MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty test specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions into rectangular test specimens. The hardness and surface roughness were tested, after 6 months of exposure to natural hot and dry weather. The hardness was measured through the International Rubber Hardness Degree (IRHD) scale using an automated hardness tester. The surface roughness was measured using a novel 3D optical noncontact technique using a combination of a light sectioning microscope and a computer vision system. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software SPSS/version 24 was used for analysis and a comparison between two independent variables was done using an independent t test, while more than two variables were analyzed, F test (ANOVA) to be used followed by a post hoc test to determine the level of significance between every two groups.
RESULTS: The hot and dry weather statistically influenced the hardness and surface roughness of MFSEM. Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hardness in test groups while A-2000 showed the hardest material (p < 0.05). A-2000 showed significant changes from rough in case of nonweathered to become smoother in weather followed by A-2186 (p < 0.05). Cosmesil M-511 showed the roughest material.
CONCLUSION: Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hard MFSEM after outdoor weathering while A-2000, the highest and least material showed hardness and surface roughness, respectively.
CLINICAL IMPLICATION: A-2000 had a high IRHD scale hardness. This makes this material more suitable for the replacement of ear and nose defects. Cosmesil M-511 is soft and easily adaptable material that makes the material more appropriate for the replacement of small facial defect with undercut area to be easily inserted and removed. Whilst A-2000 is smoother and finer in test specimens after weathering, Cosmesil M-511 became rougher after weathering.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review all the prosthetic techniques that have been used in the oral rehabilitation of patients with microstomia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources, including PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS and Web of Science, were searched for case reports and case series published through September 2017. Three investigators reviewed and verified the extracted data. Only case reports and case series on prosthetic rehabilitation in microstomia patients published in the English language were considered eligible.
RESULTS: A total of 212 records were identified from the database search. Forty duplicate records were removed. The remaining 172 articles were assessed for eligibility, and 139 articles were removed because they did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. A total of 34 cases (including 32 case reports and 1 case series) were finally included in the qualitative analysis. The review revealed the use of a modified impression technique with flexible and sectional trays to record impressions in patients with microstomia. Modified forms of oral prostheses ranging from sectional, flexible, collapsible and hinged dentures to implant-supported prosthesis were fabricated to overcome the limited mouth opening. The success of the prosthetic technique primarily depended on the extent of the microstomia and the nature of the cause of the microstomia.
CONCLUSION: Even though the patient acceptance of the prosthetic techniques summarized in the systematic review were high, long-term success rates for each option could not be assessed because of the short follow-up time in most of the included case reports and series.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty single-rooted mandibular premolars were standardized and prepared using ProTaper rotary files. The specimens were divided into a control group and two experimental groups receiving Diapex and Odontopaste medicament, either filled with iRoot SP or OrthoMTA, for 1 week. Each root was sectioned transversally, and the push-out bond strength and failure modes were evaluated. The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U post hoc test.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the bond strength of iRoot SP and OrthoMTA without medicaments and with the prior placement of Diapex (p value > 0.05). However, iRoot SP showed significantly higher bond strength with the prior placement of Odontopaste (p value < 0.05). Also, there was no association between bond strength of OrthoMTA with or without intracanal medicament (p value > 0.05) and between failure mode and root filling materials (p value > 0.05). The prominent failure mode for all groups was cohesive.
CONCLUSION: Prior application of Diapex has no effect on the bond strength of iRoot SP and OrthoMTA. However, Odontopaste improved the bond strength of iRoot SP.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dislodgment resistance of root canal filling from root dentin could be an indicator of the durability and prognosis of endodontic treated teeth.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised of 30 healthy subjects, 15 males and 15 females, aged between 24 years and 65 years. Samples were obtained from the exfoliated oral mucosa cells of buccal mucosa before and 12 days after exposing the patients to panoramic radiography.
RESULTS: The study reported that there was no significant increase in the number of micronuclei cells present before and after panoramic radiography. Positive correlation existed between age with pre- and postexposure micronuclei.
CONCLUSION: Diagnostic dental panoramic radiograph does not induce micronuclei in the target buccal epithelium cells. A positive correlation between age and micronuclei frequency was established.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Panoramic radiographs does not induce cytotoxicity but increase frequency may be vulnerable to genotoxic effects in buccal mucosal cells. Hence, dental radiographs should be prescribed only when necessary.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with implants were included in this study and implants were assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Bone levels of the implants were assessed by measuring mesial and distal bone levels from the periapical radiograph, and soft tissue was assessed from probing depth using a periodontal probe. Implants were assessed for stability and probing depth at pre-loading, at 3 months and 6 months post-loading. RFA and probing depth were statistically compared from different time points. Correlation of probing depth and marginal bone loss with implant stability was also determined.
RESULTS: The average change in implant stability quotient (ISQ) measurements from pre-loading to 6 months post-loading was found to be statistically significant (p <0.005). The average probing depth reduced from 1.767 mm at pre-loading to 1.671 mm at post-loading 3 months, and 1.600 mm at post-loading 6 months. At 6 months of function, radiographic examination yielded 0.786 mm mesial bone loss and 0.8 mm distal bone loss. It was found to be statistically significant (p <0.005) but within an acceptable range. No significant correlation was found between implant stability and bone loss; and implant stability and probing depth.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed an increasing trend in implant stability values with the time that indicates successful osseointegration. Increasing mean values for mesial and distal bone loss were also found.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The success of dental implants is highly dependent on the quality of bone and implant-bone interface, i.e., osseointegration. The most important factors that influence the survival rate of an implant is initial stability. The present study found the changes in the peri-implant hard and soft tissues and implant stability. This article, while being a prospective study, may show the evidence of successful osseointegration by increasing trend in implant stability (RFA) values with time which can help to the clinician in the long-term management of implants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 2,000 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. Sleep-disordered breathing symptoms were assessed with Arabic version of Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). Overweight/obesity was evaluated using body mass index (BMI) and their association with SDB was tested using a regression analysis model.
RESULTS: Overall, 23% of children were at high risk of SDB. Prevalence of habitual snoring was 15.9% and sleep apnea 4%. Boys were at higher risk of SDB than girls (p = 0.026), while age had no effect (p = 0.254). High-risk SDB had a strong association with sleep symptoms compared to low-risk SDB (p < 0.05). Sleep-disordered breathing increased significantly in overweight and obese children (p = 0.017 and p < 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Around 23% Saudi schoolchildren are at risk of SDB. Related symptoms were strongly associated with high risk of SDB. Overweight and obesity had a strong and progressive association with SDB.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results will help in identifying children at high risk of developing SDB and plan for early intervention to avoid the progression of SDB later in life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three search engines (Google, Yahoo!, and Bing) were searched. The first 20 consecutive websites from each engine were obtained and checked for eligibility. For the quality of the websites, the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode), the DISCERN tool, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Benchmarks, and Google PageRank were used for the assessment of the included websites. For readability, an online web tool was used, including well-known analyzing indices [Flesch Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE)]. The acceptable readability level was set to be ≥80.0 for the FRE and <7 for the FKGL and SMOG. The data were presented in frequencies and percentages.
RESULTS: Out of the 60 screened websites, 14 websites were eligible for analysis. There was only one (7.1%) website that had the HONcode seal. The mean score of all websites based on the DISCERN tool was 29.6 ± 12.1, with no website achieved the high score (≥65). Only one (7.1%) website scored >5 based on Google PageRank. Regarding JAMA benchmarks, all websites achieved a mean score of 2.57 ± 1.1. The mean grade level based on the FKGL was 8.4 ± 6.3. All websites had a score of <7 according to the SMOG index. The mean score of the readability ease index was 90.5 ± 16.4.
CONCLUSION: Most of the dental health information on denture hygiene available on the Arabic websites did not have the required level of quality, regardless of being readable and comprehensible by most of the general people.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Directing the patients to the appropriate websites related to their cases is the responsibility of the dentists.