Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

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  1. Alshaibani MM, Jalil J, Sidik NM, Edrada-Ebel R, Zin NM
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:1817-27.
    PMID: 27330275 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S101212
    BACKGROUND: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity).

    AIM: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton's media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance.

    RESULTS: During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol.

    CONCLUSION: On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary metabolites against bacteria, especially MRSA.

  2. Fani S, Kamalidehghan B, Lo KM, Hashim NM, Chow KM, Ahmadipour F
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:6191-201.
    PMID: 26648695 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S87064
    A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, (compound C1), was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.5±0.50 μg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 μg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the present study obviously reveal potential cytotoxic effects of compound C1 against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
  3. Rouhollahi E, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hajiaghaalipour F, Zahedifard M, Tayeby F, Awang K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:5805-13.
    PMID: 26604683 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S88196
    Curcuma purpurascens BI. is a member of Zingiberaceae family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wound healing properties of hexane extract of C. purpurascens rhizome (HECP) against excisional wound healing in rats.
  4. Mhd Omar NA, Abdullah S, Abdullah N, Kuppusamy UR, Abdulla MA, Sabaratnam V
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:5957-64.
    PMID: 26604694 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S90746
    Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress.
  5. Allahdini M, Kamalidehghan B, Akbari L, Azadfar P, Rahmani A, Ahmadipour F, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:5835-41.
    PMID: 26604685 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S82485
    Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic polymorphisms affecting responses to drug therapy. The common rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism of the TCF7L2 gene has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, prevalence of the rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism in the TCF7L2 gene for prediction of T2D risk was examined in an Iranian population of different ethnicities.
  6. Kamarudin MN, Mohd Raflee NA, Hussein SS, Lo JY, Supriady H, Abdul Kadir H
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1765-80.
    PMID: 25336920 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67980
    Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Nonetheless, conclusive mechanisms of alpha-lipoic acid for its protective effects particularly in NG108-15 cells have never been investigated. In this study, the intricate neuroprotective molecular mechanisms by (R)-(+)-alpha-lipoic acid (R-LA) against H2O2-induced cell death in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration were elucidated. Pretreatment with R-LA (2 hours) significantly increased NG108-15 cell viability as compared to H2O2-treated cells and mitigated the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. R-LA (12.5-50 μM) aggrandized the reduced glutathione over glutathione disulfide ratio followed by a reduction in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential following H2O2 exposure. Moreover, pretreatment with R-LA stimulated the activation of PI3K-Akt through mTORC1 and mTORC2 components (mTOR, rictor and raptor) and production of antiinflammatory cytokine, IL-10 which led to the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and reduction of both Bax/Bcl2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios, accompanied by inhibition of the cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, this observation was preceded by the suppression of NF-κβ p65 translocation and production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). The current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of R-LA against apoptogenic and brain inflammatory factors in a neuronal model. These results further advocate the therapeutic potential of R-LA for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
  7. Yeap S, Akhtar MN, Lim KL, Abu N, Ho WY, Zareen S, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:983-92.
    PMID: 25733816 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S65468
    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel-Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
  8. Ibrahim MY, Mohd Hashim N, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI, Kamalidehghan B, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:2193-211.
    PMID: 25395836 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66574
    BACKGROUND: Cratoxylum arborescens has been used traditionally in Malaysia for the treatment of various ailments.

    METHODS: α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated from C. arborescens and its cell death mechanism was investigated. AM-induced cytotoxicity was observed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and annexin V were used to detect cells in early phases of apoptosis. High-content screening was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release. The role of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9, reactive oxygen species, Bcl-2 and Bax expression, and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. To determine the role of the central apoptosis-related proteins, a protein array followed by immunoblot analysis was conducted. Moreover, the involvement of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was also analyzed.

    RESULTS: Apoptosis was confirmed by the apoptotic cells stained with annexin V and increase in chromatin condensation in nucleus. Treatment of cells with AM promoted cell death-transducing signals that reduced MMP by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, triggering cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by the executioner caspase-3/7 and then cleaved the PARP protein. Increase of caspase-8 showed the involvement of extrinsic pathway. AM treatment significantly arrested the cells at the S phase (P<0.05) concomitant with an increase in reactive oxygen species. The protein array and Western blotting demonstrated the expression of HSP70. Moreover, AM significantly blocked the induced translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus.

    CONCLUSION: Together, the results demonstrate that the AM isolated from C. arborescens inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was suggested to occur through both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways with involvement of the NF-κB and HSP70 signaling pathways.

  9. Iman V, Karimian H, Mohan S, Hobani YH, Noordin MI, Mustafa MR, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:1281-92.
    PMID: 25767375 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S71557
    Girinimbine is a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii. Here we report that girinimbine is an inhibitor of angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT results showed that girinimbine inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while results from endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation, and wound healing assays demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by girinimbine. A proteome profiler array done on girinimbine-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that girinimbine had mediated regulation of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins. The anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was also evidenced in vivo in the zebrafish embryo model wherein girinimbine inhibited neo vessel formation in zebrafish embryos following 24 hours of exposure. Together, these results showed that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis, suggestive of its therapeutic potential as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor.
  10. Ahmadipour F, Noordin MI, Mohan S, Arya A, Paydar M, Looi CY, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:1193-208.
    PMID: 25759564 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S72127
    Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro.
  11. Tan JM, Karthivashan G, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Hussein MZ
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:2333-43.
    PMID: 25429205 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S70650
    Among the array of nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes have shown great potential as drug carriers in the field of nanomedicine, owing to their attractive physicochemical structure, which facilitates functionalization of therapeutic molecules onto their external walls or being encapsulated inside the tubes. The aim of this preliminary study was to formulate betulinic acid (BA), a poorly water-soluble drug, in oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) for enhanced delivery efficiency into cancer cells with reduced cytotoxicity. The synthesized MWCNT-BA nanocomposite was characterized using ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. The loading of BA in MWCNT-COOH nanocarrier was estimated to be about 14.5%-14.8% (w/w), as determined by ultraviolet-visible and thermogravimetric analysis. Fourier transform infrared study shows that the peaks of the resulting MWCNT-BA nanocomposite correlate to the characteristic functional groups of BA and MWCNT-COOH. The powder X-ray diffraction results confirmed that the tubular structures of MWCNT-COOH were not affected by the drug loading mechanism of BA. The release profiles demonstrated that approximately 98% of BA could be released within 22 hours by phosphate-buffered saline solution at pH 7.4 compared with about 22% within 24 hours at pH 4.8. The biocompatibility studies revealed that MWCNT-BA at concentrations <50μg/mL expressed no cytotoxicity effects for mouse embryo fibroblast cells after 72 hours of treatment. The anticancer activity of MWCNT-BA was observed to be more sensitive to human lung cancer cell line when compared with human liver cancer cell line, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 2.7 and 11.0μg/mL, respectively. Our findings form a fundamental platform for further investigation of the MWCNT-BA formulation against different types of cancer cells.
  12. Achoui M, Heyninck K, Looi CY, Mustafa AM, Haegeman G, Mustafa MR
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1993-2007.
    PMID: 25349474 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S68659
    The terpenoid 17-O-acetylacuminolide (AA) was shown to inhibit the production of several inflammatory mediators. However, the mechanisms by which this compound elicited its anti-inflammatory activity remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the effects of AA on inflammatory gene expression in two different cell types with primordial importance in the inflammatory processes - endothelial cells and macrophages. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, AA inhibited the expression of inflammatory proteins including the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1; vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; and E-selectin, as well as the release of the chemokine interleukin-8. Additionally, AA hindered the formation of capillary-like tubes in an in vitro model of angiogenesis. AA's effects in endothelial cells can be attributed at least in part to AA's inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB)'s translocation. Also, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells, AA was able to downregulate the expression of the genes cyclooxygenase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. Moreover, AA inhibited the phosphorylation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-alpha (IκBα), IκB kinase (IKK), and the mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, ERK, and p38. In conclusion, the present results further support the anti-inflammatory potential of AA in different models of inflammation.
  13. Baskaran G, Salvamani S, Ahmad SA, Shaharuddin NA, Pattiram PD, Shukor MY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:509-17.
    PMID: 25609924 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S75056
    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases.
  14. Moghadamtousi SZ, Rouhollahi E, Karimian H, Fadaeinasab M, Abdulla MA, Kadir HA
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:2099-110.
    PMID: 25378912 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S70096
    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus.
  15. Razavi M, Nyamathulla S, Karimian H, Noordin MI
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1315-29.
    PMID: 25246773 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S68517
    This study aimed to develop hydrophilic, gastroretentive matrix tablets of famotidine with good floating and swelling properties. A novel gastroretentive drug delivery formulation was designed using salep, also known as salepi, a flour obtained from grinding dried palmate tubers of Orchis morio var mascula (Orchidaceae family). The main polysaccharide content of salep is glucomannan, highly soluble in cold and hot water, which forms a viscous solution. Salep was characterized for physicochemical properties, thermal stability, chemical interaction, and surface morphology using X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Ten different formulations (S1-S10) were prepared using famotidine to salep ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:5. Results demonstrated that all formulations were able to sustain the drug release for more than 24 hours. The S5 formulation, with a famotidine to salep ratio of 1:2.5, had the shortest floating lag time of 35 seconds and 100% drug release within 24 hours. The dissolution data were fitted into popular mathematical models to assess the mechanism of drug release. S5 showed Zero order release (R=0.9746) with Higuchi diffusion (R=0.9428). We conclude that salep, a novel polymer, can be used in controlled release formulations to sustain release for 24 hours, due to inherent swelling and gelling properties.
  16. Saifullah B, El Zowalaty ME, Arulselvan P, Fakurazi S, Webster TJ, Geilich BM, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1029-36.
    PMID: 25114509 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S63753
    The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis.
  17. Jantan I, Bukhari SN, Adekoya OA, Sylte I
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1405-18.
    PMID: 25258510 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67370
    Arachidonic acid metabolism leads to the generation of key lipid mediators which play a fundamental role during inflammation. The inhibition of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism has been considered as a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect with enhanced spectrum of activity. A series of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were investigated for anti-inflammatory related activities involving inhibition of secretory phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, soybean lipoxygenase, and lipopolysaccharides-induced secretion of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. The results from the above mentioned assays exhibited that the synthesized compounds were effective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The results also revealed that the chalcone derivatives with 4-methlyamino ethanol substitution seem to be significant for inhibition of enzymes and cytokines. Molecular docking experiments were carried out to elucidate the molecular aspects of the observed inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds. Present findings increase the possibility that these chalcone derivatives might serve as a beneficial starting point for the design and development of improved anti-inflammatory agents.
  18. Karimian H, Moghadamtousi SZ, Fadaeinasab M, Golbabapour S, Razavi M, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1481-97.
    PMID: 25278746 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S68818
    Ferulago angulata is a medicinal plant that is traditionally known for its anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate its anticancer activity and the possible mechanism of action using MCF-7 as an in vitro model. F. angulata leaf extracts were prepared using solvents in the order of increasing polarity. As determined by MTT assay, F. angulata leaves hexane extract (FALHE) revealed the strongest cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 5.3 ± 0.82 μg/mL. The acute toxicity study of FALHE provided evidence of the safety of the plant extract. Microscopic and flow cytometric analysis using annexin-V probe showed an induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 by FALHE. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with FALHE encouraged the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, with cell death transducing signals that reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential with cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9. Meanwhile, the overexpression of caspase-8 suggested the involvement of an extrinsic pathway in the induced apoptosis at the late stage of treatment. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis showed that FALHE treatment significantly arrested MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase, which was associated with upregulation of p21 and p27 assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of MCF-7 cells after treatment with FALHE revealed an upregulation of Bax and a downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. These findings proposed that FALHE suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis through intrinsic pathway.
  19. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Kamalidehghan B, Ghaderian M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1629-47.
    PMID: 25302018 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66105
    Cratoxylum arborescens is an equatorial plant belonging to the family Guttiferae. In the current study, α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated and its cell death mechanism was studied. HCS was undertaken to detect the nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and the release of cytochrome c. An investigation for reactive oxygen species formation was conducted using fluorescent analysis. To determine the mechanism of cell death, human apoptosis proteome profiler assay was conducted. In addition, using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 proteins were also tested. Caspaces such as 3/7, 8, and 9 were assessed during treatment. Using HCS and Western blot, the contribution of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was investigated. AM had showed a selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells with no toxicity toward the normal cells even at 30 μg/mL, thereby indicating that AM has the attributes to induce cell death in tumor cells. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with AM prompted apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals. This regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, thereby causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The liberation of cytochrome c activated caspace-9, which, in turn, activated the downstream executioner caspace-3/7 with the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, thereby leading to apoptotic alterations. Increase of caspace 8 had showed the involvement of an extrinsic pathway. This type of apoptosis was suggested to occur through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and prevention of translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results revealed AM prompt apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 modulation with the contribution of caspaces. Moreover, ingestion of AM at (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that AM is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
  20. Paydar M, Kamalidehghan B, Wong YL, Wong WF, Looi CY, Mustafa MR
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:719-33.
    PMID: 24944509 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S58178
    To date, plants have been the major source of anticancer drugs. Boldine is a natural alkaloid commonly found in the leaves and bark of Peumus boldus. In this study, we found that boldine potently inhibited the viability of the human invasive breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 (48-hour IC₅₀ 46.5±3.1 μg/mL) and MDA-MB-468 (48-hour IC₅₀ 50.8±2.7 μg/mL). Boldine had a cytotoxic effect and induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells as indicated by a higher amount of lactate dehydrogenase released, membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, we demonstrated that boldine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The anticancer mechanism is associated with disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c in MDA-MB-231. Boldine selectively induced activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/7, but not caspase-8. We also found that boldine could inhibit nuclear factor kappa B activation, a key molecule in tumor progression and metastasis. In addition, protein array and Western blotting analysis showed that treatment with boldine resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 and upregulation of Bax in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. An acute toxicity study in rats revealed that boldine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was well tolerated. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of boldine (50 or 100 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that boldine is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
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