MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 subjects were selected for this study. 40 subjects presented with periodontitis, which included 20 snuff users (SP) and 20 nonsnuff users (NS). 20 periodontally healthy patients formed the controls (healthy control: HC). The clinical parameters recorded were gingival index (GI), plaque index, calculus index, bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), recession (RC), and clinical attachment level (CAL). The IL-1 β and IL-8 levels were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Quantikine(®)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post-hoc Tukey's, Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison among groups and P > 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: No significant difference was seen in levels of IL-1 β and IL-8 between SP and NS groups (P = 0.16, 0.97). However, both the periodontitis groups (SP and NS) had increased IL-β levels when compared to HC group (P = 0.01, 0.001). The snuff users showed significant increase in GI, BOP, RC, and CAL when compared with NS (P = 0.002, 0.001, 0.012, 0.002) whereas NS group had significant increase in PD (P = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, use of snuff does not affect the host inflammatory response associated with periodontitis and leads to RC and increased CAL due to local irritant effect.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective interventional study with convenient sampling (n = 10). Thirty patients aged between 18 and 40 years, who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of mandibular premolar tooth, were sequentially divided equally into three groups. In Group I, simple extraction was done and the empty extraction socket left to heal conventionally. In Group II, extraction sockets were filled with lyophilized bovine granules only. In Group III, immediate implants were placed into extraction sockets, and the buccal gap was also filled with bovine granules. All groups were subjected to cone beam computed tomography scan for radiological evaluation. Assessment of biomechanical stability (radiofrequency analysis [RFA] was performed at 9 months postoperative for Group III to assess the degree of secondary stability of the implants using Osstell. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was applied when comparing within each group at three different time intervals, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied followed by post hoc-tukey test when comparing between groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Radiological assessment reveals a significant difference of bone resorption in alveolar dimension within Group I; 1.49 mm (P = 0.002), and 0.82 mm (P = 0.005), respectively, between day 0 and 3 months. Comparison between Group I and III showed a highly significant difference of bone resorption in ridge width at 3 months 2.56 mm (P = 0.001) and at 9 months interval 3.2 mm (P < 0.001). High RFA values demonstrating an excellent biomechanical stability were observed in Group III at 9 months postoperatively.
Conclusion: The insertion of immediate implants in extraction sockets with bovine bone augmentation of the buccal gap was able to preserve a greater amount of alveolar ridge volume.
Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 80 participants with an age range of 15-40 years. Thirty were included as controls and 50 participants were treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Saliva and blood samples were collected at five different periods, before insertion of fixed orthodontic appliance and at 1 week, 3 months, 1 year, and 1.5 years after insertion of appliance, respectively. The metal ion content in the samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean levels of nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum were compared between groups using independent sample t-test and before and after results using paired t-test. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: At the end of 1.5 years, the mean salivary levels of nickel, chromium, and zinc in controls were 5.02 ppb, 1.27 ppb, and 10.24 ppb, respectively, as compared to 67 ppb, 30.8 ppb, and 164.7 ppb at the end of 1.5 years. This was statistically significant with P < 0.001. A significant increase in the metal ion levels were seen in participants with before and after insertion of appliance (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Orthodontic appliances do release considerable amounts of metal ions such as nickel, chromium, and zinc in saliva and serum. However, it was within permissible levels and did not reach toxic levels.
Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study Students were randomized to one of the teaching methods, and their short-term (immediately after teaching) and long-term (i.e., 6 months later) knowledge retention was assessed through multiple choice questions, followed by students feedback which was obtained using Trierer Inventar zur Lehrevaluation questionnaire. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: For short-term learning gains, spaced learning group (165.85) showed highest mean scores, followed by the traditional lecture group (163.70) and flipped classroom group (153.25). P value acquired through the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA was statistically significant (0.003). For long-term knowledge retention, traditional lecture group has highest mean scores (147.50), followed by spaced learning group (146.90) and flipped classroom group (145.05) with no significant difference (P = 0.657).
Conclusion: Spaced learning methodology was better than the traditional lecture method and the flipped classroom concerning knowledge gains when measured immediately after the application of learning method. For long-term knowledge retention, both the flipped classroom and spaced learning teaching methods were comparable to the traditional lecture method.
Materials and Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched till November 2018 for English publications. RCTs that compared the effect of local doxycycline adjunct to SRP among smokers with periodontitis were selected. Patient characteristics, disease characteristics, and outcome data on clinical attachment level (CAL) and periodontal probing depth at 1, 3- and 6-month follow-up was extracted. Quality of selected studies was assessed by the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Random effects model and trial sequential analysis were performed. GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. P > 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Five trials were included in the review. Local use of doxycycline as an adjunct to SRP was effective in gain of 1.1 mm (0.47-1.74, P = 0.091) in CAL at 6 months calculated from two studies. The evidence was of low quality, and at least a total of 866 patients are required for conclusiveness.
Conclusion: Local doxycycline as an adjunct to SRP significantly improved clinical attachment in smokers with periodontitis and can be recommended. Studies are required with long-term follow-up and patient-related outcome data.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty disc-shaped cores (10 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness) were prepared. Three different ceramic systems, IPS Empress (E) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechntenstein), IPS e.max Press (EP) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechntenstein), and Turkom Cera (T) (Turcom-Ceramic SDN-BHD, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), were tested, each with n = 10. The specimens were divided into two subgroups (n = 5) according to the coating on the veneering ceramic: BN or BN-Cr. The Vickers hardness and color differences (ΔE) values were measured before and after coating. Surface analysis was performed with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopic. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare hardness values. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare ΔE values among all groups. The post hoc tests was used after Kruskal-Wallis, with level of statistical significance set at P ≤ 0.05.
Results: BN-Cr coating statistically significantly increased the hardness of all types of ceramics (P < 0.05). BN coating did not change the hardness statistically significantly (P > 0.05). The mean ΔE values indicated clinically noticeable (over the limit of 3.7) color change in all groups except for the EP-BN and T-BN groups.
Conclusion: Although BN-Cr coating in this thickness had a negative effect on color, it increased the hardness of the ceramics and could be useful in the palatal region.
Materials and Methods: This an in vitro study was done by preparing cavities on the buccocervical surface of 62 extracted premolar teeth which randomly assigned to two groups (n = 31) where Group 1 was restored with nanocomposite and Group 2 was cemented with porcelain cervical inlays. They were then subjected to thermocycling before immersion in 2% methylene blue dye for 24 h. Dye penetration depths were measured using Leica imaging system For statistical analysis, independent t-test was used to analyze the results (P < 0.05).
Results: Porcelain cervical inlay restorations demonstrated statistically lesser microleakage depth for the cervical margins (P = 0.018) when compared to CR. Deeper microleakage depth at the cervical compared to coronal margins of CR (P = 0.006) but no significant difference of both margins for porcelain cervical inlays (P = 0.600).
Conclusion: Porcelain cervical inlays show lesser microleakage than CR which could be alternative treatment option in restoring NCCL with better marginal seal and esthetics.
Materials and Methods: A randomized-controlled split-mouth study was conducted to compare the retention and the caries preventive effect of light-cured resin-based sealant (3M ESPE) and glass ionomer sealant (Fuji VII). The sealants were applied to either the right or the left lower mandibular molars (7-9 yrs of age) in 120 school children, based on the randomization process. They were recalled for assessment of clinical retention at intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months. The caries-preventive effect between the two materials was tested statistically by the McNemar's test for matched pairs, and the differences observed with regard to the retention of the materials was tested by Chi-square tests. The level of significance was set to be at P < 0.05.
Results: At the end of 12th month, sealant retention is found to be higher in the resin-based sealant group compared to the glass ionomer group. In the glass ionomer sealants placed, 101 (91%) were caries-free and 10 (9%) had caries. In the resin-based sealant, 105 (94.60%) had sound teeth and 6 (5.4%) had dental caries (P = 0.34).
Conclusion: The glass ionomer sealant was less retentive when compared to resin sealants. The caries incidence between the glass ionomer and resin-based sealants was not statistically significant.
Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was undertaken in which extract of T. cordifolia was obtained using 100% ethanol by maceration. Seven different concentrations were prepared and tested against S. mutans in brain-heart infusion agar medium. Plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C for 48 h, and zone of inhibition was measured using Vernier caliper. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethylformamide were used as positive and negative controls respectively. The data were analysed by descriptive analytic tests.
Results: The maximum antibacterial activity of T. cordifolia was observed with a volume of 40 μl at 2% concentration with a zone of inhibition of 19 mm. A 30 μl volume of 0.2% chlorhexidine showed a zone of inhibition of 28 mm, and no zone of inhibition was observed with dimethylformamide.
Conclusion: Tinospora exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. However, it needs to be confirmed further with in vivo studies.
Materials and Methods: This is a laboratory experimental study using pretest and posttest on 24 Wistar rats which are divided into two groups: control group (treated with streptozotocin induction but without administration of okra fruit extract) and treatment group (treated with streptozotocin induction and oral administration of 250 mg/kg okra fruit extract once a day). Extractions of the rats' mandibular left incisors were performed using a pair of modified forceps and an elevator. The tooth sockets were then irrigated using saline solution. Four rats in each group were sacrificed on day 3 (KO1, PO1), 5 (KO2, PO2), and 7 (KO3, PO3). The socket tissues from the rats were then immunohistochemically analyzed. Data were analyzed at level significance of 0.05.
Results: The average level of TGF-β1 expression in the treatment groups was higher compared to the control group: PO1 (11.59 ± 0.58), PO2 (15.15 ± 1.07), and PO3 (18.75 ± 2.73) as compared to KO1 (5.32 ± 1.69), KO2 (8.47 ± 0.60), and KO3 (9.28 ± 1.16) with P = 0.001.
Conclusion: The administration of okra fruit extract can increase the level of TGF-β1 in wounds after tooth extraction of diabetic Wistar rats.