METHODS: A prospective multicentre cohort study was conducted on paediatric general medical wards in five European and non-European hospitals. ADRs were identified by intensive chart review. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors associated with ADRs. For the risk factor analysis, prescribed drugs were divided into high-risk and low-risk drug groups. Analgesics, anti-epileptics, antibacterials and antimycotics for systemic use, corticosteroids for systemic use and immunosuppressant agents were considered as high-risk groups whereas the remaining drug classes were defined as low-risk drug groups.
RESULTS: A total of 1,253 paediatric patients were identified [Australia (n = 145), Germany (n = 372), Hong Kong (n = 138), Malaysia (n = 291), UK (n = 307)]. A total of 328 ADRs were observed in 16.7% of patients (186/1,115). Use of five or more low-risk drugs per patient or three or more high-risk drugs was a strong predictor for ADRs (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.3; OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.7-16.0 respectively; p < 0.001). Older children were more likely to experience ADRs; gender was not significantly associated.
CONCLUSION: To reduce the risk of ADRs in children, clinicians and pharmacists should aim to minimise polypharmacy and be aware of higher ADR risks associated with some drug groups.
METHODS: PEPT2 polymorphisms were screened from a cohort of 96 Chinese, 96 Malay and 96 Asian Indian subjects. Cephalexin (1000 mg, orally) pharmacokinetics was characterized in an additional 15 Chinese and 15 Asian Indian healthy subjects. These 30 subjects were subsequently genotyped for their PEPT2 polymorphisms.
RESULTS: In total, ten common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the three populations, forming two PEPT2 haplotypes. There were significant ethnic differences in PEPT2 haplotype distribution: the frequencies of the *1 and *2 alleles were 0.307 and 0.693 in the Chinese population, 0.495 and 0.505 in the Malay population and 0.729 and 0.271 in Asian Indian population, respectively. The C (max) of cephalexin was significantly lower in the Chinese (29.80 +/- 4.09 microg ml(-1)) population than in the Asian Indian one (33.29 +/- 4.97 microg ml(-1); P = 0.045). This difference could be explained by the higher average body weight of the Chinese population. There was no other significant difference in cephalexin pharmacokinetics between either ethnic or PEPT2 genotype groups.
CONCLUSION: PEPT2 polymorphism distributions differ significantly between Chinese, Malay and Asian Indian populations. However, cephalexin pharmacokinetics is not meaningfully different between Chinese and Asian Indians. The association between the PEPT2 haplotype and cephalexin pharmacokinetics could not be confirmed, and future studies under better controlled conditions are needed.
METHODS: The distribution of polymorphic variants in the SLCO1B1 gene at eight loci that spanned approximately 48 kb was investigated in the three different Asian ethnic groups and in 32 non-cancerous liver tissues from Chinese patients.
RESULTS: Of the 26 polymorphisms screened, we found eight polymorphic variants that differed in genotypic and allelic frequencies between the Chinese, Malay and Indian populations. Significant interethnic differences were observed in the genotype frequency distributions across the promoter SNP [g.-11187G>A (P = 0.030)] as well as three coding region SNPs [c.388G>A (P < 0.001); c.571T>C (P < 0.001); c.597C>T (P < 0.001)] in the healthy subjects. Haplotype analysis revealed 12 different haplotypes in both the Chinese and Malay populations and 18 haplotypes in the Indian population. In both the Malay and Indian populations, the htSNPs were c.388A>G, c.571T>C and c.597C>T, whereas in the Chinese population they were g.-11187G>A, c.388A>G and c.597C>T. The c.388A>G and c.597C>T htSNPs accounted for more than 70% of the variations between the three major haplotypes in each Asian ethnic group. In terms of the c.388A>G htSNPs, genotypic-phenotypic association analyses revealed that there was no effect on SLCO1B1 expression in hepatic tissues; in addition, no genotypic-phenotypic associations were evident with regards to the c.597C>T htSNP.
CONCLUSION: Future studies should investigate the phenotypic effects of the c.388A>G htSNP on the disposition of OATP1B1 substrates in Asian populations.
METHODS: Nevirapine population pharmacokinetics was modelled with Pmetrics. A total of 708 observations from 112 patients were included in the model building and validation analysis. Evaluation of the model was based on a visual inspection of observed versus predicted (population and individual) concentrations and plots weighted residual error versus concentrations. Accuracy and robustness of the model were evaluated by visual predictive check (VPC). The median parameters' estimates obtained from the final model were used to predict individual nevirapine plasma area-under-curve (AUC) in the validation dataset. The Bland-Altman plot was used to compare the AUC predicted with trapezoidal AUC.
RESULTS: The median nevirapine clearance was of 2.92 L/h, the median rate of absorption was 2.55/h and the volume of distribution was 78.23 L. Nevirapine pharmacokinetics were best described by one-compartmental with first-order absorption model and a lag-time. Weighted residuals for the model selected were homogenously distributed over the concentration and time range. The developed model adequately estimated AUC.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a model to describe the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine was developed. The developed model adequately describes nevirapine population pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected patients in Malaysia.
METHODS: Plasma concentrations of artesunic acid and dihydroartemisinin were determined simultaneously by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The test drug was well tolerated and no undesirable adverse effects were observed.
RESULTS: Comparison of pharmacokinetic parameters of artesunic acid after oral and rectal administration showed statistically significant differences in t(max) and AUC, with no changes for Cmax and t1/2. As for dihydroartemisinin, differences were observed for t(max) and Cmax but not for AUC.
CONCLUSION: There appear to be pharmacokinetic differences between oral and rectal modes of administration. The significance of these findings should be explored in malaria patients before appropriate therapeutic regimens are devised.
METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database-Acute Coronary Syndrome registry from year 2006 to 2013 (n = 30,873). On-discharge pharmacotherapies examined were aspirin, ADP-antagonists, statins, ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin-II-receptor blockers, and beta-blockers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio of receiving individual pharmacotherapies according to patients' characteristics in NSTEMI patients (n = 11,390).
RESULTS: Prescribing rates for cardiovascular pharmacotherapies had significantly increased especially for ADP-antagonists (76%) in NSTEMI patients. More than 85% were prescribed statins and antiplatelets but rates remained significantly lower compared to STEMI. Women and those over 65 years old were less likely to be prescribed these pharmacotherapies compared to men and younger NSTEMI patients. Chinese and Indians were more likely to receive selected pharmacotherapies compared to Malays (main ethnicity). Geographical variations were observed; East Malaysian (Malaysian Borneo) patients were less likely to receive these compared to Western region of Malaysian Peninsular. Underprescribing in patients with risk factors such as diabetes were observed with other co-morbidities influencing prescribing selectively.
CONCLUSION: This study uncovers demographic and clinical variations in cardiovascular pharmacotherapies prescribing for NSTEMI. Concerted efforts by policy makers, specialty societies, and physicians are required focusing on elderly, women, Malays, East Malaysians, and high-risk patients.
METHODS: A retrospective review of reports received from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2012 was undertaken. Descriptive statistics method was applied.
RESULTS: A total of 17,357 MEs reported were reviewed. The majority of errors were from public-funded hospitals. Near misses were classified in 86.3 % of the errors. The majority of errors (98.1 %) had no harmful effects on the patients. Prescribing contributed to more than three-quarters of the overall errors (76.1 %). Pharmacists detected and reported the majority of errors (92.1 %). Cases of erroneous dosage or strength of medicine (30.75 %) were the leading type of error, whilst cardiovascular (25.4 %) was the most common category of drug found.
CONCLUSIONS: MERS provides rich information on the characteristics of reported MEs. Low contribution to reporting from healthcare facilities other than government hospitals and non-pharmacists requires further investigation. Thus, a feasible approach to promote MERS among healthcare providers in both public and private sectors needs to be formulated and strengthened. Preventive measures to minimise MEs should be directed to improve prescribing competency among the fallible prescribers identified.
METHOD: The main polymorphisms on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, and the multi-drug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) were genotyped in 78 healthy Vietnamese subjects. Pharmacokinetic metrics were available for CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2C19 (mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (metoprolol) and CYP3As (midazolam), allowing correlations with the determined genotype.
RESULTS: In the CYP2 family, we detected alleles CYP2A6*4 (12%) and *5 (15%); CYP2B6*4 (8%), *6 (27%); CYP2C19*2 (31%) and *3 (6%); CYP2D6*4, *5, *10 (1, 8 and 44%, respectively). In the CYP3A family, CYP3A4*1B was detected at a low frequency (2%), whereas CYP3A5 *3 was detected at a frequency of 67%. The MDR1 3435T allele was present with a prevalence of 40%. Allele proportions in our cohort were compared with those reported for other Asian populations. CYP2C19 genotypes were associated to the S-4'-OH-mephenytoin/S-mephenytoin ratio quantified in plasma 4 h after intake of 100 mg mephenytoin. While CYP2D6 genotypes were partially reflected by the alpha-OH-metroprolol/metoprolol ratio in plasma 4 h after dosing, no correlation existed between midazolam plasma concentrations 4 h post-dose and CYP3A genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: The Vietnamese subjects of our study cohort presented allele prevalences in drug-metabolising enzymes that were generally comparable with those reported in other Asian populations. Deviations were found for CYP2A6*4 compared to a Chinese population (12 vs. 5%, respectively; P = 0.023), CYP2A6*5 compared with a Korean population (15 vs. <1%, respectively; P < 0.0001), a Malaysian population (1%; P < 0.0001) and a Chinese population (1%; P < 0.0001); CYP2B6*6 compared with a Korean population (27 vs. 12%; P = 0.002) and a Japanese population (16%; P = 0.021). Pharmacokinetic metrics versus genotype analysis reinforces the view that the predictive value of certain globally common variants (e.g. CYP2D6 single nucleotide polymorphisms) should be evaluated in a population-specific manner.
METHODS: A total of 148 depressive patients receiving escitalopram 10-20 mg/day were genotyped for 5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms. Clinical assessment was done at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI). At the end of week 12, patients were defined as responders and non-responders based on HDRS17 and MADRS scores. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the genotypic influence on treatment response. Comparison of continuous variables among different groups was done using Student's t test or one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: Out of 148 study subjects, 65 (43.9%) were responders and 83 (56.08%) were non-responders. We observed a significant (p value
METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and medRxiv (preprint repository) databases (up to 7 January 2021). Pooled effect sizes with 95% confidence interval (CI) were generated using random-effects and inverse variance heterogeneity models. The risk of bias of the included RCTs was appraised using version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials.
RESULTS: Six RCTs were included: two trials with an overall low risk of bias and four trials had some concerns regarding the overall risk of bias. Our meta-analysis did not find significant mortality benefits with the use of tocilizumab among patients with COVID-19 relative to non-use of tocilizumab (pooled hazard ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.66-1.05, n = 2,057). Interestingly, the estimated effect of tocilizumab on the composite endpoint of requirement for mechanical ventilation and/or all-cause mortality indicated clinical benefits, with some evidence against our model hypothesis of no significant effect at the current sample size (pooled hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91, n = 749).
CONCLUSION: Despite no clear mortality benefits in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, tocilizumab appears to reduce the likelihood of progression to mechanical ventilation.