METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of ACL and medial meniscus. Stem cells from sheep were induced to chondrogenic lineage. Test sheep received 5 mls single doses of 2 × 107 autologous PKH26-labelled ADSCs or BMSCs, while controls received basal medium. Functional recovery of the knees was evaluated via electromyography.
RESULTS: Induced ADSCs had 625, 255, 393, 908, 409, 157 and 1062 folds increases of collagen I, collagen II, aggrecan, SOX9, cartilage oligomeric protein, chondroadherin and fibromodullin compare to uninduced cells, while BMSCs had 702, 657, 321, 276, 337, 233 and 1163 respectively; p = .001. Immunocytochemistry was positive for these chondrogenic markers. 12 months post-treatment, controls scored 4 in most regions using ICRS, while the treated had 8; P = .001. Regenerated cartilages were positive to PKH26 and demonstrated the presence of condensing cartilages on haematoxylin and eosin; and Safranin O. OA degenerations caused significant amplitude shift from right to left hind limb. After treatments, controls persisted with significant decreases; while treated samples regained balance.
CONCLUSIONS: Both ADSCs and BMSCs had increased chondrogenic gene expressions using TGF-β3 and BMP-6. The treated knees had improved cartilage scores; PKH26 can provide elongated tracking, while EMG results revealed improved joint recoveries. These could be suitable therapies for osteoarthritis.
METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed databases up to February 2020 for RCTs that investigated the effect of DHEA supplementation on testosterone levels. The estimated effect of the data was calculated using the weighted mean difference (WMD). Subgroup analysis was performed to identify the source of heterogeneity among studies.
RESULTS: Overall results from 42 publications (comprising 55 arms) demonstrated that testosterone level was significantly increased after DHEA administration (WMD: 28.02 ng/dl, 95% CI: 21.44-34.60, p = 0.00). Subgroup analyses revealed that DHEA increased testosterone level in all subgroups, but the magnitude of increment was higher in females compared to men (WMD: 30.98 ng/dl vs. 21.36 ng/dl); DHEA dosage of ˃50 mg/d compared to ≤50 mg/d (WMD: 57.96 ng/dl vs. 19.43 ng/dl); intervention duration of ≤12 weeks compared to ˃12 weeks (WMD: 44.64 ng/dl vs. 19 ng/dl); healthy participants compared to postmenopausal women, pregnant women, non-healthy participants and androgen-deficient patients (WMD: 52.17 ng/dl vs. 25.04 ng/dl, 16.44 ng/dl and 16.47 ng/dl); and participants below 60 years old compared to above 60 years old (WMD: 31.42 ng/dl vs. 23.93 ng/dl).
CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation is effective for increasing testosterone levels, although the magnitude varies among different subgroups. More study needed on pregnant women and miscarriage.
METHODS: Electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Google Scholar) were searched for relevant literature published up to February 2020.
RESULTS: Twenty-four qualified trials were included in this meta-analysis. It was found that serum IGF-1 levels were significantly increased in the DHEA group compared to the control (weighted mean differences (WMD): 16.36 ng/ml, 95% CI: 8.99, 23.74; p = .000). Subgroup analysis revealed that a statistically significant increase in serum IGF-1 levels was found only in women (WMD: 23.30 ng/ml, 95% CI: 13.75, 32.87); in participants who supplemented 50 mg/d DHEA (WMD: 15.75 ng/ml, 95% CI: 7.61, 23.89); in participants undergoing DHEA intervention for >12 weeks (WMD: 17.2 ng/ml, 95% CI: 8.02, 26.22); in participants without an underlying comorbidity (WMD: 19.11 ng/ml, 95% CI: 10.69, 27.53); and in participants over the age of 60 years (WMD: 19.79 ng/ml, 95% CI: 9.86, 29.72).
CONCLUSION: DHEA supplementation may increase serum IGF-I levels especially in women and older subjects. However, further studies are warranted before DHEA can be recommended for clinical use.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of age on the function of rostral C1 (rC1) neurons in mediating feeding response.
METHOD: Male Sprague Dawley rats at 3-months (n = 22) and 24-months (n = 22) old were used and further divided into two subgroups; 1) treatment group with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) and 2) vehicle group. Feeding hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin and leptin were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rat brain was carefully dissected to obtain the brainstem RVLM region. Further analysis was carried out to determine the level of proteins and genes in RVLM that were associated with feeding pathway. Protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated TH at Serine40 (pSer40TH), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK (phospho AMPK) and neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor (NPY5R) were determined by western blot. Expression of TH, AMPK and NPY genes were determined by real-time PCR.
RESULTS: This study showed that blood glucose level was elevated in young and old rats following 2DG administration. Plasma CCK-8 concentration was higher in the aged rats at basal and increased with 2DG administration in young rats, but the leptin and ghrelin showed no changes. Old rats showed higher TH and lower AMPK mRNA levels. Glucoprivation decreased AMPK mRNA level in young rats and decreased TH mRNA in old rats. Aged rC1 neurons showed higher NPY5R protein level. Following glucoprivation, rC1 neurons produced distinct molecular changes across age in which, in young rats, AMPK phosphorylation level was increased and in old rats, TH phosphorylation level was increased.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that glucose-counterregulatory responses by rC1 neurons at least, contribute to the ability of young and old rats in coping glucoprivation. Age-induced molecular changes within rC1 neurons may attenuate the glucoprivic responses. This situation may explain the impairment of feeding response in the elderly.