Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 346 in total

  1. Mohd Rafie AZ, Syahir A, Wan Ahmad WAN, Mustafa MZ, Mariatulqabtiah AR
    PMID: 30643535 DOI: 10.1155/2018/6371582
    Heterotrigona itama is a common stingless bee species found in Southeast Asia. Studies on the health benefits of its honey are limited in comparison with other stingless bee species. This study examines the antiobesity benefits found in stingless bee honey (SBH) from H. itama. The parameters used to measure the benefits were weight change, morphological structures, and biochemical characteristics. The research was conducted by using rats that were given a high-fat diet (HFD). In total 48 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were given a formulated HFD to increase the levels of obesity, the HFD was administered with a value of 0.68 g/cm2. The duration of the treatment was six weeks, and the results show that the induction obesity using the HFD was successful. Following this, the rats were then treated with SBH (at dosages of 1000 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg), with orlistat or with a placebo. Compared with typical obesity treatment methods, the one that used the three dosages of SBH showed a higher reduction in body mass index (BMI), percentage of body weight gain, adiposity index, and relative organ weight (ROW). The levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and ALP) were also significantly lower in SBH-treated groups. The levels of triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower, while the level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in comparison with the control obese group. In terms of morphological structures, the number of adipocyte cells was reduced, and the hepatocytes found in the liver were less prone to rupturing when treated with SBH. In conclusion, the administration of SBH led to an improvement in indicators associated with obesity reduction. SBH also possesses a hepatoprotective potential which can reduce the health risks related to obesity.
  2. Perumal S, Mahmud R, Mohamed N
    PMID: 30108657 DOI: 10.1155/2018/5713703
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is naturally resistant to many classes of antipseudomonal antibiotics due to the species ability to easily acquire resistance. Plant-based antibacterial agent in combination with the existing antibiotic proposes an alternative treatment regimen for the eradication of resistant bacterial infections. The antibacterial effects of the isolated epicatechin 3-gallate compound from Euphorbia hirta in combination with cefepime were investigated in vitro against resistant P. aeruginosa. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of the combination was determined using checkerboard broth microdilution method. Epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime had produced synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa (with average FIC index of 0.24). The MIC of epicatechin 3-gallate was effectively reduced to MIC/4, MIC/8, MIC/16, and MIC/32 in the presence of cefepime. Time-kill study of epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity where the eradication of P. aeruginosa occurred within 4 h of treatment. Scanning electron micrographs revealed apparent cell membrane damage and leakage of cytoplasmic contents from P. aeruginosa cells which eventually led to the cell lysis after the combination treatment of epicatechin 3-gallate and cefepime. The potential of epicatechin 3-gallate to act synergistically with cefepime against clinically resistant P. aeruginosa strain possibly will maximize the successful outcomes when choosing empirical antibiotic treatment in hospitals or health care institutions.
  3. AlMohammed HI, A Alanazi N, Maghrabi EF, A Alotaibi M
    PMID: 35646155 DOI: 10.1155/2022/4543078
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was a comprehensive review of studies on the effect of aromatherapy with plant essential oils on the improvement of some conditions, for example, anxiety, stress, sleep quality, fatigue, and pain in people with cardiovascular disease.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out this systematic review based on the instructions of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Ethical agreement was not necessary as main data have not been collected. During March 2022, we searched the main English databases, for example, Google Scholar, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and PubMed/MEDLINE, with limitation to human clinical trials. For this study, no time limit was applied for the publication of articles.

    RESULTS: Out of 1380 papers, 52 papers up to March 2022 were eligible for review in this systematic review. Based on the obtained results, the most widely used medicinal plants for aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases were Lavandula angustifolia (lavender, 55.7%), Rosa damascena (Damask rose, 11.5%), and Mentha piperita (peppermint, 5.8%), respectively. Most studies have been performed on the effect of aromatherapy on coronary angiography (21 papers, 40.4%), followed by artery bypass graft surgery (14 studies, 26.9%), and cardiac patients (5 studies, 9.6%). Most studies on the effect of aromatherapy in cardiovascular diseases were performed on anxiety (31 papers, 59.6%), sleep quality (8 studies, 15.4%), and hemodynamic parameters (6 studies, 11.5%), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: This study systematically reviewed the effects of aromatherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The review of studies showed that lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint are the most frequents plants used for aromatherapy, whereas they significantly improved some illnesses and conditions, especially anxiety and sleep quality. Therefore, it can be concluded that cardiologist can used aromatherapy as a natural complementary and alternative therapy particularly with lavender, Damask rose, and peppermint to improve quality of life and some conditions such as anxiety and sleep quality.

  4. Ibrahim NNA, Wan Mustapha WA, Sofian-Seng NS, Lim SJ, Mohd Razali NS, Teh AH, et al.
    PMID: 36704214 DOI: 10.1155/2023/7006565
    Plants are the primary source of the food chain and are rich in nutrients and biochemical compounds that mainly give beneficial effects to humans as well as other living organisms. Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a family member of Zingiberaceae commonly known as black turmeric. The leaves and rhizomes of this plant are extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine and as traditional remedies for various ailments. The aromatic rhizomes and leaves are due to the presence of essential oils reported as camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z)-β-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1,8-cineole, β-elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate, tropolone, ledol, β-elemenone, and α-bulnesene. Previous research studies have revealed most of the biological activities of C. caesia, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties, which are due to the presence of various bioactive components. The diverse chemical composition contained in this plant contributes to various biological activities, which may be beneficial for the health, food, and cosmetic industries. The purpose of this review was to summarise updated research on the in vitro and in vivo activities of C. caesia as well as the current clinical investigations. A compilation of the latest findings regarding the potential activities of C. caesia and mechanisms related to its health benefits is discussed and reviewed. This valuable information is the key that can be used for the development of drugs, functional food ingredients, and food products.
  5. Simon SE, Lim HS, Jayakumar FA, Tan EW, Tan KO
    PMID: 35082905 DOI: 10.1155/2022/7548191
    α-Mangostin, one of the major constituents of Garcinia mangostana, has been reported to possess several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities associated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of apoptosis. However, the cellular signaling pathway mediated by α-mangostin has not been firmly established. To investigate the cellular activities of α-mangostin, human cancer cells, MCF-7 and MCF-7-CR cells, were treated with α-mangostin to measure the cellular responses, including cytotoxicity, protein-protein interaction, and protein expression. Cancer cells stably expressed Myc-BCL-XL and HA-MOAP-1 were also included in the studies to delineate the cell signaling events mediated by α-mangostin. Our results showed that the apoptosis signaling mediated by α-mangostin involves the upregulation of endogenous MOAP-1, which interacts with α-mangostin activated BAX (act-BAX) while downregulating the expression of BCL-XL. Moreover, α-mangostin was found to induce BAX oligomerization, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome C, and activation of caspase in MCF-7 cells. In overexpression studies, MCF-7 cells and spheroids stably expressed HA-MOAP-1 and Myc-BCL-XL exhibited differential chemosensitivity toward α-mangostin in which the stable clones expressing HA-MOAP-1 and MYC-BCL-XL were chemosensitive and chemoresistant to the apoptosis signaling events mediated by α-mangostin, respectively, when compared to untreated cells. Together, the data suggest that the cytotoxicity of α-mangostin involves the activation of MOAP-1 tumor suppressor and its interaction with act-BAX, leading to mitochondria dysfunction and cell death.
  6. Baars EW, Zoen EB, Breitkreuz T, Martin D, Matthes H, von Schoen-Angerer T, et al.
    PMID: 30854009 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5365608
    AIM: The aim of this narrative review was to explore the potential contributions of CAM to reduce antibiotic use.

    METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with a specific, limited set of search terms and collected input from a group of expert CAM researchers to answer the question: What is known about the contribution of CAM health and health promotion concepts, infection prevention, and infection treatment strategies to reduce antibiotic use? Results. The worldview-related CAM health concepts enable health promotion oriented infection prevention and treatment aimed at strengthening or supporting the self-regulating ability of the human organism to cope with diseases. There is some evidence that the CAM concepts of health (promotion) are in agreement with current conceptualization of health and that doctors who practice both CAM and conventional medicine prescribe less antibiotics, although selection bias of the presented studies cannot be ruled out. There is some evidence that prevention and some treatment strategies are effective and safe. Many CAM treatment strategies are promising but overall lack high quality evidence.

    CONCLUSIONS: CAM prevention and treatment strategies may contribute to reducing antibiotic use, but more rigorous research is necessary to provide high quality evidence of (cost-)effectiveness.

  7. Mohd Nor NH, Othman F, Mohd Tohit ER, Md Noor S, Razali R, Ahmad Hassali H, et al.
    PMID: 31001352 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3245836
    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis is mainly due to atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, and platelet thrombus formation. The main risk factors for coronary artery disease include obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. As a part of disease management, treatment options using anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs can be applied with addition to lipid-lowering medication. However, medicinal plants comprising antiatherothrombotic effects can be used as options to combat the disease rather than drug therapies with lesser adverse effects. Therefore, the haematological effect of Berberis vulgaris L., Teucrium polium L., and Orthosiphon stamineus Benth extracts was studied using in vitro model to prevent and to treat coronary atherothrombotic disease. The aqueous, methanol, and polysaccharide extracts of B. vulgaris, T. polium, and O. stamineus, respectively, were studied for their anticoagulant and antiplatelet effect on human whole blood. Extracts were subjected to the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) test for anticoagulant activity. The antiplatelet activity was investigated using an electrical impedance method. B. vulgaris aqueous extract (BVAE), B. vulgaris polysaccharide extract (BVPE), T. polium aqueous extract (TPAE), and T. polium polysaccharide extract (TPPE) significantly prolonged the coagulation time in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). The administration of BVAE demonstrated the most effective antiplatelet activity against platelet aggregation caused by arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen. These antiplatelet activities may correspond to the presence of higher total phenolic compound, which thus inhibit the platelet aggregation activity. In conclusion, these findings provide strong evidence on the antiatherothrombotic effect of BVAE and TPAE.
  8. Alexander HR, Syed Alwi SS, Yazan LS, Zakarial Ansar FH, Ong YS
    PMID: 31915456 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9725738
    Wound healing is a regulated biological event that involves several processes including infiltrating leukocyte subtypes and resident cells. Impaired wound healing is one of the major problems in diabetic patients due to the abnormal physiological changes of tissues and cells in major processes. Thymoquinone, a bioactive compound found in Nigella sativa has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Today, the rapidly progressing nanotechnology sets a new alternative carrier to enhance and favour the speed of healing process. In order to overcome its low bioavailability, TQ is loaded into a colloidal drug carrier known as a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). This study aimed to determine the effect of TQ-NLC and TQ on cell proliferation and migration, mode of cell death, and the antioxidant levels in normal and diabetic cell models, 3T3 and 3T3-L1. Cytotoxicity of TQ-NLC and TQ was determined by MTT assay. The IC10 values obtained for 3T3-L1 treated with TQ-NLC and TQ for 24 hours were 4.7 ± 3.3 and 5.3 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. As for 3T3, the IC10 values obtained for TQ-NLC and TQ at 24 hours were 4.3 ± 0.17 and 3.9 ± 2.05 μM, respectively. TQ-NLC was observed to increase the number of 3T3 and 3T3-L1 healthy cells (87-95%) and gradually decrease early apoptotic cells in time- and dose-dependant manner compared with TQ. In the proliferation and migration assay, 3T3-L1 treated with TQ-NLC showed higher proliferation and migration rate (p < 0.05) compared with TQ. TQ-NLC also acted as an antioxidant by reducing the ROS levels in both cells after injury at concentration as low as 3 μM. Thus, this study demonstrated that TQ-NLC has better proliferation and migration as well as antioxidant effect compared with TQ especially on 3T3-L1 which confirms its ability as a good antidiabetic and antioxidant agent.
  9. Adebayo IA, Gagman HA, Balogun WG, Adam MAA, Abas R, Hakeem KR, et al.
    PMID: 31239861 DOI: 10.1155/2019/6104574
    Despite the availability of anticancer drugs, breast cancer remains the most death-causing tumor-related disease in women. Hence, there is a need for discovery and development of efficient alternative drugs, and sources such as plants need to be explored. In this study, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory effects against MCF7 cells of the extracts of stem bark of three Nigerian medicinal plants (Detarium microcarpum, Guiera senegalensis, and Cassia siamea) were investigated. The D. microcarpum extracts had the highest antioxidant and antiproliferative effects, followed by that of G. senegalensis, and the C. siamea extracts had minimal effects. The IC50 values of the methanol and aqueous extracts from the three plants that inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells ranged from 78-> 500 μg/ml. Moreover, all the plant extracts but the aqueous extract of Cassia siamea exhibited antimetastatic action and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells. Liquid chromatography/time-of-flight/mass spectrometry profiling revealed that the five potent extracts contain many phenols and omega-6 fatty acids, and some of the identified compounds (isorhamnetin, eupatorin, alpinumisoflavone, procyanidin B3, syringin, and gallic acid) have been reported to have antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. Hence, the stem bark of these plants could be potential sources of antibreast cancer agents.
  10. Vijayakumar R, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE, Karunakaran T, Hamdan MR
    PMID: 32454871 DOI: 10.1155/2020/7520736
    Currently, consumers' demand for sunscreens derived from natural sources that provide photoprotection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is pushing the cosmetic industry to develop breakthrough formulations of sun protection products by incorporating plant antioxidants as their active ingredients. In this context, the present study was initiated to evaluate the antioxidant and photoprotective properties of the underutilized Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extract (HPPE) using in vitro spectrophotometric techniques. The phytochemical screenings of HPPE conducted via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites in HPPE. The antioxidant potentials evaluated based on 2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical and total antioxidant capacity assays were in the range of 22.16 ± 0.24%-84.67 ± 0.03% with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 36.39 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 23.76 ± 0.14%-31.87 ± 0.26% (IC50 = 21.93 ± 0.07 μg/mL), respectively. For the photoprotective evaluation, the results showed that HPPE had significantly high absorbance values (3.1-3.6) at 290-320 nm with an exceptional sun protection factor (SPF) value of 35.02 ± 0.39 at 1.00 mg/mL. HPPE also possessed a broad-spectrum shielding power against both UVA and UVB radiations. Hence, in terms of practical implications, our findings would offer an exciting avenue to develop a photoprotective formulation incorporating the ethanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus peels as a synergistic active ingredient for its excellent UV absorption properties and the strong antioxidant activities.
  11. Ahmad Nazri KA, Fauzi NM, Buang F, Mohd Saad QH, Husain K, Jantan I, et al.
    PMID: 31662779 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7246756
    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. (GP) has been reported in previous studies to possess antihyperlipidaemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties. This study was aimed to determine the effect of standardised 80% ethanol extract of GP on lipid profiles and oxidative status of hypercholesterolemic rats. Postmenopausal (PM) Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised and fed with 2% cholesterol diet fortified with five times heated palm oil to develop hyperlipidaemia status. Two doses of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) were administered once daily via oral gavage for 24 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was increased during the first month in the postmenopausal group and decreased with GP supplementation. Lipid droplets accumulation was shown at the tunica media (TM) area of the aorta in the postmenopausal group and reduced with GP supplementation. Total cholesterol (TC), total triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased (p < 0.05) at 3 and 6 months in the postmenopausal group and were reduced with GP supplementation. GP also increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the postmenopausal group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were reduced in the postmenopausal group compared to control in the sham group but increased (p < 0.05) with GP supplementation. The results showed that the higher dose of GP (500 mg/kg) gave better effect. GP has the ability to reduce oxidative stress and prevent membrane cell damage through antioxidant enzyme activity modification and lipid profile changes in postmenopausal rats related to atherosclerosis.
  12. Thiagarajan SK, Rama Krishnan K, Ei T, Husna Shafie N, Arapoc DJ, Bahari H
    PMID: 31186668 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9152757
    Momordica charantia Linn., commonly known as bitter gourd, has many protective roles due to its medicinal value as it contains bioactive components. However, this extract showed possible toxicity effect on zebrafish embryo. Thus this study was designed to differentiate the toxicity activities in two types of M. charantia sample which are Indian and Chinese M. charantia, as well as to compare between two different aqueous extraction methods, hot and cold aqueous method, using zebrafish embryo assay assessment. It was observed that the survival rate of zebrafish embryo decreased as the concentration of test extract increased for all samples of M. charantia. The LC50 values of hot aqueous Chinese M. charantia, hot aqueous Indian M. charantia, and cold aqueous Chinese M. charantia were 144.54 μg/ml, 199.53 μg/ml, and 251.19 μg/ml, respectively. However, cold aqueous Indian M. charantia has a higher LC50 which was not in the range of the tested concentration. Hatchability of Danio rerio embryo reduced as the concentration of M. charantia extract increased while no hatching was observed in the highest concentration (1000 μg/ml). Scoliosis of zebrafish larvae was only seen in higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) of extract. The heartbeat of zebrafish larvae treated with M. charantia extract was within the normal range, 120-180 bpm, but at higher concentrations (125-1000 μg/ml) the heartbeat differed for all samples of test extract. Hence, although this plant extract was safe to be consumed due to its pharmaceutical effect, it still exhibited mild toxicity effect at higher concentration when it was evaluated on zebrafish embryo.
  13. Tan SJ, Ismail IS
    PMID: 32565853 DOI: 10.1155/2020/3582947
    A healthy diet should nourish the brain with essential nutrients, including bioactive compounds, for normal brain functioning and to protect it from the negative effects of inflammation and oxidative stress. In this review, a concise summation of the protective effects of selected fruits, namely, berries, grapes, and citrus fruits, against neurological disorder is presented. The focus is on the neuroprotective potential of these fruits against neurodegenerative and mental disorders. The fruits selection was based on the vast reported pharmacological studies on their neuroprotection efficacies. Hence, the respective knowledge and limitations are discussed based on the biological and pharmacological evidence compiled from the previously reported laboratory, epidemiology, and intervention trials.
  14. Shetty S, Udupa S, Udupa L
    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2008 Mar;5(1):95-101.
    PMID: 18317555 DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem004
    In recent years, oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in impaired wound healing. Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum), a plant widely used in Ayurveda, possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts in wound healing in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 is normal wounded control and the other four groups were treated with two different doses each of alcoholic and aqueous extract of O. sanctum. The wound healing parameters were evaluated by using incision, excision and dead space wounds in extract-treated rats and controls. Both the doses of alcoholic and aqueous extract significantly increased wound breaking strength, hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamines, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and significantly decreased percentage of wound contraction and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. The results suggest that O. sanctum has antioxidant properties, which may be responsible and favorable for faster wound healing and this plant extract may be useful in the management of abnormal healing and hypertropic scars.
  15. Sok Yen F, Shu Qin C, Tan Shi Xuan S, Jia Ying P, Yi Le H, Darmarajan T, et al.
    PMID: 34925525 DOI: 10.1155/2021/2057333
    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with chronic high blood glucose levels, and it is associated with defects in insulin secretion, insulin resistance, or both. It is also a major public issue, affecting the world's population. This disease contributes to long-term health complications such as dysfunction and failure of multiple organs, including nerves, heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and eyes. Flavonoids are phenolic compounds found in nature and usually present as secondary metabolites in plants, vegetables, and fungi. Flavonoids possess many health benefits such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and naturally occurring flavonoids contribute to antidiabetic effects.Many studies conducted in vivo and in vitro have proven the hypoglycemic effect of plant flavonoids. A large number of studies showed that flavonoids hold positive results in controlling the blood glucose level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and further prevent the complications of diabetes. The future development of flavonoid-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on diabetes mellitus and diabetes complication diseases. This review aims at summarizing the various types of flavonoids that function as hyperglycemia regulators such as inhibitors of α-glucosidase and glucose cotransporters in the body. This review article discusses the hypoglycemic effects of selected plant flavonoids namely quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, naringenin, fisetin, and morin. Four search engines, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder, are used to collect the data.
  16. Najoom S, Fozia F, Ahmad I, Wahab A, Ahmad N, Ullah R, et al.
    PMID: 34484393 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5586740
    In the present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using ZnCl2.2H2O as a precursor, via green route using leaf extract of Rhazya stricta as capping and reducing agent. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles were examined using UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum at 355 nm showed an absorption peak, which indicates the formation of ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra analysis was performed to identify the potential biomolecule of the as-prepared ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra showed peaks at 3455, 1438, 883, and 671 cm-1 in the region of 4000-500 cm-1, which indicates -OH, NH, C-H, and M-O groups, respectively. The SEM images showed aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 70-90 nm. The XRD study indicated that the ZnO NPs were crystalline in nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and broad peaks were observed at 2 theta positions 31.8°, 34.44°, 36.29°, 47.57°, 56.61°, 67.96°, and 69.07°. The synthesized ZnO NPs were found to be good antiplasmodial with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.41 μg/mL. It is concluded from the current study that the ZnO NPs exhibited noble antiplasmodial activity, and for the improvement of antiplasmodial medications, it might be used after further in vivo studies.
  17. Salleh NH, Zulkipli IN, Mohd Yasin H, Ja'afar F, Ahmad N, Wan Ahmad WAN, et al.
    PMID: 34691218 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5570939
    Traditionally, there are some medicinal plants believed to treat diabetes, as they have been proven in research studies to possess antidiabetic properties, such as improved insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic activities, due to their high level of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and glycosides. We conducted a systematic review to identify potential medicinal plants used during human clinical trials in the Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) countries on prediabetic or type 2 diabetic individuals and to potentially identify any bioactive compounds involved in effectively treating symptoms of diabetes such as lowering of blood glucose. A total of 1209 reference titles were retrieved from four selected databases (Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and PubMed) and only three met the inclusion criteria. Upon evaluation of the selected articles, four medicinal plants were identified: turmeric (Curcuma longa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia), and Rosella flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Of these, only the bitter melon study did not show any significant change in the blood glucose of participants after intervention. This review demonstrates the limitations in published articles of human clinical trials for medicinal plants' intervention for diabetes. Upon further investigations on the four identified medicinal plants included in the animal studies, the findings showed positive effects in the management of diabetes, such as hyperglycemia. Hence, further testing and standardization of the methods in the studies can be suggested for human clinical trials for reliable data collections such as methods of extract preparation, duration of intervention, and conditions set for the study design.
  18. Chen X, He Y, Deng Y
    PMID: 34457017 DOI: 10.1155/2021/1808081
    Betel nut, the fruit of Areca catechu L, has a long medical history in Southeast Asia. It is native to Malaysia and is cultivated and processed extensively in subtropical regions, such as South China and India. Betel nut almost appears as a "snack" in various occasions in most parts of China. Clinically, betel nut can play a certain pharmacology role and was used in malaria, ascariasis, arthritis, enterozoic abdominalgia, stagnation of food, diarrhea, edema, and beriberi. The nervous excitement of betel nut chewing has made it gradually become popular. However, chewing betel nut can induce oral submucosal fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer (OC). At the same time, long-term chewing of betel nut also causes inhaled asthma, sperm reducing, betel quid dependence (BQD), and uterine and esophageal cancers. The main components of processed betel nut are the goal of this review. This study will mainly start from the pharmacological activity and toxicology study of betel nut in recent years, aiming to seek its advantages and disadvantages. In the meantime, this study will analyze and emphasize that betel nut and arecoline are the high-risk factors for oral cancer, which should arouse attention and vigilance of the public.
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