Andrographolide (AGP) is the main bioactive constituent isolated from the traditional medicinal, Andrographis paniculata which contributes towards its various biological activities, including anticancer property. In this study, a series of new AGP derivatives were semi-synthesised and screened against the NCI in vitro 60 cell lines. From the screening results, we had identified SRS07 as the most potent AGP derivative, against breast and colon cancer cell lines. Subsequently, SRS07 was tested for its capability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 and HCT116 cancer cells. SRS07 effectively induced G1 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines and ultimately apoptosis by inducing DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by SRS07 was confirmed via FITC Annexin-V double staining. Western blot analysis of SRS07-treated HCT116 cells revealed that the compound induced apoptosis be activating caspase 8 which in turn cleaved Bid to t-Bid to initiate cell death cascade. Prediction of the possible mode of action of SRS07 by utilising NCI COMPARE analysis failed to reveal a distinct mechanism category. Hence, it is speculated that SRS07 possesses novel mechanism of action. In conclusion, SRS07 demonstrated superior in vitro anticancer profiles and emerged as a potential lead anticancer candidate.
Octylphenol (OP) is one of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment. It belongs to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). It is used in many industrial and agricultural products. Pectin is a family of complex polysaccharides that function as a hydrating agent and cementing material for the cellulose network. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of pectin in kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by OP exposure. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups; group 1 control was injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with saline [1 ml/kg body weight (bwt)], groups 2, 3 & 4 were injected i.p with OP (50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over two weeks period where groups 3 & 4 were injected i.p with pectin (25 or 50 mg/kg bwt) three days/week over three weeks period. The results of the present study revealed that OP significantly decreased glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels while increased significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the kidney tissues. On the other hand, OP increased serum urea and creatinine. Furthermore, OP increased significantly serum uric acid but decreased significantly the kidney weight. Moreover, OP decreased p53 expression while increased bcl-2 expression in the kidney tissue. The treatment with either dose of pectin to OP-exposed rats restores all the above parameters to approach the normal values where pectin at higher dose was more effective than lower one. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, pectin has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities in kidney toxicity induced by OP and the effect was dose-dependent.
5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, a halogenated secondary metabolite isolated from red seaweed Laurencia snackeyi was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced zebrafish embryo. Preliminary studies suggested the effective concentrations of the compound as 0.25, 0.5, 1 μg/mL for further in vivo experiments. 5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, exhibited profound protective effect in the zebrafish embryo as confirmed by survival rate, heart beat rate, and yolk sac edema size. The compound acts as an effective agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced by LPS and tail cut. Moreover, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B effectively inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in zebrafish embryo. All the tested protective effects of 5β-hydroxypalisadin B were comparable to the well-known anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone. According to the results obtained, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B isolated from red seaweed L. snackeyi could be considered as an effective anti-inflammatory agent which might be further developed as a functional ingredient.
Pathophysiological changes in diabetes like hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia predispose cells to malignant transformation and damage DNA repair mechanism. This study was designed to explore the potential synergistic toxic effects of anti-diabetic drug (Metformin), and an analgesic drug (Celecoxib) at cellular level. MTT assay run on Vero cell line revealed that the combinations of Metformin and Celecoxib augment the anti-proliferative effects, whereas Single cell gel electrophoresis spotlighted that Metformin produce non-significant DNA damage with the threshold concentration of 400μg/ml in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and monocytes), while Celecoxib produced significant (P<0.05) DNA damage (class III comets) above the concentration of 75μg/ml, however the DNA damage or DNA tail protrusions by combinations of both drugs were less than what was observed with Celecoxib alone. Metformin or Celecoxib did not appear mutagenic against any mutant strains (TA 100 and TA 98) but their combination exhibited slight mutagenicity at much higher concentration. The results obtained at concentrations higher than the therapeutic level of drugs and reflect that Metformin in combination with Celecoxib synergistically inhibits the cell proliferation in a concentration dependent pattern. Since, this increase in cytotoxicity did not confer an increase in DNA damage; this combination could be adopted to inhibit the growth of malignant cell without producing any genotoxic or mutagenic effects at cellular level.
The high risk of knee injuries in female may be associated with sex-steroid hormone fluctuations during the menstrual cycle by its effect on ligaments and tendons stiffness. This study examined changes in knee range of motion in presence of estrogen and progesterone and investigated the interaction of their antagonists to relaxin receptors.
Maintaining near normal uterine fluid pH is important for restoring uterine function after menopause. We hypothesized that genistein could restore uterine fluid pH via its effect on NHE expression. This study therefore investigated changes in uterine NHE-1, 2 and 4 expression under genistein influence. Ovariectomized female rats received genistein (25, 50 or 100mg/kg/day) for seven consecutive days. Uteri were harvested and NHE-1, 2 and 4 mRNA expression were analyzed by Real-time PCR while distribution of these transporters' protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of NHE-1, 2 and 4 mRNA increased with increasing doses of genistein which was antagonized by ICI 182780. Under genistein influence, NHE-1, 2 and 4 proteins were found to be distributed at apical membrane of endometrial luminal epithelia. Enhanced expression of NHE-1, 2 and 4 in ovariectomised rat uteri by genistein might help to restore pH of uterine fluid which could be useful for women after menopause.
The current study has been designed to examine the effect of multifunctional drug therapy on carbofuran induced acute (2.187 mg/kg, s.c.) and sub-acute (0.2187 mg/kg, s.c.) neurotoxicity in male wistar rats. Drug treatment which includes nimodipine (Ca(2+) channel blocker), diazepam, ropinirole (dopamine agonist) and GSPE (antioxidant) was started 2h after carbofuran administration. Morris water maze was employed for aiming spatial memory. Narrow beam walk and rotarod were employed for testing motor functions. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes were also estimated. Carbofuran treatment resulted in significant development of cognitive and motor functions manifested as impairment in learning and memory along with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite levels and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes. The standard antidote therapy (atropine) was not able to provide neuroprotection but was able to provide symptomatic relief. The multifunctional drug therapy attenuated carbofuran induced cognitive and motor dysfunction, acetylcholinesterase activity and other biochemical parameters. The triple combination in sub-acute study may be avoided in future as two drug combinations provide adequate neuroprotection. Thus it can be concluded that standard antidotal therapy may not provide neuroprotection while the multifunctional drug therapy offers neuroprotection against carbofuran and may dramatically increase survival and life quality.
The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health.
Study site: university health centre, Universiti SainsMalaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of a crude extract of khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) leaves in rats. Two groups were fed khat crude extract, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, for 90 days and were compared with a control group. The alkaline (pH>13) version of comet assay was used in this study. However, no previous published work has been undertaken and showed the effect of khat on DNA migration in the comet assay. To compare the comet assay results with another genetic endpoint, blood samples were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations. These results showed no DNA damage detected using comet assay in both the khat treated groups, while the results of chromosomal aberrations assay showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the 2000mg/kg body weight treated group compared to the control group.
Our aim was to compare the protective efficacy of two different formulations of methylprednisolone in T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyopathy. Methylprednisolone (soluble form, Lemod-solu® and/or depot form, Lemod-depo®, a total single dose of 40 mg/kg im) was given immediately after T-2 toxin (1 LD50 0.23 mg/kg sc). The myocardial tissue samples were examinated by using histopathology, semiquantitative and imaging analyses on day 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 60 of the study. Therapeutic application of Lemod-solu® significantly decreased the intensity of myocardial degeneration and haemorrhages, distribution of glycogen granules in the endo- and perimysium, a total number of mast cells and the degree of their degranulation was in correlation with the reversible heart structural lesions (p
This study is focused on the determination of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd) concentrations of nine different indigenous fish species of Meghna River in Bangladesh to know the possible risk in human consumption. Fishes' wet muscles samples were analyzed to evaluate the level of trace metal concentrations. The concentrations (mgkg-1 w/w) of the six selected trace metals were in the order Zn (1.42 ± 0.12) > Cr (1.31 ± 0.08) > Cu (0.92 ± 0.09) > Pb (0.54 ± 0.07) > Cd (0.51 ± 0.07) > As (0.47 ± 0.02). The results revealed that all the selected trace metals were below the maximum permissible limits recommended by the reference standards. The fish species may pose no risk with respect to the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI). Target hazard quotient (THQ) values for Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in all the fish species were <1.0, except for As which is dominantly organic in fishes. Both adults and children are vulnerable to carcinogenic health threat due to Cd exposure.