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  1. Shahid F, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Eur J Dent, 2015 Oct-Dec;9(4):490-9.
    PMID: 26929686 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.172620
    To investigate the maxillary and mandibular anterior crown width/height ratio and its relation to various arch perimeters, arch length, and arch width (intercanine, interpremolar, and intermolar) groups.
  2. Shahid F, Alam MK, Khamis MF
    Eur J Dent, 2816 Apr-Jun;10(2):176-82.
    PMID: 27095892 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.178299
    Comprehensive diagnosis and treatment planning are essential in a successful orthodontic practice. The purpose of this study is to determine and compare intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy (IMTSD) using traditional digital caliper (DC) measurement on plaster dental models and stereomicroscopic digital dental models (SM).
  3. Sridevi U, Jain A, Nagalaxmi V, Kumar UV, Goyal S
    Eur J Dent, 2015 10 3;9(3):364-372.
    PMID: 26430364 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.163238
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of E-cad in oral precancerous lesions and conditions and oral carcinomas in comparison with normal mucosa.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total of 50 samples were selected for the study and were categorized into five groups and 10 samples in each group as Group I-oral leukoplakia (OL), Group II-oral lichen planus (OLP), Group III-oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group IV-oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and Group V-normal oral mucosa (NOM) as control group. All the samples were assessed for the expression of E-cad by immunohistochemical study.

    RESULTS: Upon assessing the expression of E-cad in OL, OSMF, OLP and OSCC, as majority of the samples with OSCC (90%), OL (80%), OLP (70%) and OSMF (60%) showed mild to moderate expression of E-cad staining, which was suggestive of reduction in dysplastic cells on comparison to NOM cells. This difference in expression and variation of E-cad upon comparison with normal mucosa was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: There is significant (P < 0.001) variation of expression of E-cad with the histopathological dysplasia of the oral precancerous lesions and conditions, and the tumor differentiation of the oral cancers. However, there was no correlation of the degree of loss of expression of E-cad with the degree of dysplasia or the tumor differentiation of oral cancers. We conclude with our study that, there is a variation in the expression of E-cad but its value as a prognostic marker is questionable.

  4. Modi R, Kohli S, Rajeshwari K, Bhatia S
    Eur J Dent, 2015 6 4;9(2):255-261.
    PMID: 26038660 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.156847
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the stress distribution in tooth supported 5-unit fixed partial denture (FPD) having tooth as pier abutment using rigid and nonrigid connectors respectively, under simultaneous and progressive loading.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional (3D) finite element program (ANSYS software) was used to construct the mathematical model. Two 5-unit FPD'S were simulated, one with rigid connector and another one with nonrigid connector. For analysis, each of these models were subjected to axial and oblique forces under progressive loading (180, 180, 120, 120, 80 N force on first and second molars, premolars and canine respectively) and simultaneous loading (100, 100, 100, 100, 100 N force on first and second molars, premolars and canine respectively).

    RESULTS: The rigid and nonrigid connector design have effect on stress distribution in 5-unit FPDs with pier abutments.

    CONCLUSION: Oblique forces produce more stresses than vertical forces. Nonrigid connector resulted in decrease in stress at the level of prosthesis and increase in stress at the level of alveolar crest.

  5. Reza F, Ibrahim NS
    Eur J Dent, 2015 2 26;9(1):74-79.
    PMID: 25713488 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.149646
    OBJECTIVE: Fiber post is cemented to a root canal to restore coronal tooth structure. This research aims to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on bond strength of fiber post with resin cement.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 of the two types of fiber posts, namely, FRC Prostec (FRC) and Fiber KOR (KOR), were used for the experiment. UV irradiation was applied on top of the fiber post surface for 0, 15, 20, and 30 min. The irradiated surface of the fiber posts (n = 5) were immediately bonded with resin cement (Rely X U200) after UV irradiation. Shear bond strength (SBS) MPa was measured, and the dislodged area of post surfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopes. Changes in surface roughness (Ra) of the FRC group after UV irradiation were observed (n = 3) using atomic force microscopy. Data of SBS were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, followed by multiple comparisons (P < 0.05).

    RESULTS: SBS was significantly higher for 20 min of UV irradiation of the FRC group while significantly higher SBS was observed with 15 min of UV irradiation of the KOR group. Resin cement was more evident (cohesive failure) on the dislodged post surface of the UV treated groups compared with the control. The surface roughness of the FRC post was Ra = 175.1 nm and Ra = 929.2 nm for the control and the 20 min group, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Higher surface roughness of the UV irradiated group indicated formation of mechanical retention on the fiber post surface. Evidence of cohesive failure was observed which indicated higher SBS of fiber post with the UV irradiated group.

  6. Nishi SE, Basri R, Alam MK
    Eur J Dent, 2016 Jul-Sep;10(3):419-25.
    PMID: 27403065 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.184156
    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the uses of electromyography (EMG) in dentistry in the last few years in related research. EMG is an advanced technique to record and evaluate muscle activity. In the previous days, EMG was only used for medical sciences, but now EMG playing a tremendous role in medical as well as dental sector.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies published until July 2015.
    RESULTS: EMG can be used in both diagnosis and treatment purpose to record neuromuscular activity. In dentistry, we can utilize EMG to evaluate muscular activity in function such as chewing and biting or parafunctional activities such as clenching and bruxism. In case of TMJ and myofascial pain disorders, EMG widely is used in the last few years.
    CONCLUSIONS: EMG is one of biometric tests that occur in the modern evidence-based dentistry practice.
    KEYWORDS: Dental disease; dentistry; muscle function; myofascial pain disorder syndrome; parafunctional habits; surface electromyography
  7. Gopinath VK, Samsudin AR, Noor SNFM, Sharab HYM
    Eur J Dent, 2017 Jan-Mar;11(1):76-82.
    PMID: 28435370 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_238_16
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vertical and sagittal facial profile and maxillary arch width, depth, and length of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to compare them with healthy noncleft children in the mixed dentition stage (7-13 years).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is conducted at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. UCLP group comprised 48 patients with nonsyndromic UCLP who have had the lip and palate repaired, whereas the control group comprised 48 healthy noncleft cases. The lateral cephalometrics measurements were used to determine the vertical height, sagittal depth of the face, and cranial base length and angle. Maxillary arch dimensions were measured on the study cast including arch width, depth, and length.

    RESULTS: Vertical facial height and sagittal depth measurements showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean growth pattern in UCLP group. The anterior cranial base length (S-N) was shorter in UCLP children (P < 0.001), while Ba-N length had no significant difference (P = 0.639). Nasion-Sella Tursica-Basion angle was significantly higher in the UCLP group (P = 0.016). Dental arch width with reference to canine-to-canine and first premolar-to- first premolar distance was significantly larger in control (P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Mean vertical and sagittal facial dimensions in the UCLP children who do not undergo orthodontic treatment are significantly lesser in all directions of growth than healthy noncleft children. The maxillary dental arch had a normal depth but constricted in width and arch length.
  8. Rajeev V, Arunachalam R, Nayar S, Arunima PR, Ganapathy S, Vedam V
    Eur J Dent, 2017 Jan-Mar;11(1):58-63.
    PMID: 28435367 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_113_16
    OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study was designed to assess shear bond strength (SBS) of ormocer flowable (OF) resin as a luting agent, ormocer as an indirect veneer material with portrayal of modes of failures using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty maxillary central incisors were divided into Group I, II, and III with 20 samples each based on luting cement used. They were OF, self-adhesive (SA) cement, and total etch (TE) cement. These groups were subdivided into "a" and "b" of ten each based on the type of veneering materials used. Veneer discs were fabricated using Ormocer restorative (O) and pressable ceramic (C). Specimens were thermocycled and loaded under universal testing machine for SBS. The statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA post hoc Tukey honest significant difference method.

    RESULTS: A significant difference was observed between the Groups I and II (P < 0.05). The highest mean bond strength when using ormocer veneer was obtained with the Group Ia (19.11 ± 1.92 Mpa) and lowest by Group IIa (8.1 ± 1.04 Mpa), whereas the highest mean bond strength while using ceramic veneer was of similar range for Group Ib (18.04 ± 4.08 Mpa) and Group IIIb (18.07 ± 1.40 Mpa). SEM analysis revealed OF and TE presented mixed type of failure when compared with SA where failure mode was totally adhesive.

    CONCLUSION: OF was found equally efficient like TE. Bond strength of ormocer as a veneer was not inferior to ceramic making it one of the promising additions in the field of dentistry.
  9. Jamayet NB, Kirangi JK, Husein A, Alam MK
    Eur J Dent, 2017 4 25;11(1):130-134.
    PMID: 28435380 DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.202636
    Enucleation and evisceration are the most common surgical procedures that are performed to manage tumor, trauma, and infection. Given the consequences of surgical intervention, the conditions of the remaining eye socket may affect future prosthetic rehabilitation. A custom-made ocular prosthesis can be used to help restore the esthetics and functional defects and to improve the quality of life of patients with such conditions. An assessment must be performed on the prosthetic outcome before rehabilitation. The etiology of defect, type of surgery, condition of the remaining socket, and patient's age should all be considered. This report discusses three different etiological eye defects that have undergone enucleation and evisceration and describes the factors that have a significant role in the esthetic and functional outcome of the prosthesis. This report should serve as a helpful aid for maxillofacial prosthodontists to understand the primary objective of rehabilitating each eye defect and to meet patient expectations.
  10. Mustafa Al-Ahmad BE, Kashmoola MA, Mustafa NS, Hassan H, Arzmi MH
    Eur J Dent, 2018 4 17;12(1):120-122.
    PMID: 29657536 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_322_17
    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between tooth loss and the level of blood pressure with the hypothesis that tooth loss is associated with the increase of hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty postmenopausal female patients aged 51-68 years were included in the study to assess the relationship between tooth loss and the level of blood pressure. The information including sociodemographics, last menstruation period, hypertension history, and the duration of having tooth loss was recorded. Blood pressure was measured using sphygmomanometer and the number of tooth loss was determined.

    Results: The results showed a more significant tooth loss in hypertension (median: 23 + 4; interquartile range [IQR]: 6) compared to the normotension postmenopausal women (median: 18 + 6; IQR: 12; P < 0.05). Furthermore, obese patients had more tooth loss (median: 23 + 5; IQR: 8) than the overweight patients (median: 19 + 8; IQR: 8).

    Conclusion: Tooth loss is associated with the increase of hypertension in postmenopausal women which may have a role in the development of vascular diseases.

  11. Deng PU, Halim MS, Masudi SM, Al-Shehadat S, Ahmad B
    Eur J Dent, 2018 8 28;12(3):410-416.
    PMID: 30147408 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_82_18
    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the variations in the number of root and canal in the mandibular first permanent molars (MFPMs) teeth in East Coast Malaysian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

    Materials and Methods: CBCT images which show MFPMs recorded in HUSM Dental Clinic between January 2015 and June 2016 was obtained and analyzed for their number of roots and canals. A total of 208 CBCT images of MFPMs were collected; 118 patients had unilateral molars and 90 patients had bilateral molars. The following observations were made: (1) root number; (2) number of canals per root; and (3) comparisons of number of roots and canals according to gender, ethnicity, and position.

    Results: The majority of cases of bilateral MFPM had the same number of roots (95.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 89.01%, 98.78%) on both the right and left side and only 4 cases (4.4%, 95% CI: 1.22%, 10.99%) had 3 roots on the right and 2 roots on the left sides. The majority of cases had the same number of canals on both sides (66.7%, 95% CI: 55.95, 76.26%) and 33.3% (95% CI: 23.74%, 44.05%) with unequal number of canals. The occurrence of the number of canals was not independent of the sides of the arch (P < 0.001) and there was statistically significantly greater proportion of cases who had greater number of canals on the right side than the left (P = 0.03). The prevalence of right single-rooted MFPM was very small at 0.3% (n = 1) in a Malay male (95% CI: 0.00, 1.83) and the most prevalent was two roots first molar (88.4%). The number of roots was not associated with sex or ethnic group (P > 0.05). The MFPM with a single root was found to have only one mesial canal. For two rooted MFPM, the most prevalent occurrence was two canals at the mesial and one canal at the distal roots (59%); followed by single canals in each mesial and distal (21%) and double canals per root (18%). Three roots MFPM have either single or double canals in the mesial root and double canals in the distal root.

    Conclusions: The majority of population in the East Coast region of Malaysia has two roots and three root canals in their MFPMs. There was no difference in the number of roots between gender and ethnic and canals between ethnic.

  12. Raza Kazmi SM, Iqbal Z, Muneer MU, Riaz S, Zafar MS
    Eur J Dent, 2018 8 28;12(3):375-379.
    PMID: 30147402 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_232_18
    Objective: The current study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of pontic design selection by the general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the light of contemporary guidelines.

    Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the GDPs of Karachi. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from 100 GDPs. The questionnaire included general/demographic information (practitioner's education, experience, and place of practice) and an average number of fixed prosthesis constructed by the GDP. The questionnaire was further categorized to evaluate the knowledge/practice of pontic design selection and latest recommendations.

    Results: For the maxillary anterior segment, the ridge lap pontic was the most common (32%) followed by the modified ridge lap (28%). In the maxillary posterior segment, the ridge lap pontic was the most common (37%) followed by sanitary design (34%). For the mandibular anterior segment, the modified ridge lap (50%) was the most common followed by ridge lap pontic (17%). In case of the mandibular posterior segment, the sanitary design (34%) was the most common followed by ridge lap pontic (30%).

    Conclusions: The pontic design selection for the fixed prosthesis is a neglected domain. The contemporary guidelines are not followed with full spirit by the GDPs leading to wide variations in the pontic design selection.

  13. Al Shehadat S, Gorduysus MO, Abdul Hamid SS, Abdullah NA, Samsudin AR, Ahmad A
    Eur J Dent, 2018 10 30;12(4):574-578.
    PMID: 30369805 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_401_17
    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the two scanning electron microscope (SEM) preparation protocols and determine the better SEM preparation technique to study stem cells on human amniotic membrane (hAM) scaffold.

    Materials and Methods: Formaldehyde-based protocol and glutaraldehyde-based protocol were compared to evaluate the quality of SEM images for stem cells cultured on hAM scaffold.

    Results: The results suggested that formaldehyde-based protocol is better than glutaraldehyde-based protocol in terms of showing clearer topography of the membrane as well as the boarders of the cells. To provide intact surface of the SEM sample and avoid possible ruptures of the hAM or the thin cell layer, it is recommended to perform the dehydration step using graded alcohol concentrations of 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%, one time for each and twice in 100% for 10 min each. Gold sputter-coating step is not recommended as it does not improve the image quality.

    Conclusions: To obtain clear SEM images, it is recommended to run a preliminary study to determine the better chemicals and conditions of sample preparation even when following preexisting protocols.

  14. Mustafa NS, Kashmoola MA, Abdul Majeed KR, Abdul Qader OAJ
    Eur J Dent, 2018 10 30;12(4):540-545.
    PMID: 30369800 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_377_17
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the success rate of the endodontically treated teeth in patients attending the Polyclinic, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), from 2012 to 2015.

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study involved endodontically treated teeth of patients attending the Polyclinic, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, IIUM, from 2012 to 2015. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded and classified as successful or failed, and further analyzed by Fisher's exact test to measure the correlation between the variables using SPSS software version 16.0. Kappa test was used to measure the overall relationship between clinical and radiographic findings.

    Results: A total of sixty teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically, the overall success rate was 85% (n = 51). Correlation between the variables showed nonsignificant (P > 0.05) in the success rate among age, gender, and race, upper and lower arches and between anterior and posterior teeth at the time of treatment. At postendodontic fixed restorations, the variables showed statistically significant relationship with the success rate (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions: Patients with no signs and symptoms and with no radiographical changes at the the time of clinical examination, showed the highest percentage of success rate (85%) of postendodontic fixed restorations. Age, gender, and race have no significant relations with the success rate of endodontically treated teeth.
  15. Low JF, Mohd Dom TN, Baharin SA
    Eur J Dent, 2018 10 30;12(4):610-616.
    PMID: 30369811 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_248_18
    The application of magnification devices in endodontics is mainly meant for visual enhancement and improved ergonomics. This is crucial especially when long hours are spent in a narrow operating space to treat obscure microanatomy. Nevertheless, application of magnification in endodontics has yet to be introduced into the mainstream practice due to various influences in behavioral patterns. By conducting an extensive literature search in the PubMed database, this narrative review paper depicts the present state of magnification devices, their applications within the endodontic practice, factors that influence their usage, the advantages, and shortcomings, as well as the significances of magnification in the field of endodontics. This review paper will encourage clinicians to employ magnification in their practice for improved outcome.
  16. Ahmed T, Rahman NA, Alam MK
    Eur J Dent, 2018 10 30;12(4):602-609.
    PMID: 30369810 DOI: 10.4103/ejd.ejd_22_18
    The aim of this study was to systematically review the available studies measuring the bond strength of orthodontic bracket-adhesive system under different experimental conditions in vivo. Literature search was performed in four different databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus using the keywords - bond strength, orthodontic brackets, bracket-adhesive, and in vivo. A total of six full-text articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of our study after a careful assessment by the two independent reviewers. Data selection was performed by following PRISMA 2009 guidelines. Five of the selected studies were clinical trials; one study was a randomized clinical trial. From each of the selected articles, the following data were extracted - number of samples, with the type of tooth involved materials under experiment methods of measurement, the time interval between bonding and debonding orthodontic brackets, mode of force application, and the bond strength results with the overall outcome. The methodological quality assessment of each article was done by the modified Downs and Black checklist method. The qualitative analyses were done by two independent reviewers. Conflicting issues were resolved in a consensus meeting by consulting the third reviewer (MKA). Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the lack of homogenous study results. The review reached no real conclusion apart from the lack of efforts to clinically evaluate the bonding efficiency of a wide range of orthodontic bracket-adhesive systems in terms of debonding force compared to laboratory-based in vitro and ex vivo studies.
  17. Moheet IA, Luddin N, Rahman IA, Kannan TP, Nik Abd Ghani NR, Masudi SM
    Eur J Dent, 2019 Jul 07.
    PMID: 31280484 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1693524
    The aim of this article is to provide a brief insight regarding the recent studies and their recommendations related to the modifications to glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder in order to improve their properties.An electronic search of publications was made from the year 2000 to 2018. The databases included in the current study were EBSCOhost, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The inclusion criteria for the current study include publication with abstract or full-text articles, original research, reviews or systematic reviews, in vitro, and in vivo studies that were written in English language. Among these only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Articles published in other languages, with no available abstract and related to other nondentistry fields, were excluded. : A detailed review of the recent materials used as a filler phase in GIC powder has revealed that not all modifications produce beneficial results. Recent work has demonstrated that modification of GIC powder with nano-particles has many beneficial effects on the properties of the material. This is due to the increase in surface area and surface energy, along with better particle distribution of the nano-particle. Therefore, more focus should be given on nano-particle having greater chemical affinity for GIC matrix as well as the tooth structure that will enhance the physicochemical properties of GIC.
  18. Abdul Hamid NF, Wan Bakar WZ, Ariffin Z
    Eur J Dent, 2019 Feb;13(1):17-21.
    PMID: 31170751 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688740
    OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to assess and compare the marginal gap of conventionally used metal onlays and new resin nanoceramic (RNC) (Lava Ultimate block) onlays.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an in vitro study using two extracted sound human mandibular molars. One tooth was prepared to receive the metal onlays and another one for the RNC onlays which were fabricated using the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. Twelve metals and 12 ceramic onlays were fabricated before they were placed at their respective preparation and examined under the Leica stereomicroscope, M125C (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) for a marginal analysis. The gap width was measured at 10 predefined landmarks which included 3 points on the buccal and lingual surfaces each and 2 points each on the mesial and distal surfaces, respectively.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Mann-Whitney post hoc test was used for statistical analysis (P ≤ 0.05).

    RESULTS: Overall, the RNC onlays showed significant lower marginal gap with the exception of the landmarks 5 and 6 (on distolingual) and no significant difference at landmark 7 (on midlingual). It was observed that the marginal gap were all within the clinically acceptable limit of 120 μm.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the RNC CAD/CAM onlays are a promising alternative to the metal onlays.

  19. Naauman Z, Rajion ZAB, Maliha S, Hariy P, Muhammad QS, Noor HAR
    Eur J Dent, 2019 Feb;13(1):114-118.
    PMID: 31170762 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1688741
    OBJECTIVE: The carbon, titanium, and oxygen levels on titanium implant surfaces with or without ultraviolet (UV) pretreatment were evaluated at different wavelengths through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This interventional experimental study was conducted on nine Dio UFII implants with hybrid sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface treatments, divided equally into three groups. Control group A samples were not given UV irradiation, while groups B and C samples were given UVA (382 nm, 25 mWcm2) and UVC (260 nm, 15 mWcm2) irradiation, respectively. The atomic ratio of carbon, titanium, and oxygen was compared through XPS.

    RESULTS: Mean carbon-to-titanium ratio and C1 peaks considerably increased in Group A compared to those in experimental Groups B and C. The intensity of Ti2p and O1s peaks was more pronounced for group C compared to that for groups A and B.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the decrease in surface hydrocarbons was the same in both UV-treated groups, the peak intensity of oxygen increased in the UVC-treated group. Thus, it can be concluded that compared with UVA irradiation, UVC irradiation has the potential to induce more hydrophilicity on SLA-coated implants.

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