MATERIALS AND METHODS: An epidemiological survey of the schoolchildren was carried out in a district in India. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select the sample. The caries prevalence of the surveyed population was obtained by using this CAST tool. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between dental fluorosis, socioeconomic status, and age and caries experience. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the caries experience between the two age groups.
RESULTS: A total of 2,610 children were examined. The majority of the schoolchildren (12 years: 74.2%, 15 years: 75.5%) were healthy concerning their caries experience and the prevalence of the other codes was minimal. The prevalence of dentin carious lesions and the percent of restorable teeth was greater among the 15-year-olds. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12- and 15-year-old subjects was calculated to be 0.22 and 0.29 respectively.
CONCLUSION: The currently surveyed population showed a low caries prevalence and the use of the tool highlighted the caries spectrum in an impressive way.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A well-designed tool to assess the carious spectrum of an individual or a community, thus enabling the responsible stakeholders to plan an appropriate care that is necessary.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental GIC (ex-GIC) was prepared by mixing CHX-D powder with the powder of type II GIC to obtain 1% (w/w) concentration of CHX-D in the GIC. Antibacterial activity of this ex-GIC was tested against L. casei and A. viscosus using the agar diffusion method. The ex-GIC specimens were tested in their unset and set forms for each bacterium. For the unset group, specimens were placed in each agar plate immediately after manipulation and for the set group, specimens were placed in each agar plate, 1 hour after manipulation. The inhibition zones on the agar plate were recorded in millimeters immediately on placement of the specimen in the agar plate and after 48 hours. The reading was recorded and statistically analyzed for significant difference.
RESULTS: Mann-Whitney U test showed statistically significant difference in the inhibition zones produced by ex-GIC against L. casei and A. viscosus when both were compared in unset (p-value = 0.002) and set (p-value = 0.031) groups. For both the groups, the zone of inhibition against L. casei was greater. Though the unset group recorded wider zone of inhibition, the difference was not significant when compared with the respective set group. This was true for both the bacterial groups.
CONCLUSION: The 1% CHX-D-modified type II GIC showed antibacterial property against L. casei and A. viscosus and significantly higher activity against L. casei.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of 1% CHX-D to type II GIC showed evidence of antibacterial activity against organisms found in deep carious lesion and therefore may exhibit superior antimicrobial efficiency when used as an intermediate therapeutic restoration in deep cavities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were used for the study. The teeth were instrumented with K-flex files and obturated using lateral condensation technique with GP and AH Plus sealer. The teeth were divided into three retreatment groups, each group consisting of 21 teeth. Group I: D-RaCe desobturation files (D-RaCe); group II: ProTaper Universal retreatment files (PTUR); group III: Hedstrom files (H-file). After removal of GP, the teeth were split longitudinally and divided into three equal parts: Cervical, middle, and apical third. The middle and apical thirds of all root halves were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The total surface area covered by the residual debris was evaluated using Motic Image plus 2.0 software. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with a p-value <0.05 used to determine significance and Tukey's multiple post hoc tests used for comparison between the groups, and 't' test was done for comparison between the thirds within the same group.
RESULTS: The PTUR retreatment files showed overall better performance compared with D-RaCe files and H-files. The PTUR files performed better at middle third compared with others. The PTUR files and D-RaCe files performed equally at apical third better than H-files.
CONCLUSION: ProTaper retreatment files are better compared with D-RaCe files and H-files for the retreatment of the previously endodontically treated teeth.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Highest efficacy for the removal of GP was shown by ProTaper Universal System followed by D-RaCe and H-file.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curette and subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and subsequent PCR for detection of P. gingivalis.
RESULTS: Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in 60% of patients of group II (pocket depth up to 5 mm), and in 93.33% of patients of group III (pocket depth more than 5 mm). One periodontally healthy subject in group I (probing depth < 3 mm) showed the presence of P. gingivalis.
CONCLUSION: Detection frequency of bacterium increased significantly with increase in probing pocket depth (PPD), loss of attachment (LOA), and gingival index (GI).
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis and its detection frequency positively correlates with the severity of periodontal destruction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done among 253 children of 5-, 12-, and 15-year-olds living in various orphanage houses of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Demographic data, and dietary and oral hygiene practices were collected through a structured questionnaire. Clinical examinations of children were conducted to assess oral health status and recorded in the World Health Organization oral health assessment form (1997). Stimulated saliva was collected for S. mutans and Lactobacilli levels. The statistical software, namely, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used for the analysis of the data.
RESULTS: The final data analysis included 253 children of which 116 (45.8%) were boys and 137 (54.2%) were girls. Overall, 140 (55.33%) children were caries-free and 113 (44.66%) children presented with caries (decayed/missing/filled surface >0). High levels of salivary microbiological counts (S. mutans and Lactobacilli), i.e., ≥105, stress the importance of necessary preventive oral health services. Treatment needs among orphan children showed that most of the children, i.e., 58 (22.9%), need preventive or caries-arresting care followed by 49 (19.4%) who require two-surface filling as an immediate measure.
CONCLUSION: From the results of our study, orphan children have low utilization of preventive and therapeutic oral health services. Urgent attention is required to plan a comprehensive dental health-care program to improve their oral health status.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Parents are the primary caretakers of children, but woefully some of them have to lead their lives without parents, the latter either being dead or incapable of bringing up their children. Such a group of children is known as orphans. As oral health is an integral part of general health, it is essential for health-care policy makers to address oral health needs of this underprivileged group of society. This article highlights the risk factors and treatment needs among orphan schoolchildren.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included the assessment of all the patients who underwent prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants. An experienced registered prosthodontist was given duty for examination of all the cases from the record file data. Prosthetic complications in the patients were identified using photographs, radiographs, and all other relevant data of the patients obtained from the record files. All types of complications and other factors were recorded separately and analyzed.
RESULTS: While correlating the prosthetic complications in OSA patients grouped based on number of dental implants, nonsignificant results were obtained. Significant correlation was observed while comparing the prosthetic complications divided based on type of prosthesis. Fracture of the porcelain was observed in four and eight cases respectively, of screwed and cemented dental implant cases.
CONCLUSION: Some amount of significant correlation existed between the incidences of prosthetic complications and OSA.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Proper history of the patients undergoing dental implant procedures should be taken to avoid failure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Turkom-Cera ceramic disks (10 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. The disks were wet ground to 1000-grit and subjected to four surface treatments: (1) No treatment (Control), (2) sandblasting, (3) silane application, and (4) sandblasting + silane. The four groups of 10 specimens each were bonded with Panavia-F resin cement according to manufacturer's recommendations. The SBS was determined using the universal testing machine (Instron) at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Failure modes were recorded and a qualitative micromorphologic examination of different surface treatments was performed. The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests.
RESULTS: The SBS of the control, sandblasting, silane, and sandblasting + silane groups were: 10.8 ± 1.5, 16.4 ± 3.4, 16.2 ± 2.5, and 19.1 ± 2.4 MPa respectively. According to the Tukey HSD test, only the mean SBS of the control group was significantly different from the other three groups. There was no significant difference between sandblasting, silane, and sandblasting + silane groups.
CONCLUSION: In this study, the three surface treatments used improved the bond strength of resin cement to Turkom-Cera disks.
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The surface treatments used in this study appeared to be suitable methods for the cementation of glass infiltrated all-ceramic restorations.