Method: The stem powder of T. crispa was soaked in absolute ethanol for 72 hours. The resulting ethanolic extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. Vero cells monolayer in 96-well plate was infected with RH strain of T. gondii and treated with concentrations of the EETC, Veratrine alkaloid, and clindamycin ranging from 1.56 to 200 μg/mL. MTT assay was conducted after 24 hours to evaluate the cytotoxicity and antiparasitic activities of the EETC. Four and 24 hours treatment models were adapted to assess the infection index and intracellular proliferation of T.
Results: The study revealed that the EETC had no cytotoxic effects on Vero cells with IC50 = 179 μg/mL, as compared to clindamycin (IC50 = 116.5 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC50 = 60.4 μg/mL). The EETC had good anti-toxoplasma activities with IC50 = 6.31 μg/mL in comparison with clindamycin (IC50 = 8.33 μg/mL) and Veratrine alkaloid (IC50 = 14.25 μg/mL). The EETC caused more than 70% and 80% reduction in infection index and intracellular proliferation in both treatment models, respectively.
Conclusion: This in vitro study showed that the EETC contains promising phytochemicals effective against T. gondii and safe to the host cells.
Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial involved fifty subjects with sleep complaints. Subjects with a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score between 6 and 15 were randomized to receive either IQP-AO-101 or placebo for 6 weeks, following a run-in period of one week. Sleep parameters were assessed at baseline and after 1, 4, and 6 weeks using the modified Athens Insomnia Scale (mAIS). Subjects were also instructed to wear an activity tracker and keep a sleep diary during the study. Other questionnaires administered were the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR-2) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS-65). Blood samples for safety laboratory parameters were taken before and at the end of the study.
Results: After 6 weeks, subjects who consumed IQP-AO-101 reported significant improvements in mAIS scores compared with placebo, including mAIS total score (11.76 ± 6.85 vs 4.00 ± 4.80; p < 0.001); night parameters composite score (5.20 ± 3.80 vs 2.04 ± 3.16; p = 0.001); and day parameters composite score (6.56 ± 4.10 vs 1.96 ± 2.65; p < 0.001). All individual parameters (Items 1 to 8) were also significantly improved from baseline after 6 weeks of IQP-AO-101 intake. Analysis of variance with baseline values as covariates showed statistically significant improvements across all individual parameters for IQP-AO-101 when compared to placebo. The measurements using the activity tracker, sleep diary, FAIR-2, and POMS did not reveal any significant differences between groups. No adverse effects related to the intake of IQP-AO-101 were reported. Tolerability was rated as very good by all the subjects and by the investigator for all cases.
Conclusions: In this study, IQP-AO-101 was well tolerated and efficacious for promoting sleep and enhancing daytime performance in subjects with moderate sleep disturbances.
Clinical Trial Registration: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT03114696.
Methods: Human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) cells were cultured and serial passaging was carried out to obtain young and senescent cells. The cells were then treated with C. vulgaris followed by differentiation induction. The expression of Pax7, MyoD1, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, TNNT1, PTEN, and MYH2 genes and miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486 was determined in untreated and C. vulgaris-treated myoblasts on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 of differentiation.
Results: The expression of Pax7, MyoD1, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, TNNT1, and PTEN in control senescent myoblasts was significantly decreased on Day 0 of differentiation (p<0.05). Treatment with C. vulgaris upregulated Pax7, Myf5, MEF2C, IGF1R, MYOG, and PTEN in senescent myoblasts (p<0.05) and upregulated Pax7 and MYOG in young myoblasts (p<0.05). The expression of MyoD1 and Myf5 in young myoblasts however was significantly decreased on Day 0 of differentiation (p<0.05). During differentiation, the expression of these genes was increased with C. vulgaris treatment. Further analysis on myomiRs expression showed that miR-133b, miR-206, and miR-486 were significantly downregulated in senescent myoblasts on Day 0 of differentiation which was upregulated by C. vulgaris treatment (p<0.05). During differentiation, the expression of miR-133b and miR-206 was significantly increased with C. vulgaris treatment in both young and senescent myoblasts (p<0.05). However, no significant change was observed on the expression of miR-486 with C. vulgaris treatment.
Conclusions: C. vulgaris demonstrated the modulatory effects on the expression of MRFs and myomiRs during proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in culture. These findings may indicate the beneficial effect of C. vulgaris in muscle regeneration during ageing thus may prevent sarcopenia in the elderly.
Methodology: One hundred and two patients (102) underwent clean elective surgery; postoperatively they were randomized into two group. One group received Channa striatus extract spray (n=51) another group received placebo (n=51) on daily basis for 2 weeks. They were followed up on 2nd, 4th, and 6th weeks. Pain control effect was assessed based on Visual Analog Pain Score (VAPS) and cosmetic outcome based on Visual Analog Cosmetic Scale (VACS), Wound Evaluation Scale (WES), and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS).
Result: The patient treated with Channa striatus spray displayed a better outcome in terms of pain control compared to placebo. During analysis using repeated measure ANOVA, there was significant difference of patient's pain score based on VAPS between Channa striatus spray and placebo (F-stat (df) = 4.80 (2), p-value = 0.010). For cosmetic outcome it showed a better result in Channa striatus spray group for all the 3-scoring system, VACS, (F-stat (df) = 2.68 (2) , p-value <0.001), WES (F-stat (df) = 3.09 (2), p-value = 0.048), and VSS (F-stat (df) = 1.72 (2) , p-value = 0.011).
Conclusion: Our study suggest that application of Channa striatus extract spray on clean wound has shown a significant better pain score result and cosmetic outcome on week 2, week 4, and week 6 comparatively with placebo.