Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 246 in total

  1. Choudhury H, Chellappan DK, Sengupta P, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2019;25(26):2808-2827.
    PMID: 31309883 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190712181955
    The ubiquitous signaling nucleoside molecule, adenosine is found in different cells of the human body to provide its numerous pharmacological role. The associated actions of endogenous adenosine are largely dependent on conformational change of the widely expressed heterodimeric G-protein-coupled A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). These receptors are well conserved on the surface of specific cells, where potent neuromodulatory properties of this bioactive molecule reflected by its easy passage through the rigid blood-brainbarrier, to simultaneously act on the central nervous system (CNS). The minimal concentration of adenosine in body fluids (30-300 nM) is adequate to exert its neuromodulatory action in the CNS, whereas the modulatory effect of adenosine on ARs is the consequence of several neurodegenerative diseases. Modulatory action concerning the activation of such receptors in the CNS could be facilitated towards neuroprotective action against such CNS disorders. Our aim herein is to discuss briefly pathophysiological roles of adenosine on ARs in the modulation of different CNS disorders, which could be focused towards the identification of potential drug targets in recovering accompanying CNS disorders. Researches with active components with AR modulatory action have been extended and already reached to the bedside of the patients through clinical research in the improvement of CNS disorders. Therefore, this review consist of recent findings in literatures concerning the impact of ARs on diverse CNS disease pathways with the possible relevance to neurodegeneration.
  2. Satija S, Mehta M, Gupta G, Chellappan DK, Dua K
    Future Med Chem, 2020 10;12(20):1805-1807.
    PMID: 33016120 DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2020-0190
  3. Chellappan DK, Yenese Y, Wei CC, Gupta G
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 2017 09 11;17(2):87 - 95.
    PMID: 28427246 DOI: 10.2174/1871530317666170421121202
    Background and Objective: The incidence of diabetes has been on the rise and the rate of rise since the turn of this century has been phenomenal. One of the various battling issues faced by diabetics all over the globe is the management of diabetic wounds. Currently, there are several management strategies to deal with the treatment of diabetic wounds. The conventional methods have several limitations. One of the major limitations is the rate and progression of healing of a diabetic wound when adopting a conventional diabetic wound management therapy. Lately, several nano techniques and nano products have emerged in the market that offer promising results for such patients. The treatment outcomes are achieved more efficiently with such nanomedical products.
    Methods: This review attempts to consider the currently available nanotechnological applications in the management of diabetic wounds. We take a deeper look into the available nanotherapeutic agents and the different nanocarriers that could be used in the management of diabetic wound healing. Lately, researchers around the globe have started providing evidences on the effective use of such nanoparticles in various fields of Medicine extending from genetics to various other branches of medicine. This also includes the management of diabetic wounds.
    Conclusion: This paper discusses the challenges faced with these nanotherapies and nanoparticles with regard to the treatment of diabetic wounds.
  4. Gulati N, Chellappan DK, MacLoughlin R, Dua K, Dureja H
    Life Sci, 2021 Nov 15;285:119969.
    PMID: 34547339 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119969
    Inflammatory lung diseases related morbidity and mortality impose a significant financial burden. Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases of the respiratory system which is directly or indirectly linked to adverse health conditions, air pollution, rapid lifestyle changes, and regular outbreaks of microbial infections. The unique anatomical and physiological features of the lungs make them an ideal target organ in the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disease and with the help of inhaled therapy lungs can be targeted directly. The principal objective of this review is to present the comprehensive role of inhaled nano-based therapeutics such as liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion, nanosuspension, and exosomes in the treatment and management of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Inhaled nanomedicines provide targeted diagnosis and treatment, improved drug solubility and distribution, prevent first-pass hepatic metabolism, improved patient compliance, and reduced drug side effects. They overcome several biological barriers in the human body and provide immediate, and quick-onset of action. Future research should be focused on improving the therapeutic efficiency of inhaled nanocarriers and to carry out in-depth mechanistic studies to translate current scientific knowledge for the efficient management of inflammatory lung diseases with minimal or no toxicity.
  5. Chellappan DK, Yenese Y, Wei CC, Chellian J, Gupta G
    J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol, 2017;36(4):283-291.
    PMID: 29431061 DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2017020182
    Oral delivery of insulin is one of the most promising and anticipated areas in the treatment of diabetes, primarily because it may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetics who receive insulin regularly. Several problems have been reported regarding the subcutaneous delivery of insulin, ranging from cardiovascular complications to weight gain. One of the approaches to overcoming these issues is to administer insulin through the oral route. However, there are several challenges in developing an oral route for insulin delivery; insulin has extremely poor bioavailability and a low diffusion rate through the mucus layer. A wide range of oral insulin delivery techniques have recently been researched, ranging from nanoparticles to liposomes, self-emulsifying systems, and hydrogels. These techniques have shown promising potential in the oral delivery of insulin. This review considers the current literature on the advances and challenges in the development of oral insulin.
  6. Madhu A, Gupta G, Arali B, Chellappan DK, Dua K
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2017;11(1):36-41.
    PMID: 27993107 DOI: 10.2174/1872211310666161216111515
    AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Psychosis is a neurological disorder, which is usually defined as the "loss of contact with reality." As medicine 'Hemidesmusindicus' holds a reputed place in all systems of medicine in India. It is given in the form of infusion, fine particles, or syrup. It is also a component of several medicinal preparations. The present research work is pertaining to find out an anti-psychotic activity of an aqueous root extract of Hemidesmusindicus- a time bound study in rats.

    METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI). The extract was reconstituted in 2% aqueous tragacanth just before use and administered orally at a dose 0f 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. In a single dose study, the parameters were assessed after oral administration of the single dose of the AERHI, whereas in a multiple dose study, the animals daily received the suitable oral dose of the AERHI for a period of 30 days. The parameters were assessed on the 15th and 30th day. The antipsychotic activity was screened using Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior in rats and Haloperidol induced catalepsy models were used. In Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior inhibition of the Stereotyped behavior was considered to be anti-psychotic activity and in Haloperidol induced catalepsy, we observed whether the AERHI potentate or attenuate the catalepsy in rats.

    RESULTS: In this study, the extract of Hemidesmusindicus significantly inhibited the stereotyped behavior induced by apomorphine in rats and also potentiate the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, thereby showing its anti-psychotic activity.

    CONCLUSION: All these observations imply that Hemidesmusindicus extract possesses anti-psychotic activity in experimental animals.

  7. Jain N, Nagaich U, Pandey M, Chellappan DK, Dua K
    EPMA J, 2022 Dec;13(4):561-580.
    PMID: 36505888 DOI: 10.1007/s13167-022-00304-2
    In the current era of medical revolution, genomic testing has guided the healthcare fraternity to develop predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. Predictive screening involves sequencing a whole genome to comprehensively deliver patient care via enhanced diagnostic sensitivity and specific therapeutic targeting. The best example is the application of whole-exome sequencing when identifying aberrant fetuses with healthy karyotypes and chromosomal microarray analysis in complicated pregnancies. To fit into today's clinical practice needs, experimental system biology like genomic technologies, and system biology viz., the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning is required to be attuned to the development of preventive and personalized medicine. As diagnostic techniques are advancing, the selection of medical intervention can gradually be influenced by a person's genetic composition or the cellular profiling of the affected tissue. Clinical genetic practitioners can learn a lot about several conditions from their distinct facial traits. Current research indicates that in terms of diagnosing syndromes, facial analysis techniques are on par with those of qualified therapists. Employing deep learning and computer vision techniques, the face image assessment software DeepGestalt measures resemblances to numerous of disorders. Biomarkers are essential for diagnostic, prognostic, and selection systems for developing personalized medicine viz. DNA from chromosome 21 is counted in prenatal blood as part of the Down's syndrome biomarker screening. This review is based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature via a vigilant approach to highlight the applicability of predictive diagnostics for the development of preventive, targeted, personalized medicine for clinical application in the framework of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM/3 PM). Additionally, targeted prevention has also been elaborated in terms of gene-environment interactions and next-generation DNA sequencing. The application of 3 PM has been highlighted by an in-depth analysis of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The real-time challenges of genome sequencing and personalized medicine have also been discussed.
  8. Bisht D, Kumar D, Kumar D, Dua K, Chellappan DK
    Arch Pharm Res, 2021 May;44(5):439-474.
    PMID: 33893998 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-021-01328-4
    Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phytochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer duration can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.
  9. Candasamy M, Murthy TE, Gubiyappa KS, Chellappan DK, Gupta G
    J Basic Clin Pharm, 2014 Jun;5(3):62-7.
    PMID: 25278668 DOI: 10.4103/0976-0105.139728
    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of multiple etiologies. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes lead to multiple abnormalities of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of fenofibrate on the blood glucose lowering effect of glibenclamide.
  10. Samuel AJ, Mohan S, Chellappan DK, Kalusalingam A, Ariamuthu S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 May 7;141(1):396-402.
    PMID: 22421378 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.051
    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.
  11. Dua K, Sheshala R, Al-Waeli HA, Gupta G, Chellappan DK
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2015;9(3):257-61.
    PMID: 26051152
    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide an alternative to those containing chemical entities, with enhanced antimicrobial properties and better patient compliance.
  12. Satija S, Mehta M, Sharma M, Prasher P, Gupta G, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Future Med Chem, 2020 09;12(18):1607-1609.
    PMID: 32589055 DOI: 10.4155/fmc-2020-0149
  13. Singh Y, Gupta G, Kazmi I, Al-Abbasi FA, Negi P, Chellappan DK, et al.
    Dermatol Ther, 2020 11;33(6):e13871.
    PMID: 32558055 DOI: 10.1111/dth.13871
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the primary causative organism in corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) infections, is a novel member of the human coronavirus family which was first identified in Wuhan, China, towards the end of 2019. This letter reveals new vital missing links in our current understanding of the mechanisms that lead to cell death triggered by ferroptotic stress in COVID-19 infection. It further reveal the importance of homocysteine mediated trans-sulfuration pathway in COVID-19 infection. Hence, Vitamin B6, folic acid, and Vitamin B12 should be incorporated in the treatment regimen for SARS CoV-2 infections to suppress complications, as the virus mediates altered host cell metabolism.
  14. Pandey P, Chellappan DK, Tambuwala MM, Bakshi HA, Dua K, Dureja H
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Dec 01;141:596-610.
    PMID: 31494160 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.09.023
    The most common cause of deaths due to cancers nowadays is lung cancer. The objective of this study was to prepare erlotinib loaded chitosan nanoparticles for their anticancer potential. To study the effect of formulation variables on prepared nanoparticles using central composite design. Erlotinib loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method using probe sonication technique. It was found that batch NP-7 has a maximum loading capacity and entrapment efficiency with a particle size (138.5 nm) which is ideal for targeting solid tumors. Analysis of variance was applied to the particle size, entrapment efficiency and percent cumulative drug release to study the fitting and the significance of the model. The batch NP-7 showed 91.57% and 39.78% drug release after 24 h in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and Phosphate Buffer (PB) pH 6.8, respectively. The IC50 value of NP-7 evaluated on A549 Lung cancer cells was found to be 6.36 μM. The XRD of NP-7 displayed the existence of erlotinib in the amorphous pattern. The optimized batch released erlotinib slowly in comparison to the marketed tablet formulation. Erlotinib loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared successfully using sonication technique with suitable particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release. The formulated nanoparticles can be utilized for the treatment of lung cancer.
  15. Chellappan DK, Yap WS, Bt Ahmad Suhaimi NA, Gupta G, Dua K
    Panminerva Med, 2018 Sep;60(3):117-131.
    PMID: 29696964 DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03455-9
    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been increasing at an alarming rate. With an increased understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of T2DM, various new therapeutic options have been developed to target different key defects in T2DM. Incremental innovations of existing therapies either through unprecedented drug combinations, modified drug molecules, or improved delivery systems are capable to nullify some of the undesirable side effects of traditional therapies as well as to enhance effectiveness. The existing administration routes include inhalation, nasal, buccal, parenteral and oral. Newer drug targets such as protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin (SIRT), and others are novel approaches that act via different mechanisms and possibly treating T2DM of distinct variations and aetiologies. Other therapies such as endobarrier, gene therapy, and stem cell technology utilize advanced techniques to treat T2DM, and the potential of these therapies are still being explored. Gene therapy is plausible to fix the underlying pathology of T2DM instead of using traditional reactive treatments, especially with the debut of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats-CRISPR associated protein9 (CRISPR-Cas9) gene editing tool. Molecular targets in T2DM are also being extensively studied as it could target the defects at the molecular level. Furthermore, antibody therapies and vaccinations are also being developed against T2DM; but the ongoing clinical trials are relatively lesser and the developmental progress is slower. Although, there are many therapies designed to cure T2DM, each of them has their own advantages and disadvantages. The preference for the treatment plan usually depends on the health status of the patient and the treatment goal. Therefore, an ideal treatment should take patient's compliance, efficacy, potency, bioavailability, and other pharmacological and non-pharmacological properties into account.
  16. Dua K, Chellappan DK, Singhvi G, de Jesus Andreoli Pinto T, Gupta G, Hansbro PM
    Panminerva Med, 2018 Dec;60(4):230-231.
    PMID: 30563304 DOI: 10.23736/S0031-0808.18.03459-6
  17. Sunkara K, Allam VR, Shukla SD, Chellappan DK, Gupta G, MacLoughlin R, et al.
    EXCLI J, 2021;20:248-251.
    PMID: 33628161 DOI: 10.17179/excli2021-3322
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