Understanding the mechanisms involved in cellular immune responses against control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is key to development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies against viral proliferation. Clear insights into the regulation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells is crucial to development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies due to their unique ability to eliminate virus-infected cells during the course of infection. Here, we reviewed the roles of transcription factors, co-inhibitory molecules and regulatory cytokines following HIV infection and their potential significance in regulating the cytotoxic potentials of CD8+ T cells.
The role of T-cell immunosenescence and functional CD8(+) T-cell responses in HIV/TB co-infection is unclear. We examined and correlated surrogate markers of HIV disease progression with immune activation, immunosenescence and differentiation using T-cell pools of HIV/TB co-infected, HIV-infected and healthy controls. Our investigations showed increased plasma viremia and reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in HIV/TB co-infected subjects relative to HIV-infected, and also a closer association with changes in the expression of CD38, a cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase and CD57, which were consistently expressed on late-senescent CD8(+) T cells. Up-regulation of CD57 and CD38 were directly proportional to lack of co-stimulatory markers on CD8(+) T cells, besides diminished expression of CD127 (IL-7Rα) on CD57(+)CD4(+) T cells. Notably, intracellular IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme B levels in HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells of HIV/TB co-infected subjects were diminished. Intracellular CD57 levels in HIV gag p24-specific CD8(+) T cells were significantly increased in HIV/TB co-infection. We suggest that HIV-TB co-infection contributes to senescence associated with chronic immune activation, which could be due to functional insufficiency of CD8(+) T cells.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with growing public health concern globally. Finding remedies to assist this health issue requires recruiting appropriate animal model for experimental studies. This study was designated to evaluate metabolic and immunologic changes in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats as a model of type 2 diabetes. Male rats were induced diabetes using nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Following 42 days, biochemical and immunological tests showed that diabetic rats had higher levels of blood glucose, WBC, certain abnormalities in lipid profile and insufficient mitogenic responses of lymphocytes (p<0.05). However, the status of the total antioxidant, inflammatory biomarkers and other parameters of full blood count (except HCT) were not significantly altered. Phenotyping assay indicated insignificant lymphocyte subtype imbalances excluding a significant rise in the level of CD4+CD25+ marker (p<0.05). This model of diabetic animals may represent some but not all symptoms of human type 2 diabetes.
Anti-inflammatory actions of the vitamin E fragment tocotrienol have not been described for microglia. Here, we screened palm α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienol isoforms and Tocomin® 50% (contains spectrum of tocotrienols and tocopherols) for their ability to limit nitric oxide (NO) production by BV2 microglia. Microglia were treated with varying doses of tocotrienols for 24h and stimulated with 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All tocotrienol isoforms reduced NO release by LPS-stimulated microglia, with 50 μM being the most potent tocotrienol dose. Of the isoforms tested, δ-tocotrienol lowered NO levels the most, reducing NO by approximately 50% at 48 h post-LPS treatment (p
The immunomodulatory activity of Cassia auriculata (CA)-derived polyphenols was tested on aged rats. Rats (24-26 months old) were given CA polyphenols supplementation at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for 28 days. Flow cytometry analysis of CA polyphenols-treated aged rats showed increased T and B cells percentage along with enhanced proliferation of splenocytes in both resting and LPS-stimulated cells. Increased percentage of pan T cells is further supported by an elevation of CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells. In terms of innate immune cell activity, CA polyphenol supplementation reduced the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in response to PMA and Escherichia coli activation. Our results collectively show that polyphenols derived from CA boost T cell immunity by increasing the number of T cells and its sensitivity towards stimulants and decreasing ROS production by neutrophils that could potentially harm multiple biological systems in aged individuals.
Differences in gender immune response have resulted in differences in immune protection and susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. Cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are widely used in immunomodulation studies, yet the influence of gender is usually not considered. We examined the effect of in vitro culture and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation on PBMC lymphocyte subsets using flowcytometry. Full blood counts of whole blood showed higher levels of lymphocyte in male subjects. Lymphocyte subsets enumeration revealed higher NK cell counts in males and higher B cells in females. Cultured PBMC resulted in significant increases in B and total T cell percentages among females and NK cells among males. PHA stimulated significantly increased percentages of NK and total T cells in males and total activated T cells (CD69+) in females. Our results showed significant gender differences in lymphocyte subsets in cultured conditions. This may affect experimental outcome.
Neutrophils play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of innate immunity via their potent respiratory burst activity. However, the uncontrolled activation of respiratory burst in neutrophils also attributes to chronic diseases such as primary hypertension and atherosclerosis. In our study, we have investigated the activation of respiratory burst function of neutrophils harvested from essential hypertensive patients. In the presence of stimuli PMA and opsonized zymosan (OZ), hypertensive patients' neutrophils secrete significantly higher amount of superoxide anions compared to normotensive control. Although the magnitude of activation varies between both groups, yet the kinetics of activation is similar. When normotensive control's neutrophils were pre-treated with hypertensive serum, the cells failed to migrate toward fMLP which indicates the impairment of the migration property. In conclusion, the respiratory burst activity of neutrophils is affected by hypertension and their elevated superoxide anions production could be an aggravating factor in hypertension-related complication.
A challenge for studies involving microglia cultures is obtaining sufficient cells for downstream experiments. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) has been used to improve yield of microglia in culture. However, the effects of M-CSF on activation profiles of microglia cultures are still unclear. Microglia activation is characterised by upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules and an inflammatory phenotype. The aim of this study is to demonstrate whether M-CSF supplementation alters microglial responses in resting and activated conditions. Microglia derived from mixed glia cultures and the BV-2 microglia cell line were cultivated with/without M-CSF and activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and beta amyloid (Abeta). We show M-CSF expands primary microglia without affecting microglial responses to LPS and Abeta, as shown by the comparable expression of MHC class II and CD40 to microglia grown without this growth factor. M-CSF supplementation in BV-2 cells had no effect on nitric oxide (NO) production. Therefore, M-CSF can be considered for improving microglia yield in culture without introducing activation artefacts.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are non-haematopoietic stem cells that are capable of differentiating into tissues of mesodermal origin. MSC play an important role in supporting the development of fetal and adult haematopoiesis. More recently, MSC have also been found to exhibit inhibitory effect on T cell responses. However, there is little information on the mechanism of this immunosuppression and our study addresses this issue by targeting T cell functions at various level of immune responses. We have generated MSC from human adult bone marrow (BM) and investigated their immunoregulatory function at different phases of T cell responses. MSC showed the ability to inhibit mitogen (CD3/CD28 microbeads)-activated T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In order to evaluate the specificity of this immunosuppression, the proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were measured. MSC equally inhibit CD4(+) and CD8(+) subpopulations of T cells in response to PHA stimulation. However, the antiproliferative effect of MSC is not due to the inhibition of T cell activation. The expression of early activation markers of T cells, namely CD25 and CD69 were not significantly altered by MSC at 24, 48 and 72h. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive effect of MSC mainly targets T cell proliferation rather than their effector function since cytotoxicity of T cells is not affected. This work demonstrates that the immunosuppressive effect of MSC is exclusively a consequence of an anti-proliferative activity, which targets T cells of different subpopulations. For this reason, they have the potential to be exploited in the control of unwanted immune responses such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray™ following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence.