METHODS: We searched for the chitosan and its derivatives based nanocarrier systems for the pulmonary drug delivery. We focused on the applications of chitosan in the development of nanoparticles for the pulmonary drug delivery.
RESULTS: Chitosan, a natural linear bio poly amino saccharide is playing a crucial role in the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) such as nanoparticles in order to treat various respiratory diseases effectively by managing these difficulties due to its unique characteristic properties of biodegradability, biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity and its ability to enhance macromolecule permeation. It also aids in providing sustained and targeted effects, which are the primary requirements of an ideal pulmonary drug delivery system. This review highlights the applications and importance of chitosan with special emphasis on nanotechnology, particularly employed in various respiratory diseases such as asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: This review will be of interest to both the biological and formulation scientists to have a quick snapshot on the utility of chitosan in pulmonary drug delivery systems. At present, there are no patented chitosan based controlled release products available with pulmonary drug delivery and therefore this area needs attention to explore the potential of this polymer in the area of respiratory research.
METHODS: Solid dispersions were prepared using hydrophilic carriers like polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) k30 and carbopol 974pNF (CP) in various ratios using solvent evaporation technique. These formulations were evaluated using solubility studies, dissolution studies; Fourier transmitted infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The influence of polymer type and drug to polymer ratio on the solubility and dissolution rate of norfloxacin was also evaluated.
RESULTS: FTIR analysis showed no interaction of all three polymers with norfloxacin. The results from XRD and DSC analyses of the solid dispersion preparations showed that norfloxacin existsin its amorphous form. Among the Norfloxacin: PEG solid dispersions, Norfloxacin: PEG 1:14 ratio showed the highest dissolution rate at pH 6.8. For norfloxacin: PVP solid dispersions, norfloxacin: PVP 1:10 ratio showed the highest dissolution rate at pH 6.8. For Norfloxacin: CP solid dispersions, norfloxacin: P 1:2 ratio showed the highest dissolution rate at pH 6.8.
CONCLUSION: The solid dispersion of norfloxacin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) k30 and carbopol 974p NF (CP), lends an ample credence for better therapeutic efficacy.
METHODS: In the present study, the dried roots of Hemidesmusindicus were crushed to a coarse powder and extracted with water under reflux for 36 hours to obtain the aqueous extract of roots of Hemidesmusindicus (AERHI). The extract was reconstituted in 2% aqueous tragacanth just before use and administered orally at a dose 0f 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. In a single dose study, the parameters were assessed after oral administration of the single dose of the AERHI, whereas in a multiple dose study, the animals daily received the suitable oral dose of the AERHI for a period of 30 days. The parameters were assessed on the 15th and 30th day. The antipsychotic activity was screened using Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior in rats and Haloperidol induced catalepsy models were used. In Apomorphine induced Stereotyped behavior inhibition of the Stereotyped behavior was considered to be anti-psychotic activity and in Haloperidol induced catalepsy, we observed whether the AERHI potentate or attenuate the catalepsy in rats.
RESULTS: In this study, the extract of Hemidesmusindicus significantly inhibited the stereotyped behavior induced by apomorphine in rats and also potentiate the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, thereby showing its anti-psychotic activity.
CONCLUSION: All these observations imply that Hemidesmusindicus extract possesses anti-psychotic activity in experimental animals.