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  1. Sharifah NA, Nurismah MI, Lee HC, Aisyah AN, Clarence-Ko CH, Naqiyah I, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2010 Aug;34(4):442-7.
    PMID: 20451485 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2010.04.010
    The incidence of breast cancer has been on the rise in Malaysia. It is suggested that a subset of breast cancer cases were associated with germline mutation in breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA) genes. Most of the BRCA mutations reported in Malaysia were point mutations, small deletions and insertions. Here we report the first study of BRCA large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) in Malaysia. We aimed to detect the presence of LGRs in the BRCA genes of Malaysian patients with breast cancer.
  2. Tan GH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Taib NA, See MH, Jamaris S, Yip CH
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2015 Feb;39(1):115-7.
    PMID: 25475062 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2014.11.005
    Changes in the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging for breast cancer occurred when the 5th Edition was updated to the 6th Edition.
  3. McCormack VA, Burton A, dos-Santos-Silva I, Hipwell JH, Dickens C, Salem D, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2016 Feb;40:141-51.
    PMID: 26724463 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.11.015
    Mammographic density (MD) is a quantitative trait, measurable in all women, and is among the strongest markers of breast cancer risk. The population-based epidemiology of MD has revealed genetic, lifestyle and societal/environmental determinants, but studies have largely been conducted in women with similar westernized lifestyles living in countries with high breast cancer incidence rates. To benefit from the heterogeneity in risk factors and their combinations worldwide, we created an International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD) to pool individual-level epidemiological and MD data from general population studies worldwide. ICMD aims to characterize determinants of MD more precisely, and to evaluate whether they are consistent across populations worldwide. We included 11755 women, from 27 studies in 22 countries, on whom individual-level risk factor data were pooled and original mammographic images were re-read for ICMD to obtain standardized comparable MD data. In the present article, we present (i) the rationale for this consortium; (ii) characteristics of the studies and women included; and (iii) study methodology to obtain comparable MD data from original re-read films. We also highlight the risk factor heterogeneity captured by such an effort and, thus, the unique insight the pooled study promises to offer through wider exposure ranges, different confounding structures and enhanced power for sub-group analyses.
  4. Stepien M, Fedirko V, Duarte-Salles T, Ferrari P, Freisling H, Trepo E, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2016 Feb;40:179-87.
    PMID: 26773278 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2016.01.002
    INTRODUCTION: Serum liver biomarkers (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; total bilirubin) are used as indicators of liver disease, but there is currently little data on their prospective association with risk of hepatobiliary cancers.

    METHODS: A nested-case control study was conducted within the prospective EPIC cohort (>520,000 participants, 10 European countries). After a mean 7.5 mean years of follow-up, 121 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 34 intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and 131 gallbladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cases were identified and matched to 2 controls each. Circulating biomarkers were measured in serum taken at recruitment into the cohort, prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95%CI).

    RESULTS: In multivariable models, 1SD increase of each log-transformed biomarker was positively associated with HCC risk (OR(GGT)=4.23, 95%CI:2.72-6.59; OR(ALP)=3.43, 95%CI:2.31-5.10;OR(AST)=3.00, 95%CI:2.04-4.42; OR(ALT)=2.69, 95%CI:1.89-3.84; OR(Bilirubin)=2.25, 95%CI:1.58-3.20). Each liver enzyme (OR(GGT)=4.98; 95%CI:1.75-14.17; OR(AST)=3.10, 95%CI:1.04-9.30; OR(ALT)=2.86, 95%CI:1.26-6.48, OR(ALP)=2.31, 95%CI:1.10-4.86) but not bilirubin (OR(Bilirubin)=1.46,95%CI:0.85-2.51) showed a significant association with IHBC. Only ALP was significantly associated with GBTC risk (OR(ALP)=1.59, 95%CI:1.20-2.09).

    CONCLUSION: This study shows positive associations between circulating liver biomarkers in sera collected prior to cancer diagnoses and the risks of developing HCC or IHBC, but not GBTC.

  5. Mohd Suzairi MS, Tan SC, Ahmad Aizat AA, Mohd Aminudin M, Siti Nurfatimah MS, Andee ZD, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2013 Oct;37(5):634-8.
    PMID: 23806437 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2013.05.007
    To investigate the allele and genotype frequencies of NFKB1 -94 ins/del ATTG (rs28720239) polymorphism and to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Malaysian population.
  6. Ho K, Yazan LS, Ismail N, Ismail M
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2009 Aug;33(2):155-60.
    PMID: 19679064 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2009.06.003
    Vanillin is responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies showed that vanillin could enhance the repair of mutations and thus function as an anti-mutagen. However, its role in cancer, a disease that is closely related to mutation has not yet been fully elucidated.
  7. Bhoo-Pathy NT, Inaida S, Tanaka S, Taib NA, Yip CH, Saad M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2017 06;48:56-61.
    PMID: 28371729 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2017.03.007
    BACKGROUND: The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with T1N0M0 breast cancers is unclear. While gene expression-based prognostic assays may aid management of women with early estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors, therapeutic decision-making in women with early stage ER negative tumors remains fraught with difficulties. We investigated the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and overall survival in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancers.

    METHOD: All newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors measuring≤2cm at the University Malaya Medical Centre (Malaysia) from 1993 to 2013 were included. Mortality of patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy were compared and adjusted for possible confounders using propensity score.

    RESULTS: Of 6732 breast cancer patients, 341 (5.1%) had small (≤2cm), node-negative and hormone receptor negative tumors at diagnosis. Among them, only 214 (62.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Five-year overall survival was 88.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.0%-94.2%) for patients receiving chemotherapy and 89.6% (95% CI: 85.1%-94.1%) for patients without chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was not associated with survival following adjustment for age, ethnicity, tumor size, tumor grade, HER2 status, lympho-vascular invasion, type of surgery and radiotherapy administration. However, chemotherapy was associated with a significant survival advantage (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.14-0.91) in a subgroup of women with high-grade tumors.

    CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy does not appear to be associated with a survival benefit in women with T1N0M0, hormone receptor negative breast cancer except in those with high-grade tumors.

  8. Abdullah N, Abd Jalal N, Ismail N, Kamaruddin MA, Abd Mutalib NS, Alias MR, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol, 2020 Apr;65:101656.
    PMID: 31923638 DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2019.101656
    BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) cases in Asian countries, including Malaysia. CRC is usually diagnosed at a late stage, and early detection of CRC is vital in improving survival. This study was conducted to determine the uptake rate of the immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT), the response rate to colonoscopy, and the CRC detection rate. We also wanted to identify the association between colorectal neoplasia and the Asia Pacific Colorectal Cancer Screening (APCS) scoring system.

    METHODS: We recruited 2264 individuals from The Malaysian Cohort participants aged 35-65 years who consented to colorectal screening using the iFOBT kit from July 2017 until January 2019.

    RESULTS: The response rate and positive iFOBT test rate of this study were 79.6% and 13.1% respectively. Among those with positive results, 125 individuals (52.7%) underwent colonoscopy; CRC was detected in six of them while 45 others (36.0%) had polyps. The overall CRC detection rate was 0.3% while the colorectal neoplasia detection rate (both colorectal cancer and colorectal polyps) was 2.3%. The APCS scoring indicated a significant association with colorectal neoplasia risk, with increasing trend by severity from moderate to high risk (3.46-11.14) compared to low risk. Most of the participants who were positive for iFOBT were those at high risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: The awareness of CRC risk and iFOBT screening are important strategies for early detection of CRC. We showed a CRC detection rate of 0.3 % among those who volunteered to have the iFOBT screening.

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