Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 343 in total

  1. Hashim Fauzy F, Mohd Zainudin M, Ismawi HR, Elshami TFT
    PMID: 31485247 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7198592
    Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant in Southeast Asia known for its traditional use in curing various ailments including hypertension. Previous research works have provided evidence for the herb's antihypertensive property. However, the exact mechanisms involved are still in question. The present study investigated the effects of Piper sarmentosum leaves aqueous extract (PSAE) treatment on vascular endothelin system in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four groups of SHRs were treated for 28 consecutive days, with negative and positive control groups receiving distilled water and 3 mg/kg perindopril, respectively. Another two groups are the treatment groups, which received PSAE and combination of 1.5 mg/kg perindopril and PSAE. Weekly measurements of blood pressure showed that PSAE significantly reduced the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures (P < 0.05) of the rats. PSAE also increased mesenteric artery nitric oxide (NO) level (P < 0.05) and reduced endothelin-1 (ET-1) level (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of PSAE reduced blood pressure in SHRs by reducing the ET-1 level while increasing NO production.
  2. Mohd Sahardi NFN, Makpol S
    PMID: 31531114 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5054395
    Currently, the age of the population is increasing as a result of increased life expectancy. Ageing is defined as the progressive loss of physiological integrity, which can be characterized by functional impairment and high vulnerability to various types of diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have reported that the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation contributes to the development of these diseases. In general, oxidative stress could induce proinflammatory cytokines and reduce cellular antioxidant capacity. Increased oxidative stress levels beyond the production of antioxidant agents cause oxidative damage to biological molecules, including DNA, protein, and carbohydrates, which affects normal cell signalling, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis and leads to disease pathogenesis. Since oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to these diseases, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is one of the potential herbs that can be used to reduce the level of oxidative stress and inflammation. Ginger consists of two major active components, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, which are essential for preventing oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, this paper will review the effects of ginger on ageing and degenerative diseases, including AD, PD, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and osteoarthritis.
  3. Adebayo IA, Gagman HA, Balogun WG, Ahmed Adam MA, Abas R, Hakeem KR, et al.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2019 09 08;2019:1529570.
    PMID: 31583008 DOI: 10.1155/2019/1529570
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2019/6104574.].
  4. Kamaruzzaman MA, Chin KY, Mohd Ramli ES
    PMID: 31641368 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8543618
    Bone remodelling is a complex and tightly regulated process. Disruption of bone remodelling skewing towards resorption will cause osteoporosis and increase the risk of fragility fracture. Honey is a natural product containing various bioactive ingredients with health benefits, especially polyphenols. Therefore, honey may be a novel dietary supplement to prevent osteoporosis. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the effects of honey on bone health. The evidence reported so far indicates a skeletal-beneficial effect of honey in animal models of osteoporosis. However, the number of studies on humans is limited. Honey can protect the bone via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, primarily through its polyphenol content that acts upon several signalling pathways, leading to bone anabolic and antiresorptive effects. In conclusion, honey is a potential functional food for bone health, but the dose and the bioactive contents of honey need to be verified prior to its application in humans.
  5. Ahmad Nazri KA, Fauzi NM, Buang F, Mohd Saad QH, Husain K, Jantan I, et al.
    PMID: 31662779 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7246756
    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. (GP) has been reported in previous studies to possess antihyperlipidaemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties. This study was aimed to determine the effect of standardised 80% ethanol extract of GP on lipid profiles and oxidative status of hypercholesterolemic rats. Postmenopausal (PM) Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised and fed with 2% cholesterol diet fortified with five times heated palm oil to develop hyperlipidaemia status. Two doses of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) were administered once daily via oral gavage for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was increased during the first month in the postmenopausal group and decreased with GP supplementation. Lipid droplets accumulation was shown at the tunica media (TM) area of the aorta in the postmenopausal group and reduced with GP supplementation. Total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased (p < 0.05) at 3 and 6 months in the postmenopausal group and were reduced with GP supplementation. GP also increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the postmenopausal group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were reduced in the postmenopausal group compared to control in the sham group but increased (p < 0.05) with GP supplementation. The results showed that the higher dose of GP (500 mg/kg) gave better effect. GP has the ability to reduce oxidative stress and prevent membrane cell damage through antioxidant enzyme activity modification and lipid profile changes in postmenopausal rats related to atherosclerosis.
  6. Sharif AA, Unyah NZ, Nordin N, Basir R, Wana MN, Alapid Ahmad A, et al.
    PMID: 31827548 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2916547
    Background: Toxoplasmosis remains widely distributed globally and is one of the major neglected parasitic zoonotic infections. The infection is still endemic in most parts of the world due to poor control as well as challenges of the currently used medications which can be overcome by using natural products. This study evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract from the stem of Tinospora crispa (EETC) on host cell invasion and intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Method: The stem powder of T. crispa was soaked in absolute ethanol for 72 hours. The resulting ethanolic extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Vero cells monolayer in 96-well plate was infected with RH strain of T. gondii and treated with concentrations of the EETC, Veratrine alkaloid, and clindamycin ranging from 1.56 to 200 μg/mL. MTT assay was conducted after 24 hours to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiparasitic activities of the EETC. Four and 24 hours treatment models were adapted to assess the infection index and intracellular proliferation of T.

    Results: The study revealed that the EETC had no cytotoxic effects on Vero cells with IC50 = 179 μg/mL, as compared to clindamycin (IC50 = 116.5 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC50 = 60.4 μg/mL). The EETC had good anti-toxoplasma activities with IC50 = 6.31 μg/mL in comparison with clindamycin (IC50 = 8.33 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC50 = 14.25 μg/mL). The EETC caused more than 70% and 80% reduction in infection index and intracellular proliferation in both treatment models, respectively.

    Conclusion: This in vitro study showed that the EETC contains promising phytochemicals effective against T. gondii and safe to the host cells.

  7. Mustafa MZ, Zulkifli FN, Fernandez I, Mariatulqabtiah AR, Sangu M, Nor Azfa J, et al.
    PMID: 31885664 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8258307
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of stingless bee honey (SBH) supplementation on memory and learning in mice. Despite many studies that show the benefits of honey on memory, reports on the nootropic effects of SBH are still lacking, and their underlying mechanism is still unclear. SBH is a honey produced by the bees in the tribe of Meliponini that exist in tropical countries. It features unique storage of honey collected in cerumen pots made of propolis. This SBH may offer a better prospect for therapeutic performance as the previous report identifies the presence of antioxidants that were greater than other honey produced by Apis sp. In this study, SBH was tested on Swiss albino mice following acute (7 days) and semichronic (35 days) supplementation. Experiments were then conducted using Morris water maze (MWM) behaviour analysis, RT-PCR for gene expression of mice striatum, and NMR for metabolomics analysis of the honey. Results indicate spatial working memory and spatial reference memory of mice were significantly improved in the honey-treated group compared with the control group. Improved memory consolidations were also observed in prolonged supplementation. Gene expression analyses of acutely treated mice demonstrated significant upregulation of BDNF and Itpr1 genes that involve in synaptic function. NMR analysis also identified phenylalanine, an essential precursor for tyrosine that plays a role at the BDNF receptor. In conclusion, SBH supplementation for seven days at 2000 mg/kg, which is equivalent to a human dose of 162 mg/kg, showed strong capabilities to improve spatial working memory. And prolonged intake up to 35 days increased spatial reference memory in the mice model. The phenylalanine in SBH may have triggered the upregulation of BDNF genes in honey-treated mice and improved their spatial memory performance.
  8. Bongartz U, Tan BK, Seibt S, Bothe G, Uebelhack R, Chong PW, et al.
    PMID: 31186669 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9178218
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical benefit and tolerability of IQP-AO-101 in healthy subjects with sleep complaints.

    Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involved fifty subjects with sleep complaints. Subjects with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score between 6 and 15 were randomized to receive either IQP-AO-101 or placebo for 6 weeks, following a run-in period of one week. Sleep parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1, 4, and 6 weeks using the modified Athens Insomnia Scale (mAIS). Subjects were also instructed to wear an activity tracker and keep a sleep diary during the study. Other questionnaires administered were the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR-2) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS-65). Blood samples for safety laboratory parameters were taken before and at the end of the study.

    Results: After 6 weeks, subjects who consumed IQP-AO-101 reported significant improvements in mAIS scores compared with placebo, including mAIS total score (11.76 ± 6.85 vs 4.00 ± 4.80; p < 0.001); night parameters composite score (5.20 ± 3.80 vs 2.04 ± 3.16; p = 0.001); and day parameters composite score (6.56 ± 4.10 vs 1.96 ± 2.65; p < 0.001). All individual parameters (Items 1 to 8) were also significantly improved from baseline after 6 weeks of IQP-AO-101 intake. Analysis of variance with baseline values as covariates showed statistically significant improvements across all individual parameters for IQP-AO-101 when compared to placebo. The measurements using the activity tracker, sleep diary, FAIR-2, and POMS did not reveal any significant differences between groups. No adverse effects related to the intake of IQP-AO-101 were reported. Tolerability was rated as very good by all the subjects and by the investigator for all cases.

    Conclusions: In this study, IQP-AO-101 was well tolerated and efficacious for promoting sleep and enhancing daytime performance in subjects with moderate sleep disturbances.

    Clinical Trial Registration: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT03114696.

  9. Thiagarajan SK, Rama Krishnan K, Ei T, Husna Shafie N, Arapoc DJ, Bahari H
    PMID: 31186668 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9152757
    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly known as bitter gourd, has many protective roles due to its medicinal value as it contains bioactive components. However, this extract showed possible toxicity effect on zebrafish embryo. Thus this study was designed to differentiate the toxicity activities in two types of M. charantia sample which are Indian and Chinese M. charantia, as well as to compare between two different aqueous extraction methods, hot and cold aqueous method, using zebrafish embryo assay assessment. It was observed that the survival rate of zebrafish embryo decreased as the concentration of test extract increased for all samples of M. charantia. The LC50 values of hot aqueous Chinese M. charantia, hot aqueous Indian M. charantia, and cold aqueous Chinese M. charantia were 144.54 μg/ml, 199.53 μg/ml, and 251.19 μg/ml, respectively. However, cold aqueous Indian M. charantia has a higher LC50 which was not in the range of the tested concentration. Hatchability of Danio rerio embryo reduced as the concentration of M. charantia extract increased while no hatching was observed in the highest concentration (1000 μg/ml). Scoliosis of zebrafish larvae was only seen in higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) of extract. The heartbeat of zebrafish larvae treated with M. charantia extract was within the normal range, 120-180 bpm, but at higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) the heartbeat differed for all samples of test extract. Hence, although this plant extract was safe to be consumed due to its pharmaceutical effect, it still exhibited mild toxicity effect at higher concentration when it was evaluated on zebrafish embryo.
  10. Xu J, Lin X, Cheng KK, Zhong H, Liu M, Zhang G, et al.
    PMID: 31186665 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6947471
    Electroacupuncture and moxibustion are traditional Chinese medicine practices that exert therapeutic effects through stimulation of specific meridian acupoints. However, the biological basis of the therapies has been difficult to establish; thus the current practices still rely on ancient TCM references. Here, we used a rat model to study perturbations in cortex, liver, and stomach metabolome and plasma hormones following electroacupuncture or moxibustion treatment on either stomach meridian or gallbladder meridian acupoints. All treatment groups, regardless of meridian and mode of treatment, showed perturbation in cortex metabolome and increased phenylalanine, tyrosine, and branched-chain amino acids in liver. In addition, electroacupuncture was found to increase ATP in cortex, creatine, and dimethylglycine in stomach and GABA in liver. On the other hand, moxibustion increased plasma enkephalin concentration, as well as betaine and fumarate concentrations in stomach. Furthermore, we had observed meridian-specific changes including increased N-acetyl-aspartate in liver and 3-hydroxybutyrate in stomach for gallbladder meridian stimulation and increased noradrenaline concentration in blood plasma following stimulation on stomach meridian. In summary, the current findings may provide insight into the metabolic basis of electroacupuncture and moxibustion, which may contribute towards new application of acupoint stimulation.
  11. Chinnappan SM, George A, Thaggikuppe P, Choudhary Y, Choudhary VK, Ramani Y, et al.
    PMID: 31214269 DOI: 10.1155/2019/4916519
    Paracetamol (PCM) is a well-known drug widely used for its analgesic and antipyretic properties. PCM is generally considered as safe but overdose of PCM can cause nephrotoxicity. Traditionally, herbs have been used for the treatment of drug or toxin-induced renal disorders and numerous medicinal plants were tested for nephroprotection effect in PCM-induced nephrotoxicity model. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the herbal extract Eurycoma longifolia (EL) against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity rat model. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight rats each: control (vehicle 10 ml/kg), PCM alone (200 mg/kg PCM), EL 100 (EL 100 mg/kg+200 mg/kg PCM), EL 200 (EL 200 mg/kg+200 mg/kg PCM), and EL 400 (EL 400 mg/kg+200 mg/kg PCM). All animals from control group received vehicle daily and animals from groups PCM alone, EL 100, EL 200, and EL 400 received repeated dose of PCM and the assigned treatment of EL daily for a period of 14 days. On the 15th day, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, protein, and albumin were measured in blood and creatinine clearance was measured in urine collected over 24 hours. Kidney sections of all experimental groups underwent histopathological analysis. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum creatinine and blood urea levels in the PCM alone group compared to the treatment groups due to nephrotoxicity. In the treatment groups, there was a dose-dependent protection against PCM-induced changes observed in serum total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine. Significant (p<0.05) drop was seen in serum creatinine and blood urea content in EL 200 and EL 400 groups. Creatinine clearance significantly increased for EL 200 (p<0.01) and EL 400 (p < 0.001) groups. Serum total protein and serum albumin content were significantly increased (p<0.05) in EL 200 and EL 400 groups compared to PCM alone group. Histopathological examination (H&E staining) of the rat kidneys revealed severe degeneration in the PCM alone group, while there was evidence of significant dose-dependent protection in the treatment groups against PCM-induced changes. The serum and urine biochemical results and histopathology analysis of the kidney indicate the nephroprotective potential of EL extract against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity.
  12. Ezzat SM, Okba MM, Ezzat MI, Aborehab NM, Mohamed SO
    PMID: 31223329 DOI: 10.1155/2019/4341592
    Background. Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Fam.: Simaroubaceae), known as Tongkat Ali (TA), has been known as a symbol of virility and sexual power. The aim of the study was to screen E. longifolia aqueous extract (AE) and isolates for ROCK-II inhibition. Results. The AE (1-10 μg/ml) showed a significant inhibition for ROCK-II activity (62.8-81%) at P < 0.001 with an IC50 (651.1 ± 32.9 ng/ml) compared to Y-27632 ([(+)-(R)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride]) (68.15-89.9 %) at same concentrations with an IC50 (192 ± 8.37 ng/ml). Chromatographic purification of the aqueous extract (AE) allowed the isolation of eight compounds; stigmasterol T1, trans-coniferyl aldehyde T2, scopoletin T3, eurycomalactone T4, 6α- hydroxyeurycomalactone T5, eurycomanone T6, eurycomanol T7, and eurycomanol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside T8. This is the first report for the isolation of T1 and T3 from E. longifolia and for the isolation of T2 from genus Eurycoma. The isolates (at 10 μg/ml) exhibited maximum inhibition % of ROCK-II 82.1 ± 0.63 (T2), 78.3 ± 0.38 (T6), 77.1 ± 0.11 (T3), 76.2 ± 3.53 (T4), 74.5 ± 1.27 (T5), 74.1 ± 2.97 (T7), 71.4 ± 2.54 (T8), and 60.3 ± 0.14 (T1), where the newly isolated compound trans-coniferyl aldehyde T2 showed the highest inhibitory activity among the tested isolated compounds and even higher than the total extract AE. The standard Y-27632 (10 μg/ml) showed 89.9 ± 0.42 % inhibition for ROCK-II activity when compared to control at P < 0.0001. Conclusion. The traditional use of E. longifolia as aphrodisiac and for male sexual disorders might be in part due to the ROCK-II inhibitory potential.
  13. Adebayo IA, Gagman HA, Balogun WG, Adam MAA, Abas R, Hakeem KR, et al.
    PMID: 31239861 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6104574
    Despite the availability of anticancer drugs, breast cancer remains the most death-causing tumor-related disease in women. Hence, there is a need for discovery and development of efficient alternative drugs, and sources such as plants need to be explored. In this study, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects against MCF7 cells of the extracts of stem bark of three Nigerian medicinal plants (Detarium microcarpum, Guiera senegalensis, and Cassia siamea) were investigated. The D. microcarpum extracts had the highest antioxidant and antiproliferative effects, followed by that of G. senegalensis, and the C. siamea extracts had minimal effects. The IC50 values of the methanol and aqueous extracts from the three plants that inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells ranged from 78-> 500 μg/ml. Moreover, all the plant extracts but the aqueous extract of Cassia siamea exhibited antimetastatic action and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells. Liquid chromatography/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry profiling revealed that the five potent extracts contain many phenols and omega-6 fatty acids, and some of the identified compounds (isorhamnetin, eupatorin, alpinumisoflavone, procyanidin B3, syringin, and gallic acid) have been reported to have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. Hence, the stem bark of these plants could be potential sources of antibreast cancer agents.
  14. Ezzat SM, Ezzat MI, Okba MM, Hassan SM, Alkorashy AI, Karar MM, et al.
    PMID: 31275418 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7543460
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Fam.: Simaroubaceae), known as Tongkat Ali (TA), has been known as a symbol of virility and sexual power for men. Metabolic profiling of the aqueous extract of E. longifolia (AEEL) using UPLC-MS/MS in both positive and negative modes allowed the identification of seventeen metabolites. The identified compounds were classified into four groups: quassinoids, alkaloids, triterpenes, and biphenylneolignans. AEEL is considered safe with oral LD50 cut-off >5000 mg/kg. Oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of AEEL for 10 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley male rats caused significant reductions in mounting, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and increased penile erection index. AEEL increased total body weight and relative weights of seminal vesicles and prostate. Total and free serum testosterone and brain cortical and hippocampal dopamine content was significantly elevated in treated groups with no significant effects on serotonin or noradrenaline content.
  15. Singh A, Hart R, Chandra S, Nautiyal MC, Sayok AK
    PMID: 31275412 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5656925
    The Indian Himalaya is rich in plant species, including many medicinal plants, greatly valued by local inhabitants for health care needs. The study in Urgam Valley of Uttarakhand, India, is to identity and document traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. The study revealed high consensus on medicinal plant usage, with 51 species belonging to 31 families used for local health care. Number of species and uses known increases with age, and elders and specialist healers retain higher levels of traditional medicinal plant knowledge, having unique knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses as well as preparation.
  16. Chinnappan SM, George A, Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy P, Choudhary Y, Choudhary VK, Ramani Y, et al.
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2019 07 21;2019:9186747.
    PMID: 31428177 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9186747
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2019/4916519.].
  17. Zainul Azlan N, Mohd Yusof YA, Alias E, Makpol S
    PMID: 31428175 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8394648
    Background: Loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function due to gradual decline in the regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers was observed with advancing age. This condition is known as sarcopenia. Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) are essential in muscle regeneration as its activation leads to the differentiation of myoblasts to myofibers. Chlorella vulgaris is a coccoid green eukaryotic microalga that contains highly nutritious substances and has been reported for its pharmaceutical effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. vulgaris on the regulation of MRFs and myomiRs expression in young and senescent myoblasts during differentiation in vitro.

    Methods: Human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) cells were cultured and serial passaging was carried out to obtain young and senescent cells. The cells were then treated with C. vulgaris followed by differentiation induction. The expression of Pax7, MyoD1, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, TNNT1, PTEN, and MYH2 genes and miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486 was determined in untreated and C. vulgaris-treated myoblasts on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 of differentiation.

    Results: The expression of Pax7, MyoD1, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, TNNT1, and PTEN in control senescent myoblasts was significantly decreased on Day 0 of differentiation (p<0.05). Treatment with C. vulgaris upregulated Pax7, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, and PTEN in senescent myoblasts (p<0.05) and upregulated Pax7 and MYOG in young myoblasts (p<0.05). The expression of MyoD1 and Myf5 in young myoblasts however was significantly decreased on Day 0 of differentiation (p<0.05). During differentiation, the expression of these genes was increased with C. vulgaris treatment. Further analysis on myomiRs expression showed that miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486 were significantly downregulated in senescent myoblasts on Day 0 of differentiation which was upregulated by C. vulgaris treatment (p<0.05). During differentiation, the expression of miR-133b and miR-206 was significantly increased with C. vulgaris treatment in both young and senescent myoblasts (p<0.05). However, no significant change was observed on the expression of miR-486 with C. vulgaris treatment.

    Conclusions: C. vulgaris demonstrated the modulatory effects on the expression of MRFs and myomiRs during proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in culture. These findings may indicate the beneficial effect of C. vulgaris in muscle regeneration during ageing thus may prevent sarcopenia in the elderly.

  18. Kadir FA, Kassim NM, Abdulla MA, Yehye WA
    PMID: 30519271 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8464628
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2013/739850.].
  19. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Chan LC
    PMID: 30519270 DOI: 10.1155/2018/7826576
    Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku, belongs to the family Sapotaceae. We found that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract has cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line in our earlier study. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells. We also aimed to unravel yet undiscovered mechanisms and identified several expressed genes whose functions in cytotoxicity activity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells have not been well-studied. The apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities were analyzed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The associated molecular pathways were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can increase percentage of early apoptotic cells, induce the formation of ROS, upregulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduce Akt1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) transcriptional activities. Our data suggest that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can suppress the growth of HepG2 cells via modulation of ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 transcriptional expression.
  20. Sahid NA, Hayati F, Rao CV, Ramely R, Sani I, Dzulkarnaen A, et al.
    PMID: 30538757 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3032790
    Background: Snakehead fish (Channa striatus) is a fresh water fish indigenous to many Asia countries and believed to have medical value. Studies showed that it contains all the essential amino acids and fatty acids able to accelerate wound healing and it has antinociceptive effect. However, little human study has been done to assess the effectiveness of Channa striatus in wound healing. A prospective RCT has been conducted on the effect of Channa striatus spray versus placebo on clean wound to assess its pain control effect and cosmetic outcome.

    Methodology: One hundred and two patients (102) underwent clean elective surgery; postoperatively they were randomized into two group. One group received Channa striatus extract spray (n=51) another group received placebo (n=51) on daily basis for 2 weeks. They were followed up on 2nd, 4th, and 6th weeks. Pain control effect was assessed based on Visual Analog Pain Score (VAPS) and cosmetic outcome based on Visual Analog Cosmetic Scale (VACS), Wound Evaluation Scale (WES), and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS).

    Result: The patient treated with Channa striatus spray displayed a better outcome in terms of pain control compared to placebo. During analysis using repeated measure ANOVA, there was significant difference of patient's pain score based on VAPS between Channa striatus spray and placebo (F-stat (df) = 4.80 (2), p-value = 0.010). For cosmetic outcome it showed a better result in Channa striatus spray group for all the 3-scoring system, VACS, (F-stat (df) = 2.68 (2) , p-value <0.001), WES (F-stat (df) = 3.09 (2), p-value = 0.048), and VSS (F-stat (df) = 1.72 (2) , p-value = 0.011).

    Conclusion: Our study suggest that application of Channa striatus extract spray on clean wound has shown a significant better pain score result and cosmetic outcome on week 2, week 4, and week 6 comparatively with placebo.

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