A new chromanone acid, namely caloteysmannic acid (1), along with three known compounds, calolongic acid (2), isocalolongic acid (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum teysmannii. All these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antioxidant activities in the MTT and DPPH assays, respectively. The structure of compound 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HR-EIMS spectrometry. The stereochemical assignment of compound 1 was done based on the NMR results and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The preliminary assay results revealed that all the test compounds displayed potent inhibitory activity against HeLa cancer cell line, in particular with compound 1 which exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity comparable to the positive control used, cisplatin. However, no significant antioxidant activity was observed for all the test compounds in the DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay.
Gynura bicolor (Compositae) is a popular vegetable in Asia and believed to confer a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer. Our previous findings showed that the ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor possessed cytotoxicity and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). A combination of column chromatography had been used to purify chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate and water extract of G. bicolor leaves. Eight chemical constituents 5-p-trans-coumaroylquinic acid (I), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (II), rutin (III), kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (IV), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), kampferol-3-O-glucoside (VI), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) were isolated from G. bicolor grown in Malaysia. To our best knowledge, all chemical constituents were isolated for the first time from G. bicolor leaves except rutin (III). 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (V), guanosine (VII) and chlorogenic acid (VIII) demonstrated selective cytotoxicity (selective index>3) against HCT 116 cancer cells compared to CCD-18Co human normal colon cells.
Chloroform extract of bark of Artabotrys crassifolius Hook.f. & Thomson exhibited antibacterial activities against both American Type Culture Collection and clinical bacterial strains in vitro with zones of inhibition ranging from 7 to 14 mm. Further analysis of this extract yielded artabotrine, liridine, lysicamine and atherospermidine. Artabotrine displayed a broad array of antibacterial activity mostly against Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 1.25 μg/mL to 5 μg/mL. Of note, artabotrine, liridine and lysicamine are bactericidal against Gram-negative extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella with MIC values equal 2.5, 2.5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, and minimum bactericidal concentrations values equal to 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/mL.
The stem bark extracts of Knema laurina inhibited the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and aggregated amyloid β-peptide 1-42 length (Aβ(1-42))-induced cell death in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of 250 μM H2O2 or 20 μM Aβ(1-42) to the cells for 24 h reduced 50% of cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with ethyl acetate extract (EAE) or n-butanol extract (BE) at 300 μg/mL and then exposure to H2O2 protected the cells against the neurotoxic effects of H2O2. Besides, methanolic extract (ME) at 1 and 10 μg/mL exerted neuroprotective effect on Aβ(1-42)-induced toxicity to the cells. These results showed that EAE, BE and ME exhibited neuroprotective activities against H2O2- and Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. Flavonoids (3-6) and β-sitosterol glucoside (8) were isolated from the EAE. Compound 1 was isolated from hexane extract, and compounds 2 and 7 were isolated from dichloromethane extract. All these observations provide the possible evidence for contribution in the neuroprotective effects.
Enterobacter cloacae is a versatile bacterial species inhabiting a wide variety of niches and is capable of metabolising a wide variety of substances as energy resources. The fermentation culture of this bacterial species has successfully yielded one new compound, Rimboxa (1) and three known compounds, i.e. indole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), indole-3-acetic acid (3) and 3,4-di-t-butylaniline (4). Rimboxa (1) is shown to possess the 1,2-oxathiolane core structure. 3,4-Di-t-butylaniline (4) is isolated for the first time from a natural resource. These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
Euphorbia hirta (L.) plant is traditionally used in Malaysia for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by nosocomial infectious agents. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of E. hirta and analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography have led to the isolation of two antibacterial compounds. These compounds were identified as caffeic acid (CA) and (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG) based on spectroscopic analyses and comparison with previously published data. Using broth microdilution method, both ECG and CA had demonstrated significant minimum inhibitory concentration of 15.6 and 31.3 μg/mL respectively, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Time-kill assessment of ECG and CA displayed bactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa cells.
Tocotrienols have been reported to possess anticancer effects other than anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. This study explored the potential synergism of antiproliferative effects induced by individual alkaloid extracts of Ficus fistulosa, Ficus hispida and Ficus schwarzii combined with δ- and γ-tocotrienols against human brain glioblastoma (U87MG), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells. Cell viability and morphological results demonstrated that extracts containing a mixture of alkaloids from the leaves and bark of F. schwarzii inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, whereas the alkaloid extracts of F. fistulosa inhibited the proliferation of both U87MG and HT-29 cells and showed synergism in combined treatments with either δ- or γ-tocotrienol resulting in 2.2-34.7 fold of reduction in IC50 values of tocotrienols. The observed apoptotic cell characteristics in conjunction with the synergistic antiproliferative effects of Ficus species-derived alkaloids and tocotrienols assuredly warrant future investigations towards the development of a value-added chemotherapeutic regimen against cancers.
The ultrasonic extraction (UE) method of anthocyanin from Clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed in this study. By using RSM, the objective is to optimise the extraction yield of anthocyanin from C. ternatea which is influenced by various factors, including the extraction temperature, time, ratio of solvent to solid and ultrasonic power. The empirical model was investigated by performing first-level optimisation in a two-level factorial design with Design Expert 7 software. In comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, UE showed a 246.48% better extraction yield and produced an anthocyanin extract with a radical scavenging activity of 68.48% at the optimised factors of 50°C, 150 min, 15 mL/g and 240 W.
This study discusses the isolation and identification of a new Streptomycetes highly active chitinase producer. Fifteen strains were isolated from Malaysian soil samples. The isolate WICC-A03 was found to be the most active chitinase producer. Its antifungal activity was evaluated against many phytopathogens. The identification of WICC-A03 using phenotypic and genotypic methods strongly indicated that strain WICC-A03 belonged to the genus Streptomyces and displayed similarity (91%) with Streptomyces glauciniger. Thus, it was given the suggested name S. glauciniger WICC-A03 with accession number: JX139754. WICC-A03 produces extracellular chitinase in a medium containing 1.5% colloidal chitin in submerged culture on 144 h. The produced enzyme was partially characterised and its molecular weight of 50 kDa was determined by using SDS-PAGE. This study indicates that WICC-A03 is a potential chitinase producer for biocontrol of plant pathogens. Further experiments are being carried out to optimise medium composition and cultivation conditions under lab and bioreactor scale.
Extensive chromatographic isolation and purification of the extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum inophyllum and Calophyllum soulattri have resulted in 11 xanthones. C. inophyllum gave inophinnin (1), inophinone (2), pyranojacareubin (5), rheediaxanthone A (6), macluraxanthone (7) and 4-hydroxyxanthone (8), while C. soulattri afforded soulattrin (3), phylattrin (4), caloxanthone C (9), brasixanthone B (10) and trapezifolixanthone (11). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV. Cytotoxicity screening (MTT assay) carried out in vitro on all the xanthones using five human cancer cell lines indicated good activities for some of these xanthones. The structure-activity relationship study revealed that the inhibitory activities exhibited by these xanthone derivatives to be closely related to the existence and nature of the pyrano and the prenyl substituent groups on their skeleton.
A handful of bioactive compounds from plants have been reported to possess platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist activity. However, their mode of action is not well understood. Selected bioactive compounds that exhibit PAF antagonist activity and synthetic PAF antagonists were subjected to docking simulations using the MOE 2007.09 software package. The docking study of PAF antagonists was carried out on the PAF receptor (PAFR) protein which involves in various pathological responses mediated by PAF. The docking results revealed that amentoflavone (3) showed good interactions with the PAFR model where the flavone and phenolic moieties were mostly involved in these interactions. Knowledge on PAF antagonists' interactions with the PAFR model is a useful screening tool of potential PAF antagonists prior to performing PAF inhibitory assay.
Garcinia species are reported to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV and anti-Alzheimer's activities. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro cholinesterase enzyme inhibitory activities of garcihombronane C (1), garcihombronane F (2), garcihombronane I (3), garcihombronane N (4), friedelin (5), clerosterol (6), spinasterol glucoside (7) and 3β-hydroxy lup-12,20(29)-diene (8) isolated from Garcinia hombroniana, and to perform molecular docking simulation to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. The cholinesterase inhibitory activities were evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. In this study, compound 4 displayed the highest concentration-dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE. Docking studies exhibited that compound 4 binds through hydrogen bonds to amino acid residues of AChE and BChE. The calculated docking and binding energies also supported the in vitro inhibitory profiles of IC50. In conclusion, garcihombronanes C, F, I and N (1-4) exhibited dual and moderate inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE.
An isomeric mixture of α,β-amyrin (triterpene) and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone (quinone) isolated from the Ardisia crispa root hexane (ACRH) extract was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. Considering the close association between inflammation and cancer, on top of the lack of antitumour study on those compounds, this study aimed to determine the potential of both compounds against tumour promotion in vitro, either as single agent or in combination. Triterpene and quinone compounds, as well as triterpene-quinone fraction (TQF) and ACRH were subjected to inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus-early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay for that purpose. Compared with curcumin (positive control), inhibition against EBV-EA activation occurred in the order: ACRH>TQF ≥ curcumin>α,β-amyrin ≥ 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone. These findings reported, for the first time, the antitumor-promoting effect of α,β-amyrin and 2-methoxy-6-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone from the roots of A. crispa, which was enhanced when both compounds act in synergy.
A new coumarin, hoseimarin (1), together with four other xanthones, trapezifolizanthone (2), osajaxanthone (3), β-mangostin (4) and caloxanthone A (5), were isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum hosei. The structures of these compounds were established by using spectroscopic analysis which included (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, COSY, DEPT, HMQC and HMBC experiments.
The molecular mass distribution, amino acid composition and radical-scavenging activity of collagen hydrolysates prepared from collagen isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus vastus were investigated. β and α1 chains of the collagen were successfully hydrolysed by trypsin. The molecular mass distribution of the hydrolysates ranged from 5 to 25 kDa, and they were rich in glycine, alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline residues. The hydrolysates exhibited excellent radical-scavenging activity. These results indicate that collagen hydrolysates from S. vastus can be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.
A new triterpene, malaytaraxerate (1), and four known compounds, taraxerol (2), taraxerone (3), docosyl isoferulate (4) and docosanoic acid 2',3'-dihydroxypropyl ester (5), were isolated from the acetone extract of Sapium baccatum stem bark. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using several spectroscopic methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry. Major isolated compounds were assayed for cytotoxicity. The chemotaxonomic significance of this plant was also studied.
A new sesquiterpenoid, malayscaphiol (1), and three known compounds, lupeol (2), lupenone (3) and stigmasterol (4), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Scaphium macropodum. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined using several spectroscopic methods, including UV-vis, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometer. Major isolated compounds were assayed for cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The chemotaxonomy significance of this plant was also discussed.
Marsdenia tinctoria is an indigo producing plant commonly found in Borneo, Malaysia. In this present study, one new flavone kapitone (1) and three known compounds, that is 3,2'-dihydroxyflavone (2), 1-methylcyclobutene (3) and dimethyl isatoate (4) were isolated from the Malaysia Borneo M. tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae). These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods.
Enterobacter cloacae is a highly pathogenic Gram-negative proteobacterium which is responsible for a wide array of infections. In the present study, the fermentation culture of E. cloacae has yielded one new oxolane compound, Rimboxo (1) in addition to three known compounds, i.e. Maculosine (2), phenylacetic acid (3) and methyl myristate (4). These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
Aedes aegypti is a primary vector of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease infecting 50-100 million people every year. Here, we biosynthesised mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Crotalaria verrucosa. The green synthesis of AgNP was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, EDX and FTIR. C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNPs were toxic against A. aegypti larvae and pupae. LC50 of AgNP ranged from 3.496 ppm (I instar larvae) to 17.700 ppm (pupae). Furthermore, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of dragonfly nymphs, Brachydiplax sobrina, against II and III instar larvae of A. aegypti in an aquatic environment contaminated with ultra-low doses of AgNP. Under standard laboratory conditions, predation after 24 h was 87.5% (II) and 54.7% (III). In an AgNP-contaminated environment, predation was 91 and 75.5%, respectively. Overall, C. verrucosa-synthesised AgNP could be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval population of dengue vectors enhancing predation rates of dragonfly nymphs.