Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 849 in total

  1. Mohd Nizam T, Binting RA, Mohd Saari S, Kumar TV, Muhammad M, Satim H, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):32-9.
    PMID: 27418867 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  2. Tissera S, Lee SM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 May;20(3):14-22.
    PMID: 23966820
    This was a preliminary study to test for the presence of multiple antibiotic-resistant extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria in Malaysian urban surface waters. Although the literature review revealed several published papers on clinical ESBL isolates in Malaysia, none were found on ESBL isolates obtained from local surface waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  3. Al-Othrubi SM, Hanafiah A, Radu S, Neoh H, Jamal R
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Apr;32(4):400-6.
    PMID: 21484001
    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  4. Mai-Ngam K, Chumningan P
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:137-8.
    PMID: 15468856
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  5. Sia KJ, Tang IP, Prepageran N
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):6-9.
    PMID: 23466758 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVES: To identify the common bacteria of otorhinolaryngological (ORL) infection in three general hospitals in the state of Sarawak, East Malaysia and to determine the antibiotic sensitivity of the common bacteria to update local antibiotic policy.
    METHODS: All specimens with positive monoclonal culture, received from inpatient and outpatient Otorhinolaryngology Department in the year 2009 and 2010 were included in the study. Patients' demographics, nature of specimens, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity were analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
    RESULTS: A total 244 positive monoclonal cultures were identified. Staphylococcus species and Gram negative bacilli were the commonest bacteria of ORL infections. Common ORL bacteria remain sensitive to our front line antibiotics. There are a number of multi-drug resistant isolates of MRSA, ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumanii in the hospital-acquired infections.
    CONCLUSION: Although resistance to antimicrobial agents is growing worldwide, first line antibiotics still show significant therapeutic advantage in our local setting. The low resistance of bacterial isolates in our community reflects judicious use of antibiotics in our routine clinical practices.

    Study site: Sarawak General Hospital, Sibu Hospital and Miri Hospital
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  6. Rasidin RSM, Suhaili Z, Mohamed AFS, Hod R, Neela V, Amin-Nordin S
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Jun 01;37(2):471-481.
    PMID: 33612816
    Nosocomial infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is common among immunocompromised patients. Treatment strategy is limited due to rapid resistance development and lack of novel antibiotic. Colistin has been the last line therapy with good in vitro activity against infections caused by multi-drug resistance A. baumannii. However, pharmacological updates are required to support dosing optimisation. This study aimed to determine the time-kill kinetic and resistance development after antibiotic exposure as well as post-antibiotic effect of colistin at different static concentrations in in vitro A. baumannii system. The static in vitro time-kill and post-antibiotic effect experiments were conducted against two clinical isolates as well as one reference isolate ATCC 19606. Time-kill and postantibiotic effect were studied at colistin concentrations ranging from 0.25MIC to 16.0MIC and 0.5MIC to 4.0MIC, respectively. Post-exposure resistance development was examined in time-kill study. Killing activity and post-antibiotic effect were in a concentration-dependent manner. However, delayed killing activity indicates colistin tolerance. Development of resistance after exposure was not detected except for the ATCC 19606 strain. Dosing suggestion based on the observations include administration of supplemental dose 3 MIU at 12 hours after loading dose, administration of maintenance dose 9 MIU in two divided doses and application of extended interval in renal adjustment dose. However, the information is applicable for non-colistin-heteroresistance A. baumannii with colistin MIC < 1.0 mg/L. As for heteroresistance and strain with colistin MIC > 1.0 mg/L, combination therapy would be the more appropriate treatment strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests*
  7. Saeed SI, Vivian L, Zalati CWSCW, Sani NIM, Aklilu E, Mohamad M, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2023 Jan 14;19(1):10.
    PMID: 36641476 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-022-03560-6
    BACKGROUND: S. aureus is one of the causative agents of bovine mastitis. The treatment using conventional antimicrobials has been hampered due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the ability of the bacteria to form biofilms and localize inside the host cells.

    OBJECTIVES: Here, the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, was tested against the biofilms and intracellular S. aureus invitro. Following that, the mechanism for the intracellular antimicrobial activities and GO toxicities was elucidated.

    METHODS: GO antibiofilm properties were evaluated based on the disruption of biofilm structure, and the intracellular antimicrobial activities were determined by the survival of S. aureus in infected bovine mammary cells following GO exposure. The mechanism for GO intracellular antimicrobial activities was investigated using endocytosis inhibitors. GO toxicity towards the host cells was assessed using a resazurin assay.

    RESULTS: At 100 ug/mL, GO reduced between 30 and 70% of S. aureus biofilm mass, suggesting GO's ability to disrupt the biofilm structure. At 200 ug/mL, GO killed almost 80% of intracellular S. aureus, and the antimicrobial activities were inhibited when cells were pre-treated with cytochalasin D, suggesting GO intracellular antimicrobial activities were dependent on the actin-polymerization of the cell membrane. At

    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
  8. Santhanam J, Yahaya N, Aziz MN
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Aug;68(4):343-7.
    PMID: 24145264
    Resistance to antifungal agents has increased in Candida spp., especially in non-albicans species. Recent findings reported a strikingly low susceptibility in Candida spp. towards itraconazole in Malaysia. In this study, a colorimetric broth dilution method was utilized to determine the susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated in Kuala Lumpur Hospital within a six month period. A total of 82 isolates from blood, peritoneal and other fluids were tested against 8 antifungal agents using the Sensititre Yeast One method. These comprised of 32 (39%) C. albicans, 17 (20.7%) C. glabrata, 15 (18.3%) C. tropicalis, 13 (15.9%) C. parapsilosis, two (2.4%) C. sake and 1 (1.2%) each of C. pelliculosa, C. rugosa and Pichia etchellsii/carsonii. Overall, susceptibility of all isolates to caspofungin was 98.8%, amphotericin B, 97.6%; 5-flucytosine, 97.6%; voriconazole, 97.6%; posaconazole, 87.8%; fluconazole, 82.9%; ketoconazole, 79.3%; and itraconazole, 56.1%. A total of 18 Candida spp. isolates (22 %) were resistant to at least one antifungal agent tested, and half of these were resistant to three or more antifungal agents. C. glabrata was the most frequently identified resistant species (10 isolates), followed by C. tropicalis (4 isolates), C. parapsilosis (3 isolates) and C. albicans (1 isolate). Resistance was highest against ketoconazole (20.9%), followed by itraconazole (13.4%). However, 30.5% of isolates were susceptible-dose dependent towards itraconazole. Long-term usage of itraconazole in Malaysia and a predominance of nonalbicans species may account for the results observed in this study. In conclusion, susceptibility to antifungal drugs is species-dependent among Candida spp.; reduced susceptibility to itraconazole is concomitant with the high number of non-albicans Candida species isolated in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  9. Nur Hilda Hanina AW, Intan NS, Syafinaz AN, Zalinah A, Lailatul Akmar MN, Devnani AS
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):182-7.
    PMID: 26248782 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently present with infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). This study was done to record the anatomical site and the grade of ulcers according to Wagner's classification and to culture the microorganisms from the ulcers and determine their antibiotic sensitivity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study was conducted on 77 diabetic patients who were admitted with DFU from June until December 2011. Patients with end stage renal failure, those who had previous vascular surgery on the involved limb, or hyperbaric oxygen or maggot therapy for the ulcers, or had unrelated skin diseases around the involved foot were excluded from the study. Specimens for culture were obtained by a sterile swab stick or tissue sample was taken from the wound with sterile surgical instruments.
    RESULTS: Wagner's grade III and IV ulcers were most common. Majority of the ulcers involved toes (48%). Gram negative microorganisms were predominantly isolated (71.1%). Gram positive microorganisms were less frequently cultured (27.7%). Fungus was cultured from one sample (1.2%). Gram negative microorganisms were sensitive to aminoglycosides, cephalosporins or β-lactamase inhibitors. More than 40% were resistant to ampicillin. Gram positive microorganisms were sensitive to cloxacillin. MRSA were sensitive to vancomycin.
    CONCLUSION: Empirical use of antibiotics should be curtailed to prevent development of drug resistant strains of microorganisms and MRSA. We suggest use of antiseptic solutions to clean the ulcers until antibiotic sensitivity report is available. Results of our altered treatment regimen we plan to publish in a later study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  10. Poh-Hwa, T., Yoke-Kqueen, C., Indu Bala, J., Son, R.
    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial of Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus niruri and Phyllanthus urinaria. P. niruri was found to possess the highest antioxidant activity, the activity decreased in the order P. niruri > P. amarus > P. urinaria for water extract. However, the activity decreased in the order P. niruri > P. urinaria > P. amarus for methanol extract. The result correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content revealed a positive correlation of 0.954 < r 2 < 1.000 for both water and methanol extract. Methanol extract showed higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity as compared with water extract. Lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value for water extract against the selected microorganism was >2.5 mg/mL meanwhile, for methanol extract was 2.5 mg/mL and >0.625 mg/mL were the value for water and methanol extract. Methanol extract showed better inhibition potential than water extract
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  11. Bankur PK, Mathew M, Almalki SA, Jalaluddin M, Jayanti I, Durgaraju M
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2019 Sep 01;20(9):1041-1044.
    PMID: 31797826
    AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of various concentrations of Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract on periodontal pathogens.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Matured, healthy and disease-free leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were collected. The leaves were washed under tap water and finally dried in an oven at a temperature of 45°C for 48 hours. The dried plants were ground in an electric blender to make them into a powder. The powder was mixed with 100% ethanol and kept it inside a shaker overnight at 35°C. The mixture was centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2,500 rpm. Three different concentrations (10%, 50%, and 100% v/v) were used as antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was considered as positive control and dimethyl formamide was considered as negative control against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the extract's antibacterial activity against the test organisms. A digital Vernier caliper was used to measure the diameter of antibacterial activity showing the zone of inhibition in millimeters.

    RESULTS: Eucalyptus globulus with 100% concentration showed a maximum zone of inhibition against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis (5.38 ± 0.32 mm, 4.82 ± 0.11 mm) followed by 50% and 10% accordingly. The negative control of dimethyl formamide showed a zone of inhibition of 0.48 ± 0.96 mm and 0.63 ± 0.20 mm against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The positive control of 0.2% chlorhexidine showed a zone of inhibition of 8.46 ± 1.02 mm and 7.18 ± 0.54 mm against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The ANOVA test showed a highly significant antibacterial efficacy in 0.2% chlorhexidine and 100% concentration Eucalyptus globulus.

    CONCLUSION: A significant maximum zone of inhibition against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis was showed by 100% concentration of Eucalyptus globulus.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Other than the systemic diseases treatment, Eucalyptus globulus also serves as an effective promising alternative to antibiotics in the prevention of oral infections because of the natural phytochemicals existing in them.

    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  12. Othman M, Loh HS, Wiart C, Khoo TJ, Lim KH, Ting KN
    J Microbiol Methods, 2011 Feb;84(2):161-6.
    PMID: 21094190 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2010.11.008
    The search for antimicrobial agents from plants has been a growing interest in the last few decades. However, results generated from many of these studies cannot be directly compared due to the absence of standardization in particular antimicrobial methods employed. The need for established methods with consistent results for the evaluation of antimicrobial activities from plant extracts has been proposed by many researchers. Nevertheless, there are still many studies reported in the literature describing different methodologies. The aim of this study was to find optimal methods to give consistent quantitative antimicrobial results for studying plant extracts. Three different agar-based assays (pour plate disc diffusion (PPDD), streak plate disc diffusion (SPDD) and well-in agar (WA)) and one broth-based (turbidometric (TB)) assay were used in this study. Extracts from two plant species (Duabanga grandiflora and Acalypha wilkesiana) were tested on two bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Amongst the agar-based assays, PPDD produced the most reproducible results. TB was able to show the inhibitory effects of the test samples on the growth kinetic of the bacteria including plant extracts with low polarity. We propose that both agar- (i.e PPDD) and broth-based assays should be employed when assessing the antimicrobial activity of plant crude extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods*; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/standards*
  13. Balakrishnan S, Shahid Nj, Fairuz T, Ramdhan I
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):42-4.
    PMID: 25347049 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.017
    Diabetic foot infections make up a significant number of orthopaedic ward admissions. The recommended choice of empirical antibiotics used in Malaysia for diabetic foot infections is based on the National Antibiotic Guidelines 2008. The pattern of bacteriology and the effectiveness of the treatment of diabetic foot infections based on this guideline were analyzed through a retrospective study in our hospital. Data over a period of one year (May 2012- April 2013) was analyzed, and 96 patients were included in this study. Polymicrobial growth (58%) was mainly isolated, followed with an almost equal percentage of gram-negative (22%) and gram-positive organisms (20%). The empirical antibiotics based on the national antibiotic guidelines were used as definitive antibiotics in 85% of the cases. Although there was slight variation in the pattern of organisms as compared to other studies conducted in this country, the high rate of positive clinical response proved that the antibiotic guideline was still effective in diabetic foot infection treatment.

    KEY WORDS: Diabetic foot infections, National Antibiotic Guidelines, Culture and Sensitivity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  14. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  15. Noor Shafina MN, Nor Azizah A, Mohammad AR, Faisal MF, Mohamad Ikhsan S, Hafizah Z, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Jun;70(3):153-7.
    PMID: 26248777 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection affecting children and therefore, prompt recognition and accurate antimicrobial management are vital to prevent kidney damage. This study aims to determine the bacterial pathogens and their patterns of antimicrobial resistance in children presenting with UTI.
    METHODS: A retrospective study of 721 cases, involving children between the ages of 1-day old to 13 years old with culture-proven UTI in Selayang Hospital, Malaysia between January 2007 and December 2011. The bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns in the total population, prophylaxis and no prophylaxis groups were studied.
    RESULTS: The 3 most common organisms isolated in the total population were E.Coli (41.6%), Klebsiella spp. (21.2%) and Enterococcus spp. (11.0%). With regards to the antibiotic resistance, E.Coli resistance rates to ampicillin, cefuroxime and gentamicin were 67.7%, 15.3% and 7.3% respectively. Ampicillin-resistance was also highest in Klebsiella spp. (84.3%), Enterococcus spp. (15.5%) and Proteus spp. (55.5%).
    CONCLUSION: E.coli remains to be the leading bacterial pathogen causing UTI in children, with ampicillin-resistance occurring in more than half of these cases. Therefore, accurate choice of antibiotics is important to ensure optimal outcome. In our study, cefuroxime and gentamicin have lower antibiotic resistance rates and can be used in the treatment of UTI in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  16. Puthucheary SD, Chen ST, Dugdale AE
    Med J Malaya, 1972 Jun;26(4):262-5.
    PMID: 5069415
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  17. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2016;11:33.
    PMID: 27429642 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-016-0089-y
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  18. Awaad AS, Alafeefy AM, Alasmary FAS, El-Meligy RM, Zain ME, Alqasoumi SI
    Saudi Pharm J, 2017 Nov;25(7):967-971.
    PMID: 29158702 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.02.012
    A novel and safe essential amino acid (Leucine) incorporating sulfanilamide was synthesized, and evaluated for its anti-ulcerogenic activity and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The new molecule showed a dose dependent activity against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, it produced percent protection of control ulcer by 66.7 at dose 100 mg/kg. In addition it showed a potent anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro against 7 clinically isolated strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 12.5 to 50 μg/ml. The preliminary safety studies and toxicity profile are optimistic and encouraging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  19. Wong, A. S-L., Nusaibah Abdul Rahim
    Introduction: Polymyxin B (PMB) is one of the remaining antibiotics that is effective against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. However, PMB monotherapy is not able to achieve sustained killing hence, combination with other antibiotics are usually employed. Besides antibiotics, studies are now moving towards non-antibiotic alternatives such as metabolite feeding against MDR pathogens. This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility
    and bacterial killing of PMB in combination with metabolite phenylpyruvate against Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Methods: Broth microdilution was used to determine PMB minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) alone and with phenylpyruvate against two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Time kill studies were performed over 24 h (initial inoculum: ~106 CFU/mL), using PMB 2 mg/L and phenylpyruvate 2 mmol/L, alone and in combination, against the
    PMB-resistant isolate. Microbiological responses were examined using the log-change method. Results: The MIC of PMB was reduced by phenylpyruvate in both isolates. In the time kill studies, during the first hour, PMB monotherapy demonstrated the highest bacterial killing activity even compared to the combination. Phenylpyruvate monotherapy showed negligible activity against K. pneumoniae. A significant reduction in bacterial burden was seen at 1 h following PMB monotherapy and combination therapy but an equally rapid regrowth was seen at 4 h. Notably at 24 h, the regrowth following combination therapy was >1-log10 CFU/mL less than PMB monotherapy. Conclusion: Our results suggest that phenylpyruvate increased PMB susceptibility in K. pneumoniae and may minimise the emergence of resistance to PMB. Future studies investigating phenylpyruvate at higher concentrations against more isolates are
    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  20. Jamil NIN, Wahab WNAWA, Ali IA, Yahaya ML
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):59-66.
    PMID: 30914879 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.6
    Background: A new direct microplate-based colorimetric drug susceptibility test that omits the initial isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum specimens was evaluated.

    Methods: A total of 51 M. tuberculosis acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive sputum specimens were inoculated directly into drug-free and serial dilutions of drug-containing Middlebrook 7H9 broth media. With this direct resazurin micro plate assay (REMA) method, resazurin dye was used as a growth indicator in microplate wells. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) were compared with those of the 'gold standard' absolute concentration method (ACM). The turnaround time (TAT) of the direct REMA and the ACM were also determined.

    Results: At the selected cut-off points (INH: 0.0625 μg/mL; RIF: 0.125 μg/mL), good drug susceptibility test results were obtained for INH and RIF with an average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 90%, 100% and 97%, respectively, with a TAT of 15 days. The REMA method also correctly classified the resistant isolates with positive predictive values of 95% and negative predictive values of 98% for the two drugs.

    Conclusions: The direct REMA was reliable in routine diagnostic laboratories for the drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis and the rapid detection of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Microbial Sensitivity Tests
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