METHOD: A non-systemic search was performed to review articles relevant to CYP2S1 in literature. This review will update the findings related to the expression and regulation of CYP2S1 gene and protein, substrate profiles and metabolism mechanisms, genetic polymorphisms, and their association with diseases.
RESULTS: The expression of CYP2S1 was mainly in the epithelium of portal of entry organs such as respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is believed to be partly involved in the induction of CYP2S1. CYP2S1 was found to activate and deactivate pro-drugs which resulted in toxicity and detoxification of carcinogens. The current knowledge of the endogenous functions of CYP2S1 is largely related to cell proliferation and lipid metabolisms. Several polymorphic alleles of CYP2S1 have been reported and documented to date.
CONCLUSION: Molecular-based investigations should be performed to better understand the regulation mechanism of CYP2S1 in various cells and tissues. It is pivotal to establish optimum expression and incubation systems in vitro to elucidate the substrate specificity of CYP2S1 and characterise the genetic consequences of variant CYP2S1 in vitro.
METHOD: Several advanced (supercritical fluid extraction, subcritical extraction liquid, solvent-free microwave extraction) and conventional (hydrodistillation, steam distillation, hydrodiffusion, solvent extraction) methods have been discussed for the extraction of essential oils. Advanced methods are considered as the most promising extraction techniques due to less extraction time, low energy consumption, low solvent used and less carbon dioxide emission.
CONCLUSION: This manuscript reviewed the major research studies in the field and discussed several research findings on the chemical composition of essential oils, methods of oil extraction, and application of these oils in pharmaceutical and therapeutic fields. These essential oils can be used as anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, and as skin permeation enhancer agents.
METHODS: Among several species, Typhonium blumei, T. flagelliforme, T. divaricatum and T. giganteum were extensively studied due to the presence of a class of secondary metabolites. All the available reports on Typhonium were included and discussed in this article.
RESULTS: Until now several groups of compounds, namely amino acids (1, 2), cinnamic acid (3), fatty acids (4-14), glycerol derivatives (15-18) and cerebrosides (19-34), flavonoids (35), hydantoins (36-38), lignin monomers (39-44), nucleobases (45-48), pheophorbides (49-52), phthalate (53), terpene and steroids (54-59) and vitamins (60, 61) were isolated and characterized from Typhonium. These phytochemicals were investigated for their anticancer properties, and results confirmed the promising growth inhibitory effect and anticancer activities against human lung, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells. The anticancer activity of these compounds appears to be mediated through the induction of apoptotic cell death. These phytochemicals further reported to exhibit other pharmacological efficacies, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-allergic, neuroprotective and hepato-protective properties.
CONCLUSION: This is the first review to summarize the anticancer properties of all isolated compounds of Typhonium genus with confirmed chemical structures. Further advanced studies are necessary to establish the detailed signaling pathways that are involved in the anticancer property of the compounds.
METHODS: We did a non-systematic review, and the literature was searched in Google, Science Direct and PubMed. An overview is provided for the formulation of polymeric nanoparticles using different methods, effect of surface modification on the nanoparticle properties with types of polymeric nanoparticles and preparation methods. An account of different nanomedicine employed with therapeutic agent to cross the BBB alone with biodistribution of the drugs.
RESULTS: We found that various types of polymeric nanoparticle systems are available and they prosper in delivering the therapeutic amount of the drug to the targeted area. The effect of physicochemical properties on nanoformulation includes change in their size, shape, elasticity, surface charge and hydrophobicity. Surface modification of polymers or nanocarriers is also vital in the formulation of nanoparticles to enhance targeting efficiency to the brain.
CONCLUSION: More standardized methods for the preparation of nanoparticles and to assess the relationship of surface modification on drug delivery. While the preparation and its output like drug loading, particle size, and charge, permeation is always conflicted, so it requires more attention for the acceptance of nanoparticles for brain delivery.
OBJECTIVE: Less is understood about the role of CYP2E1 in the central nervous system, therefore the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the expression and activity of CYP2E1 enzyme relevant to Parkinson's disease and to identify whether an increase in the expression of CYP2E1 is associated with neurodegeneration.
METHODS: The objectives of the study were achieved by implicating an unsystematic integrative literature review approach in which the literature was qualitatively analysed, critically evaluated and a new theory with an overall view of the mechanism was presented.
RESULTS: The contribution of CYP2E1 in the development of Parkinson's disease was found to be significant as the negative effects of CYP2E1 overshadowed its protective detoxifying role.
CONCLUSION: Overexpression of CYP2E1 seems detrimental to dopaminergic neurons, therefore, to overcome this, a synthetic biochemical is required, which paves the way for further research and development of valuable biomolecules.
OBJECTIVE: Herein, we are highlighting the recent knowledge of vitamin D roles and functions with respect to pathophysiological disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and debate the potential avails of vitamin D on slowing cancer, cardiovascular disease and RA progression.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this review confirm that the importance of vitamin D metabolites or analogues which can provide a helpful platform to target some kinds of cancer, particularly when used in combination with existing therapies. Moreover, the correlation between vitamin D deficiencies with cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) progression might suggest a pivotal role of vitamin D in either initiation or progression of these diseases.
CONCLUSION: In light of current challenges, the major concern pertaining to poor systemic bioavailability of curcumin, its improvement, especially in combination with piperine, and the necessity of additional research in this setting are together described in this review. Besides, the recent advances in the potential therapeutic rationale and efficacy of curcumin-piperine combination, a promising duo, against various pathologic conditions are delineated.