• 1 Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
  • 2 Shri Baba Mastnath Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Baba Mastnath University, Rohtak 124001, India
  • 3 School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jagatpura 302 017, Jaipur, India
  • 4 Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida 201303, India
  • 5 Amity Institute for Advanced Research & Studies (M&D), Amity University, Noida 201303, India
  • 6 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Delhi G.T. Road (NH-1), Phagwara-144411, Punjab, India
  • 7 Department of Pharmaceutics, Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa, Pune, 411048, Maharashtra, India
  • 8 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana 124001, India
  • 9 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05006, Korea
  • 10 Graduate School of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, 446-701, Korea
  • 11 Department of Biochemistry, Central University of Haryana, Jant-Pali, Mahendergarh District 123031, Haryana, India
  • 12 Innovative Medicines Group, Institute of Health & Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane, Queensland 4059, Australia
  • 13 School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, County Londonderry, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 14 Centre for Inflammation, Centenary Institute, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia
  • 15 Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Curr Top Med Chem, 2019;19(28):2593-2609.
PMID: 31746290 DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666191026105308


BACKGROUND: Candida species are the important etiologic agents for candidiasis, the most prevalent cause of opportunistic fungal infections. Candida invasion results in mucosal to systemic infections through immune dysfunction and helps in further invasion and proliferation at several sites in the host. The host defence system utilizes a wide array of the cells, proteins and chemical signals that are distributed in blood and tissues which further constitute the innate and adaptive immune system. The lack of antifungal agents and their limited therapeutic effects have led to high mortality and morbidity related to such infections.

METHODS: The necessary information collated on this review has been gathered from various literature published from 1995 to 2019.

RESULTS: This article sheds light on novel drug delivery approaches to target the immunological axis for several Candida species (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. rugose, C. hemulonii, etc.).

CONCLUSION: It is clear that the novel drug delivery approaches include vaccines, adoptive transfer of primed immune cells, recombinant cytokines, therapeutic antibodies, and nanoparticles, which have immunomodulatory effects. Such advancements in targeting various underpinning mechanisms using the concept of novel drug delivery will provide a new dimension to the fungal infection clinic particularly due to Candida species with improved patient compliance and lesser side effects. This advancement in knowledge can also be extended to target various other similar microbial species and infections.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.