OBJECTIVE: This review highlights some of the general characteristics of PDEs and focuses mainly on the Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) of selected PDE enzymes. The objective is to review the role of PPIs in the specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation of certain biological functions of PDEs.
METHODS: The article discusses some of the PPIs of selected PDEs as reported in recent scientific literature. These interactions are critical for understanding the biological role of the target PDE.
RESULTS: The PPIs have shown that each PDE has a specific mechanism for activation and thereby regulation a certain biological function.
CONCLUSION: Targeting of PDEs to specific regions of the cell is based on the interaction with other proteins where each PDE enzyme binds with specific protein(s) via PPIs.
METHODS: The necessary information collated on this review has been gathered from various literature published from 1995 to 2019.
RESULTS: This article sheds light on novel drug delivery approaches to target the immunological axis for several Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. rugose, C. hemulonii, etc.).
CONCLUSION: It is clear that the novel drug delivery approaches include vaccines, adoptive transfer of primed immune cells, recombinant cytokines, therapeutic antibodies, and nanoparticles, which have immunomodulatory effects. Such advancements in targeting various underpinning mechanisms using the concept of novel drug delivery will provide a new dimension to the fungal infection clinic particularly due to Candida species with improved patient compliance and lesser side effects. This advancement in knowledge can also be extended to target various other similar microbial species and infections.
METHODS: The anticancer activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds from Anchusa arvensis (A. arvensis) were studied against the cell culture of HepG-2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-yl)-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated by performing Acridine orange -ethidium bromide staining, styox green assay and DNA interaction study. We also used tools for computational chemistry studies of isolated compounds with the tyrosine kinase.
RESULTS: In MTT assay, the crude extract caused a significant cytotoxic effect with IC50 of 34.14 ± 0.9 μg/ml against HepG-2 cell lines. Upon fractionation, chloroform fraction (Aa.Chm) exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 6.55 ± 1.2 μg/ml followed by ethyl acetate (Aa.Et) fraction (IC50, 24.59 ± 0.85 μg/ml) and n-hexane (Aa.Hex) fraction (IC50 29.53 ± 1.5μg/ml). However, the aqueous (Aa.Aq) fraction did not show any anti-proliferative activity. Bioactivity-guided isolation led to the isolation of two compounds which were characterized as para-methoxycatechol (1) and decane (2) through various spectroscopic techniques. Against HepG-2 cells, compound 1 showed marked potency with IC50 6.03 ± 0.75 μg/ml followed by 2 with IC50 18.52 ± 1.9 μg/ml. DMSO was used as a negative control and doxorubicin as a reference standard (IC50 1.3 ± 0.21 μg/ml). It was observed that compounds 1-2 caused apoptotic cell death evaluated by Acridine orange -ethidium bromide staining, styox green assay and DNA interaction study, therefore both compounds were tested for molecular docking studies against tyrosine kinase to support cytotoxic activity.
CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the plant extracts and isolated compounds possess promising antiproliferative activity against HepG-2 cell lines via apoptotic cell death.