• 1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • 2 Department of Undergraduate Program, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • 3 Department of Oral and Craniofacial Sciences. Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 4 Indonesian Health Collaboration and Innovation Institute, Surabaya, Indonesia
PMID: 35003556 DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.330872


Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from an additional macrophage dysfunction in the secretion of growth factor, which later decreases transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). This condition disrupts proliferation and angiogenesis. Extract of okra fruit (Abelmoschus esculentus) contains flavonoid, an active substance which acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and antidiabetes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the difference in TGF-β1 expression in wound-healing process after tooth extraction of diabetic Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: This is a laboratory experimental study using pretest and posttest on 24 Wistar rats which are divided into two groups: control group (treated with streptozotocin induction but without administration of okra fruit extract) and treatment group (treated with streptozotocin induction and oral administration of 250 mg/kg okra fruit extract once a day). Extractions of the rats' mandibular left incisors were performed using a pair of modified forceps and an elevator. The tooth sockets were then irrigated using saline solution. Four rats in each group were sacrificed on day 3 (KO1, PO1), 5 (KO2, PO2), and 7 (KO3, PO3). The socket tissues from the rats were then immunohistochemically analyzed. Data were analyzed at level significance of 0.05.

Results: The average level of TGF-β1 expression in the treatment groups was higher compared to the control group: PO1 (11.59 ± 0.58), PO2 (15.15 ± 1.07), and PO3 (18.75 ± 2.73) as compared to KO1 (5.32 ± 1.69), KO2 (8.47 ± 0.60), and KO3 (9.28 ± 1.16) with P = 0.001.

Conclusion: The administration of okra fruit extract can increase the level of TGF-β1 in wounds after tooth extraction of diabetic Wistar rats.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.