorption of antibody.
Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects millions in tropical and subtropical countries and is caused by Wuchereria and Brugia species. Specific and sensitive detection methods are essential in mapping infected areas where rapid tests are needed to cover underdeveloped and remote regions, which facilitates eliminating the disease as a public health problem. A few commercialized rapid tests based on antigen or antibody detection are available, but the former only detects infection by Wuchereria species and cross-reacts with nonlymphatic filaria, whereas antibody detection might provide positive results of previous infection. Here, we report the production of three different recombinant immunoglobulin gamma (IgG)1 antibodies based on scFvs previously generated via human antibody phage display technology, that is, anti-BmR1 clone 4, anti-BmXSP clone 5B, and anti-BmXSP clone 2H2. The scFv sequences were cloned into a pCMV-IgG1 vector, then transfected into a HEK293F cell line. The generated antibodies were found to be able to bind to their respective targets even at relatively low concentration. Conjugation of Fc to scFv induces binder stability and provides multiple labeling sites for probes and signaling molecules that can be used in rapid tests.